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Chapter 3 Periodic Table

by: Leslie Lenchak

Chapter 3 Periodic Table Chem115

Marketplace > Chemistry > Chem115 > Chapter 3 Periodic Table
Leslie Lenchak

GPA 3.8
General Chemistry1
Margret Pavlac

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General Chemistry1
Margret Pavlac
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Date Created: 10/14/15
CHAPTER 3 The Periodic Table and Chemical Periodicity M PavlacFall 2015 Outline Development of the Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table Elemental Groupings Chemical Equations Elemental Observations Recurring patterns noticed Example Li Na and K Less dense than water 39 Soft with low melting points lt200 C Very reactive Early Periodic Table Developed by Dmitri Mendeleev 1869 Format 70 elements Listed by increasing atomic mass Arranged by reoccurring properties Periodic arrangement THE PERIODIC LAW Alendclcy39c s First Periodic Table March 1869 Ti 50 Zr V 5 Zr 3952 Mn 55 IFb 56 NiCo 59 Ch 63a 2k 6 2 27 1 68 28 P C BU Ilu Iki Ag Cki I Sh1 St 7Fe 9 I 11 I 12 90 Nb 94 hdo 96 104 104Vamp 10615 108 112 116 118 122 128 I37 P TF3 VV Pk Ir 5 Hg 1ampu EH 100 182 186 197 198 I99 200 197 210 204 207 Law of Octaves Now called chemical eriodicit Properties occur in regular cycles Cycle of 8 elements Allowed prediction of missing elements Based Mass Properties Prediction Accuracy Gallium w Atomic mass 697 Density gcm393 60 59 Melting point Low 30 C Boiling point High 2400 C Formula of Oxide M203 Ga203 Outline Development of the Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table Elemental Groupings Chemical Equations The Modern Periodic Table Arranged byzatomio number Z Arranged into periods horizontal rows 17 groups families vertioa columns 118 elements share properties 6 Atomic 2 Group 13 C Symbol 2 13 14 15 17 He 12390quot Atomic Mass I 16 III F No 13 1718 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 AlllCI A 21 24 25 zsliza 29 Sc l39l v CrMnFoCoNl 4 30 Zn 39 4o 41 42 g 43 i 44 45 46 7 4s 49 YZrNb Moch1IRuRth Cdln Sn 8 so 31 32 83 as 35 Pk 39n in 1 Au Rm 3104 105 106 1o7 1oas 109 110111s1122311353114s 115 116 117 113 st Db So is ab H8 Mt 08 Ra an isUutisUuq suupssUuhEEUusssuuos 31 35 36 Ga Kr m poyad F IIII V 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 64 Lamhamdes La Ce Pr Nd Pml Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu i397 98 99 1oo 101 102 103 quot 39 39 39 sguoggug 5 J 5 1 3 2 quotI quotI quotI Z I Actinides Organization Main group elements Groups 12 1318 Follow Law of Octaves Transition metals Groups 312 Lanthanides and Actinides Elemental Classification Review Metals Non metals Characteristics Characteristics Shiny Varying colors Bendable 39 Brittle 39 Good conductors Poor conductors Compounds Compounds Ionic Covalent Nonvolatile Volatile evaporation high melting point Low melting point Metalloids MA QIQ Klnnmnfalc poyad Metals 6 7 8 Metalloids 2 Nonmetals t 1a Group 14 15 16 17 He 10 Ne 18 Ar 82 28 Ni l 0 N2 22 3a 43 Pd 28 I 77 78 Pt Q O O I O O I O O C C O I 539 I I I O II I O I I O miiws Lanthanides 60 Nd l l l O Q Actinides y l 92 107 g108 1o9 H3 5 I O I O I I O O O O O O O O I O C I O I I D l I O IIICOOOOO 0 0 00 11o 111 112 113 114 I l o o o o o I t o 0 t o o o o o o 0 o o c o o t o 0 0 o o c o o o 0 o o c o o o o 0 o o o o v t c 0 o c o o o 0 o 0 o o I o o I o o 0 t 0 o o 0 Metallic Trends Metallic character decreases 39 going up a group 39 going across a group to the right Most nonmetallic F top right Most metallic Fr bottom left Metallic Properties Decrease The Periodic Table A LIE Outline Development of the Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table Elemental Groupings Chemical Equations F M v IO poyad O anthanides Actinides Group 14 15 16 17 III F Ne III quot 8 CI Ar 13 13 AI 12 4 5 7 8 9 391 24 25 ZSI a 39n V MnFeCoNl 30 31 35 Zn Ga 9404142 4 3 444546 7484950 Zr Nb MochJIRuRth Cd In Sn 8 so 83 Hg Bi quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot 3166 Ei39ii39b39ig39 39i39ii39ig39 39ii39 quot i 139 quot T11i i i ii 1i FEE Rf Db Sg Bh HsgMt 5Uup5 Uuh 50u355Uuog I 0 v o c v v g c O 0 I v O I I O o O 0 v 0 39 I 0 0 t I I I k v v v c t v U g I I v I v v C o I v o I v I 0 39 I v I c v I I 5 v O v v I v 0 o o o o I I I 0 39 o o o I o o I 0 o o c o o o 39 c o I o c o c 0 o c o c o o 0 O I c u c c 0 57 58 59 60 La Ce Pr Nd quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot Eg39iai39ii39i 39 i39i quot U i v o o o v I o I v I 0 o o o c 0 o c 0 o o o o 0 o 0 c o c O v 0 o o 0 o I 0 9 0 39 o o o I o o 0 0 c o o o o o o 0 o o v o o I o o i c o c o o o o 3991 92 b J Allzali k ofglc Ka IVIGIaIS From Arabic the ash Na Group 1 eg Li Na and K Characteristics Shiny and soft Highly reactive Not found alone in nature Make white crystalline salts w group 17 react with water to form basesalkaines Alkaline Farlh Metals HIK39dIII IU E39dl Ul IVIUl39dIS Grcup 2 eg Mg Ca Characteristics Very reactive Burn with 02 to form white solidscxides React with water slowly to form bases 1 Group 13 v var F 13 14 15 17 He CV N 910 3 4 5 7 8 21 H24 25 26I28 Sc 11 VCranllFeICoNl 39 v 4o 41 42 43 44 45 46 Zr Nb Mo Tc J Ru Rh Pd 8 E39i l39 i39ia quoti663E i i 39ia i39i iE1163E39ii i39 ii ii i513 i i 331533 39i39i39gg39 quot sRf sDb sSa th sHs sMtisos sRa an sUut sUuQEEUupUuh5 quot825mm I 0 v o c v v g c O 0 I v O I I O o O 0 v 0 39 I 0 0 t I I I k v v v c t v U g I I v I v v C o I v o I v I 0 39 I v I c v I I 5 v O v v I v 0 o o o o I I I 0 39 o o o I o o I 0 o o c o o o 39 o I o c o c o c o c o o 0 O I c u c c 0 U poyad lt9 h a V 57 58 59 60396162 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Lanthamdes La Ce Pr Nd Pmu Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 90 3991 92 3993 94 i95 96 97 98 99 1oo 1o1 102 103 Th Pal U lel Pu gAm 3CmEgBkEgCngEsggFmigMdizNogg US I J J J Actinides Chalcogens VI IUIvvuVI IV From Greek chalkos copper and genes born Group 16 eg O S Characteristics c include nonmetals and metalloids 39 soft poor conductors Group 13 F 13 3 4 5 7 8 91011 12 13 21 IE l ll 28 J l3 II Sc Tl VCrMn Fe CoNlCu Zn Ga 39 50 Y Sn 10 N 0 4o 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 46 49 Zr Nb Mo Tc J Ru Rh Pd Ag ca In 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 so 81 32 Hf Ta W Re 03 Ir Pt Au Hg 11 Pb 1o4 105 106 1o7 1oas 109 11o 111 112 113 114 115 11 551175113 Db So 5 3h H3 Mt Os R9 Cn Uut 5Uuq Uup55Uuh Uusz Uuog D O v 0 o I O U 5 I o I v t O C I o 0 O 0 I 0 39 v v v v v i O 5 O I v 0 i I U g U o v o v O 39 v v v t o 0 I 0 I t v v v v I 0 5 v t v v O 0 C v c u u o u u 0 39 o o o u I u u 0 o o o o o o 0 I o o o I o o u o o o o O O o o c o 0 IO payed CD an 5 galalazl s Q Q 57 58 59 6o 39 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 7o 71 Lanthamdes La Ce Pr Nd leI Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Actinides 3991 92 3993 94 i95 96 97 98 99 1oo 101 102 103 39 quot ECfE 339 E Halogens From Greek halos salt Group 17 Characteristics Diatomic eG Cl2 Three phases I Ats Brl F Cl 9 Nonmetals Highly reactive esp with 1 and 2 Form saltshalides eg NaCl CaCl2 13 14 15 16 17 56789101112 23242526272829 VCrMnFeCoNiCu V xquot L 54x quot J xi 1 f in 7 V J39yui 39 an f4 1 39 39 gt t u 39 v I quot i 7 0 I j I o I I n o ll 39 39 1 m2 fa j rag la 1 7quot g v f 1 E ff 739 L a 3 in u 7 r y i x s 21gt 1 maquot a t 2 fix I A v a v a I 2 quot 13quot r4 quot J m 1 N 3 39 n 2 V 30 Zn 4142394344 45 46 47 48 Cd 80 Nb MoTcuRu Rh Pd Ag 81 82 quotquotquotquot 3 65 3 66 16 165 23169 3 13916quot 39ii39iquot 39i39139 quot 39i39 quot 13911 i39i39i39s39ii39ii39 39ii39i ii 39 quot139139 3quot 5 Oh 5 89 Bh Hs Mt g 03 R9 Cn gUut gUuq 5UupggUuh gUus Uuog I v o I t o D I o u o I I I u 0 t t v O I I o 0 39 I I I I I I I 39 I D u I c I C v I I I n I I 0 o I I o I I v I 0 I I I I v I I u v I I I I I o n n u u u 0 o I v I c n I U u o a u o u I u I I o c I o v o o t u C o u c c c 0 57585960 62636465666768697071 I 1 PmSm LaCePrNd EquTbDyHoErTmYbLu 39 Lanthanides Noble Gases Group 18 eg Ne Rn radioactive Characteristics All gases at standard temperaturepressure Very unreaotive Formerly inert gases Some compounds not known 1 Group 13 1 9 1314151617I el Transition Metals N 44 39 53 54 R I X9 76 39 85 86 33 39 Au Rm quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot Hsis E as is is 5 23008550003 IO poyad 62 6364656667 68 69 70 71 Lanthanldes Sm EU Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu El 50 l D Z k CL C U m A 94 35quot 3 igE EE 39i b i i ii16 39 i653 Pu sAm sCm s Bk is Cf Es sFm st s s U i I I o o o o v 0 v 0 o u o o o o o I o o o I o o o 0 39 v o o o v o o o o I o v o o 0 39 o I o o o o o 0 o o o o o v I 0 o o a o i o o 39 o v o o o o 390 ma39 Actinides I DZI J D Q Q C P Transition Metals Groups 312 Properties vary among groups 39E n kuin penods Common characteristics Highly density High melting point TRANSITION METALS FORM COLOU R E D COMPOUNDS PC if CCDNZJCJ39NITI N l5 4 2339 Wquotw W39 39CCCJ39MPlDull3CEl 51 CC Transition Metal Pigments A AA A Yumame dioxide Tu0 COBALT VIOLET Cobalt II phosphate CARBON BLACK Carbon Anume trialdc SbO c 39 090 ch 0160 no ADMIUM YELLOW VIRIDIAN GREEN Wm WW 05 mated d mmm oxide canon veuow 500H L06 Chromaquot PbCrO ZINC YELLOW ch Nome ZnCrO CHROME GREEN Chromium Ill oxide 00 3 ULTRAMARINE BLUE ms s o 0 PRUSSIAN BLUE Pom howqudmm Km COIAU BLUE Cohan an amount Coup CADMIUM ORANGE Cadmium sulfoselenide Cd SSe CERULEAN BLUE Cobalt II stamete CoZSnO CADMIUM RED Cadmium selenide 65 RED OCHRE Iron III oxide Ftp Group 18 13 14 15 16 17 2 N co LO ltr Cquot 7 m 8 910 11 12 21 Sc 23 V Cr lt7 22 39 26 Fe 27 Co 28 Ni 29 30 Zn 39 40 Y Zr 41 Mb pouad 44 Ru 45 Rh c 47 A9 73 B 0 I72 Hf at Db s9 Bh I I o I o 1 ID 76 Os 57 La anthonides Ce Nd 3939 90 Th Actinides I I CC 92 77 Ir 510435105 5106 5101 2 108E3109 11o Hs Mtg 05 c I o o o o t o o o l o o o39oooooc39 ootooouORIOIcooO 0 coonon 48 Cd 79 Jl All 5 111 112511355114 O O O O U I C O C O O O O o 9 o o o a o Q o 0 o o a o o o o 0 c o a o o o o 62 Sm 94 Pu I O O C O O I I O O I I I I D I I O O I O O I I I O O O D O O I I O O I O I O I I O O O I O O O O I D I I O O O I O C I O I O O O 0 Full Periodic Table with Inner transition metals Group 1 2 I 3 4 Is 16 l7 8 9 1o 11 I12 13 I14 I15 I16 I17 I18 Lanthanides me Perind 6 39 Irom Period 6 Aka Rareearth metals 39 eg La Eu Actually fairly abundant o In minerals in earth s crust Characteristics Silvercolored Metallic Some phosphorescent Actinides From Period 7 39 l IUIII I39UIIUU eg U Pu Actually rare Result of nuclear reactions 39 Characteristics Dense Radioactive Unstable Mostly made synthetically Many named after scientists DATES OF DISCOVERY OF YHE ACTINIDES O NATURALLY ABUNDANT O SYNTHETICALLY PRODUCED 1 1820 1329 18 1899 1930 19 0 19 1919 1950 1952 1955 1958 1961 Group 18 13 14 15 16 17 2 71 N m lt7 0 16539 1683 167quot i663 i663 511639 1113 112quot 1153 511339 114 511339 39Db s 59 Bh s HS Mt s Ds R9 ssUUb UutisUwIE Uupl I III pone o 57 58 59 6013962 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Ldnthdmdes La Ce Pr Nd le39 Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 65quot38333533353321663 1613 165516 5Am ng g Bk g Cf Es Fm Md No g U 8939 90 I9139 92 339 94 HActmldews ACI Th Pa I U p Pu d 4 Transactinides Elements past actinides in Period 7 In 1 Rf RM eg RfMt Characteristics Radioactive Unstable Synthetic By colliding atoms ALSO many named after scientists COUNTRY OF ouscovenv element 117 synthesized most recent E INCLUDES USIRUSSIA JOINT DISCOVERlES DATES 0F DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSACTINIDES 1950 b IQIQw Izou 8 19919 1996 1999 2000 196 1970 197 1981 1982 1984 Irregularities Hydrogen H In Group 1 not a metal Does form salts but not white crystalline Diatomio like halogens Group 17 Reacts similarly to form compounds Properties of compounds different eg NaH explodes in water NaCl dissolves lrregularities Cont d 1St member of group Properties often different from rest of group eg Group 1 Li salts only sparingly soluble Reacts with N2 at room temperature eg Group 13 B a metalloid rest metals eg Group 14 C very different whole eld of chemistry W eg Group 15 N does not react readily with Cl2 Diagonal Relationships Similarities in reactivity between elements diagonal from each other VI 1quotL VEVVE VU VVVV V 1l 39 eqe ogpoued em 40 1uewdoleAeQ eumno JSUIO U083 The Modern Periodic Table Elemental Groupings Chemical Equations Chemical Reaction One or more substances converted to new substances New compositions 39 New UUIIIpUSIlIUIIS New properties Reactants starting substances Products created substances How do Reactions Happen In gas and liquid molecules constantly moving 8228 2225 H2 12 H212 Chemical Eguation Representation for a reaction Uses chemical formulas eg H20 not water 39 v39 n4u llUl water substances combined with 39 Change indicated by arrow Components Reaotants gt Products Chemical Equation Example 2 Na CI2 gt 2 NaCl Reaction Identi cation Example Which of these equations represent a chemical reaction AIlf IIA 0A H20quot gt H20g NO PHASE A 39C C0202gt 02C02NO Writing Chemical Equations Use correct formulas esp for products Use correct subscripts Indicate physical state of substances Balance the equation Balanced Chemical Equation Law of Conservation of Matter atoms of reactants atoms in products Balanced using numerical coefficients Never adjust subscripts Example H2 2 gt 2H N0T2H2 22 gt 4H OR H2 I2 gt H22 Steps for Balancing Write the correct chemical formulas on both sides Balance one element at a time 39 D39dl39dllUC UIIU BICIIIUIIL 39dl 39d lllllC Multiply coef cients if necessary Perform final check Balancing Example N2g 29 NH3g VGn 4 QH9nl gt 9AIII 2nl N29 3H29 gt 2NH3939 2N 2 6H6 Balancing Example 2 CGH14s 029 9 0029 H20 Hydrocarbon 2C6H14 1902 gt 12002 14H2O 126Q112 286H 228 3820 2241438 Tip Leave elemental substance 02 for last Balancing Example 3 H so BOH gtBSO H 0 2 480 380 2 4 380 2 1 3sto 28OH gt1BSO 6H20 12H12 3s3 18O18 3x4 2x3 18 3x4618 2B2 ch 3 24611151920212223 ch 10 2and 6


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