Popular in Sociology 001- Introductory Sociology
Popular in Art
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Sociology amp common sense 12122012 Sociology is the study of interactions amp relations among human beings Why study sociology Common sense explanations are often wrong 0 Any relation or interaction is sociology Common sense explanations are often 0 Based on myths and misconceptions o Cohabitation before marriage o Hiring local workers 0 Are based on stereotypes and selective observation o Women drivers are worse than men 0 Ignore facts o Rape prevalence o Are not precise o Are contradictory o Opposites attract vs birds of a feather ock together o Out of sight vs absence makes the heart grow fonder Differ across cultures o In Germany a draft of wind will kill you o In US bugs aren39t food o In Mexico don39t trust policemen Colins quotafterword the sociological eye 0 2 core commitments in sociology o What39s the sociological eye Way of observing these interactions and relations in everyday objects and encounters Sociology in everything More important than activism o Social activism People become interested in sociology because of social movements amp commitments Activism amp sociology mesh Easily can renew interestpassion o Combination of eye amp activism Hochschilds Sociological imagination Work amp home life changing Women had to work longer hours but didn39t get help from men at home Family life now dependent on commercial services for everything Makes sense of what happened to complex of work amp home 0 Sociology is a product of particular historical conditions 0 Discipline in sociology is changingloverlapping Critiques o Mills 195039s sociologists lost true commitments o Rule 1977 sociology is full of specialized intellectual movements caught up in self generated problems Activist movements lose sight of original problem 392 Feminist theory Miner39s quotNacirema article 0 3 things that seemed odd o people went back to medicine men after their teeth kept decaying O O O O 0 human body is ugly pathological horror of the mouth fascinated amp horri ed if you don39t take care of your mouth you39ll lose all of your teeth amp friends supernatural things to take care of mouth 2 bundles of hog hair ritual feasts to make thin people fat amp fat people thin a ritual ablution of the mouth for children that is suppose to improve their moral ber article actually about American society Coontz How History amp sociology can help today39s families From quotThe Way we really are Putting Teen Parent Con icts in Perspective 0 Problems with todays youth 0 O O O Drinkingdrugs Sneaking out quotteenagers are out of control from Newsweek story quotLet s faceif 1955 lm Blackboard Jungle quotteens are savage because quotgang leaders have taken the place of parents quotthere are new structural and historical changes in American life that have recently complicated the transition from childhood to young adult 0 teen suicide 0 rates have risen dramatically but gures are misleading show rates of people from 1524 teens 1319 are less likely to commit suicide 0 pa rent teen relations 0 teens are not being prepared for new requirements of adukhood lost clear paths for gaining experience amp responsibility moving away without losing touch with parents o teens are quotroleless in modern society few opportunities to do socially necessary work high school degrees have lost importance in work world College degrees are now needed in order to get a good job adolescence quothas become a social and economic holding period Laurence Steinberg parents try to hold teens back teens try to be independent o maturity rates are dropping teens know more about technology o media amp market offer teens ways to assert independence teens have more in terms of leisure discretionary consumption amp grooming Steinberg makes it easier to nd drugs amp jobs 0 Societies expectations for teens to abide by ruleshabits that adults have abandoned o Adults have new freedom but want teens to listen to old rules Sports one thing adults approve amp teens may enjoy Those who don39t enjoy sports nd other things drugs music alcohol etc o More serious consequences for risk taking behavior now AIDS new drugs weapons o Getting a job Teen jobs don39t provide enough money to support themselves 2 Segregates in a separate peer society Older men use to have jobs working with older experienced people and they were able to support themselves 2 Integrated them into adult society o Teen girls now have more opportunities then in the past Parents worry too much independenceopportunity is bad 0 Fewer places for teens to hangout o Many of the places like woods or abandoned buildings have been replaced Male Female Con icts 0 Social imbalances o Teachers have power over students When teachers try to pretend they are equal students feel more vulnerable Students wouldn39t criticize teachers work like teachers criticize students Women have fewer chances in work world then men Have to raise children do housework o Men don39t realize women39s sacri ce to keep him happy 0 Raising children o While both working 3 full time jobs for 2 individuals 0 Different personalities o Need to learn each others culture o From different panets John Gray o Healthy relationships both partners ask for what they wantneed and can say no to eachother John Gray o Men still feel injured despite economical advantages over women Hurt when cant be powerful or be quotreal man Always treated as the villain Fear of failure o Women Treated in ways that hinder development and crush self esteem Always treated as the victim Fear of power o Need to give up advantagesprivileges that each sex has in order to build healthy relationship Men as success objects amp women has sex objects Simon Davis Study of personal advertisements 1990 0 Unobtrusive subjects did not know they were being studied o Took personal ads amp studied what characteristics people wanted in their partners o Vancouver sun o Attributes listed Attractive physique sex picture physical profession employed nancial education employment intelligence honest intellectual humor commitment emotion Each attribute got a score if listed in ad 0 Results o 655 male 345 women o mean age 407 for men 394 for women o physical more likely for men to seek attractiveness physique sex and picture o nonphysical more likely for women to seek professional intelligence commitment emotion education honesty amp humor 0 Opposite sex partners dictated by sexstereotypes o Partners tend to be similar like attracts like o Women O seek psychological amp personality characteristics nancial security employment seek commitment to a greater extent Treat men as success objects men reinforce by preferring to work amp have a stayathome wife More emotion invested in sex Trade quotdomestic work and sex for nancial support basow 2 Lower economic status want to settle down amp have children into secure committed relationship Men seek sexuality amp physical attractiveness want to be dominant in intellectual maters Greater preoccupation with casual sexual encounters Code of the streets 12 Anderson Code 0 Cultural adaptation to profound lack of faith in police amp judicial system 0 Police represent dominant white society 0 People feel they have to protect themselves 2 forces in society 0 streets 0 O O O 0 lack of consideration for other people super cial sense of family amp community nd parenthood more dif cult may hit children children learn to be on their own 2 quotcome up hard dog eat dog mentality aggressively socialize children into code can be self destructive drugs alcohol o angry bitter o have to ght for respect o hang in streets ght each other for respect toughest prevails toughness is a virtue parents may impose sanctions of a child is not suf ciently aggressive decent o families o don39t support the code but are familiar with it o working poor o adapt mainstream values more fully o better off nancially o value hard work amp self reliance o hope for better future o strict aware of dangerous environment o polite amp considerate o try hard to be part of mainstream society racism makes adopt street behavior on occasion both socially organize community children choose orientation people may show signs of both orientations depending on the situation self image o to be respected you have to have the right look juice share of respect must keep himself straight jackets sneakers jewelry re ect social classes valued things are coveted and people may ght if they want it o earn respect by taking others things use as a trophy o ghts cant run away need to retaliate keep self respect quotgoing for bad o cavalier attitude towards death grows from limited view of life nothing intimidates them o going to prison toughens them up o system looses in uence o nonviolence talks true nerve in backing down life is precious o everyone wants to seem tough amp earn respect 0 oppositional culture o some believe code is only way of life o some go back and forth between street amp decent depending on the situation 0000 o Pathology of imprisonment Zimbardo letter from prisoner sent to Zimbardo 0 released from prison after 37 months o silent system couldn39t whisper to neighbors or moan from discomfort without the guards beating you led against brutality made him most hated prisoner quothard core incorrigible o rather die than be treated less than a human being when released does not want to steal anymore but now wants to kill all those who have beaten him down like he was in jail not rehabilitated more bitter Stanford prison experiment 0 Created own prison to understand want it psychologically means to be a prisoner or a guard 0 Selected 2 dozen men who applied to be apart of the experiment o Middle class normal represented the cream of the crop of the generation o Picked to be guard or prisoner by ipping coin 0 Guards o Allowed to enforce own rules to maintain control 0 Prisoners o Picked up by police stripped delouced placed in rooms where they were to live for 2 weeks o Getting paid was the motivation for them Experiement shut down after 6 days 0 Reality and roles mixed o Prisoners became dehumanized Guards would treat them awful Only cared about power and took pride in hurting the prisoners o Prisoners only cared about their escape and could not handle the treatment of the guards Human values no longer used o Prisoners kept there blankets instead of letting another prisoner out of con nement o Guards because tyrants enjoyed their control over others Some guards were fair and nice No guards stepped in the way when a guard was acting out of hand 0 Affected the same way as real prisoners o Former prisoner couldn39t go to the Stanford experiment because it reminded him too much of prison o Priest who interviewed the prisoners said they were just like the other prisoners he interviewed afterjail Zimbardo realized he experiment was out of control since he could have traded places with any of the prisoners or guards without permission of authorities o Individual control under control of social forces and environment o Create an illusion of freedom and that we a just people o Many people can be made to do many things under certain situations and when they are under authority Giving people electric shocks because you are told to do so Dyer Anybody s son will do Soldiers 0 Job is to kill and die no matter what 0 Most go through basic training 0 Humans are malleable can be trained when they are young o Men has values and attitudes for army to work with Attitudes of ancestors primitive warriors 0 Ancient Sparta Japan o Start at puberty or before o Boys put in disciplined society only military values are allowed to penetrate 0 Conversion like religion 0 Most modern countries have briefer more concentrated training 0 Soldiers are al humans but instruments of politicians ideologues and strategist While ghting men do not remember the slogans and symbols they are ghting for O 0 They ght for their own sef respect Die for each other and their own vision of themselves Produce brotherhood 0 Though basic training they are all alike Choose young men 0 No ties nai39ve physical t make them believe they like it Parris Island o Arrive at Charleston get driven to Parris Island after midnight o Basic training organization is a machine o Provides controlled environment to change men to Marines o Applies enormous physical and mental pressure to men who have been taken away from normal civilization to a place where the only right way to think and behave is the way the Marine Corps want them too o Motivation keeps them going First 3 days o Shouted at o Dehumanized Clothes hair and personal identities are taken away from them o Everything happens so fast so they do not have to re ect and question what is happening to them o They mimic everything the Corps do because they want to be them ldealized vision of being a man and being a marine Drill sergeants dressed with medals tell them how to be a man Training o Extremely demanding o Gets harder week by week 0 Constant insults Break down pride to destroy resistance of become marine Constant alertness and obedience is needed o Instructors closer in age with the marines are harsher o The older instructors are father like gures and are available for guidance o Basic training is more serious Uniforms always perfect Marching as one 2 Shows that orders must always be taken 2 No longer an individual but part of a group 2 Punished as a group Dangerous acts to build up con dence o Willingness to kill separates marines from athletes When separated from others many men don39t kill during battle even if they are in danger Shows that men are not natural killers but greater physical strength and freedom from childbearing makes them the warriors instead of women War and males are inseparable 0 Women in battle o Many disagree o could affect how the men work o women bear children 0 27 Chambliss The Saint and the Roughnecks The Saints 0 8 young men from upper middle class society 0 constantly drank vandalized theft etc but never in trouble with the cops The Roughnecks 0 6 young men from lower class society 0 acted just like the Saints but were constantly in trouble with the pplice Saints Monday Friday 0 Get out of school early as possible 0 Make up excuses about school meetings or clubs and teachers would believe them since they were quotgood students 0 Go to spots were they would not see school officials or family fnends Mess with owners of cafes for entertainment Saints on weekends 0 Went to Big Town city o Drinking in clubs o Drunk driving o Vandalism and pranks Ask cops for directions and then speed away Move construction so cars would get stuck Set up barricades so people would crash into them n Then offer help 2 No one seriously injured Vandalize empty houses o Only in trouble by cops 2 over 2 years Got off both times with little consequences Saints in School 0 Highly successful 0 Popular 0 Held of ces Athletic 0 making something of themselves 0 cheating never did homework o teachers were understanding 0 Jerry was only Saint who didn39t graduate because he didn39t play the game right o Would leave class without the others coming to get him Police and the Saints 0 Police saw them as good boys who were leaders 0 Boys always polite o Received mercy from the cops when they did get in trouble Roughnecks Thought of as the bad kids 0 Not as well dressed or mannered as the Saints 0 Constantly involved with the police for stealing and etc Towns perception as distorted Fought about once a month o Between themselves or with others o Jack always in ghts 0 Theft o Constantly stole things o Sometimes petty sometimes expensive things o Never stole things alone no access to cars except their parents so sometimes they stole cars forjoyrides much more prevalent than the community thought Committed the most serious crimes Tried to rob a gas station shot at by owner and severely injured Spent 6 months in jail and then began to hangout with different boys and didn39t get in trouble with the police anymore 0 Drinking O 0 Didn39t have cars or money so it was harder to drink Local drunk would give them alcohol sometimes 0 Dislike and distrust of police 0 O O 0 Police would harass them Try to catch them but usually weren39t at the right place at the right time Everyone of them was arrested at least once and spent a night in jail Never went to court Roughnecks in school 0 Not disruptive Attended school didn39t hang as a group in school 0 Teachers saw them as trouble 0 Had a c average 0 Herb and jack were great football players but criticized because they didn39t go to practice as often as they should Which group was more delinquent 0 Saints were involved in more delinquent acts 0 Roughnecks stole more than the Saints 0 Little money o They didn39t have money for liqueur or cars 0 Roughnecks fought Saints endangered others and themselves by driving and pranks Visibility 0 Saints were able to remove themselves from sight of community because they had a car o Stayed away from mainstream life 0 Roughnecks were in crowded place of town o Made visible because they made remarks to many people passing by Demeanor Saints always polite Roughnecks rude or faked respect Bias 0 Saints seen as better o Better to drink in tavern then in alley o Steal from construction site then steal a wallet o Upper class so police did not bother Adult Careers 0 Saints o 7 of 8 went to college o one is lawyer another is a doctor have well respected jobs o Jerry was only one to not complete college Got job after graduation got married and had kid 10 years later unemployed Roughnecks 0 Jack and Herb received scholarships Herb stopped hanging with them as much o Both graduated college and are teaching and coaching Married with stable families both secure in jobs o 2 never nished high school both serving sentence in jail for murder o one has job o other hasn39t been heard of reinforcement community believed the Roughnecks were trouble so they took part in the role o outside intervention changed some of the boys into being different from the gangs Sociological eye 0 Use sociological eye to gure out issues 0 Exampe teen girls without fathers are more likely to initiate in sexual activity earlier than girls with fathers o Find out whose in housefamily when girl becomes teenager o Why study sexual activity Outcomes 2 Diseases 2 Pregnancy 0 Abortion adoption o How might these affect young people involved Physiologically depression stress Parents cant provide for child taken away by child services Lower chance for mother to get education 0 Drug and alcohol problems Shunned by society o How might these affect their families Money Has to raise children because teens cant 0 Use sociological eye to improve question o Are your mother amp father A married B divorced o Add more options Ex separated never married remarried o Sociological eye allows you to ask better questions Making familiar strange 0 Minor article o Makes American society seem strange Ex visit dentist even though teeth still decay why do we wash children39s mouths with soap 0 Makes us wonder why we do the things we do 0 Skeptical thinking o Now you39ve made something familiar into something strange you can ask the classic 5 W39s skeptical thinking questions Who what why when where amp how Connection between sociological eye amp making familiar strange You have to use the sociological eye in order to make the familiar strange 0 Dissociate yourself from the norm in order to see things with the eye The Sociological imagination 91412 0 Way of thinking about the world 0 Personal trouble o A difficulty you are facing personally Public issue of social stricture o Trained by society to ignore o quotSocial forces operating in society examples 2 economic population demographics Examples o Rocky marriage leads to divorce Private troubles in Not communicating differences in personality religious issues in delity work PubHcissues 2 Pressure to have picture perfect home to keep house clean raise well rounded children have enough money o Unemployment Private Lazy uneducated Public 2 Bad economy global market fewerjobs less opportunities pro t margins places being closed down not enough money being spent jobs being outsources population too big o Eating disorders Private 2 Stress mental issues genetic depression poverty not having enough money over exercising body dismorphia not seeing your body the way it is poor self esteem teenage dieting Public 2 Social ideas of attractiveness never be too thin participating in sportsactivities dance family trauma media stress from parents friends society o Debt Private 2 Too lazy to work spent all money on stupid reasons Public U CoHegeloans 0 Coffee growers o People lead to believe that market dictates prices o Local wholesalers actually make prices o Coffee growers get such small percentage of what coffee is sold for o Middle men in coffee o What are strategies for changing the situation Growing other things using crops cocaine 2 Could go to jail Sell to other countries Sell to community 2 Many cannot afford to buy Grow another crop 2 They don39t have money to change elds cant afford to plow over elds no oxes 2 Other countries may grow those crops 0 Ethiopian coffee corn 0 America sells most com at very cheap pnces 0 Would have to sell at much higher prices PubHcissues Economic hardship for community effects whole economy 2 Surplus of coffee too much coffee drop in price of coffee 2 Too many middle men farmers don39t get enough pro t 2 Climate may not be able to grow crops 0 Con ict 1 developed by Marx Society is made up of sub groups in ruthless competition for scarce resources o Ex African strike video Groups Government vs the Platinum miners 2 Gov works for the mine owners mine workers being shot 2 Scarce resource money o Ex teachers union strike Groups teachers vs city of Chicago Scarce resource money o Ex American Airlines strike Groups management vs workers 2 Management taking money from wages 392 Laboring not xing planes mechanical problems 2 Scarce resource money Con ict is always present con icts about roots your behavior is modeled by which group your in just looks at society groups in society not individuals o different look of sociological imagination Social con icts on campus o Foreign teachers vs students Hard to understand miscommunication might offend o Greek vs Non greeks Social con ict competition Greeks only interact with other Greeks 0 Functionalist Society is an entity made up of many integrated parts The many parts work together o How a airplane ight is made Making an airplane taking off Many people involved in everything If one part of society changes all parts will change eventually Example o part of society that changes 196039s women work outside the home o part of society that changes in response family size went down marriage rates decreased divorce went up Con ict is not normal it is pathological 0 Symbolic Interaction How people act depends on how they see amp evaluate reality People learn from others how to see amp evaluate reality People constantly work to interpret their amp others behavior When people do not attach the same meanings there will be con ict O Introduction 0 Understanding effects people have on one another 0 What is sociology 0 The scienti c study of interactions and relations among human beings o Apply scienti c method so they are not biased 0 Disciple that studies the interactions and relationships among people the realities and perceived realities W Thomas 0 Sociologist quotif people de ne situations as real they are real in their consequencesquot 0 Thomas theorem o Articulated sociological ndings that had escaped non sociological observers o You have to understand what is really going on and what people think is going on to understand why people do the things they do Ex people think theatre is on re they will panic even if it is not on re Newspaper writes about gruesome details of crime leads people to believe crime rate is going up even if it is not 0 Chapter 1 responding to chaos History of Sociology Religion was most powerful science was not to be discussed 0 Everyone was born into their de ned social group that they belonged to they shouldn39t try to move into others 0 People began to questions 0 Karl Marx 0 Sociology emerging in Germany by Ferdinnd Tonnies amp Max Weber o Understand how social relationships between people differed in 2 types of society o 2 basic categories ends in and of themselves means to a speci c ends 0 Marx o Important founders of sociology Only economics counted as focus on social Wrote The Communist Manifesto 1848 He believed quotthe most crucial thing about a society was its primary mode of production and distribution of goods that is its economic system o Society divided into 2 classes Bourgeoisies 2 People who owned the means of production 0 Owners of factories Proletariat 2 Workers people who survived by selling their labor to the bourgeoisie Everything else in society was secondary or quotepiphenomenal to the economic realities of society 0 Durkheim o Alarmed by chaos he saw in society 0 Study society and social dynamics to nd out what was going on 0 Didn39t believe individualism would be un doing of society 0 Explored sources of order and stability in modern world 0 Society stick together o Even in sel sh society people need one another to survive o Interest of individuals in a community coincide o Peoples work would be similar so would the people 0 Likeness of people held society together in pre modern societies COO o Solidarity similar work led people to have shared ideas values and goals Everyone farmed bad weather was bad for everyone 2 Collective conscience 2 Mechanical solidarity people of community function together as a simple machine 0 Modern society 0 Peoples labor more specialized interests different and con icting 0 As people become more different they grow more dependent on one another 0 Social facts o People needed each other for trade since they all worked in specialized occupations Organic solidarity society functioned as a complex entity that depended on the proper functioning of a variety of parts or organs Held together by differences had to maintain social ties Manners of acting thinking and feeling external to the individual which are invested with a coercive power by virtue of which they exercise control over him Had to focus on the nature of society itself Have reaity sui generis Society and social phenomena exist Social Facts must be distinguished from individual biological or psychological facts Divorce rates 2 Look beyond personal reasons but to wider society 0 Divorce laws child care pressures on family groups Sociology was the scienti c study of social facts things in society that are bigger than individuals 2 Social facts were domain of sociology 0 Suicide Rates o Depend on more then personal troubles o Strongly in uenced by social factors Economy political changes etc o Social issue Rate of suicide varies with degree to which people have strong ties to their social groups 2 Weaker ties higher suicide rates 0 Chapter 2 o C Wright Mills 0 Sociological imagination o Ability to look beyond personal troubles of individuals and see the public issues of social structure social forces operating in the larger society 0 Personal troubles vs public issues o People feel that they cannot overcome their troubles people feel trapped o People have individualistic bias Makes people believe their situations are wholly a result of their own behavior Larger forces shape their behaviors o Social forces causes many of our worst problems Ex divorce pressures from outside world problems in structure of marriage economy Racism result of factors built into social systems In Institutional racism 2 Bank doesn39t give loans to certain parts of city that is where minorities live 0 Skepticism o Important foundation of scienti c curiosity o Sociologists skeptical about impact of social things o Robert K Merton Important research technique outgrown from his skepticism Understanding social things involves knowing their manifest and latent consequences Functions 2 Manifest intended amp obvious 2 Latent unintended amp frequently hidden 0 Dysfunctional negative impact on society 0 Functional positive impact on society Ex prisons Manifest lock away criminals 2 Latent criminals become more knowledgeable from each other Chapter 3 Sociology studies fuzzy subjects 0 Predict what most people will likely do under a particular situation but offer no guarantees Paradigms Abstract way to divide up eld of sociology 0 Framework or model of the world Functionalist paradigm o 3 major assumptions o 1 within society there is a great deal of consensus about what values and norms are important working hard is important murder is bad o 2 Society is an entity that is made up of many integrated parts when 1 part of society changes the rest will change in response 2 economic system changes family amp education change as well o 3 Society tends to seek stability and avoid con ict Con ict is dysfunctional amp not normal Con ict Paradigm o Opposite of functionalist o 1 in society there are subgroups of people who cherish different beliefs and have con icting values and goals o 2 society is made up of subgroups that are ruthless in competition for scarce resources o 3 society is never harmonious con ict is always present Symbolic interactionist paradigm o Social constructionists interest in how people construct their own social worlds o s have to do with how people use symbols to make sense of their environments o 4 basic assumptions 1 people act depends on how they see and evaluate reality 2 people learn from others how to see and evaluate reality 3 people constantly work to interpret their own behaviors and the behaviors of others to determine what they quotmean 4 when people do not attach the same meanings to behaviors or perceive reality in the same why there will be misunderstanding and con ict 0 Chapter 4 0 Chagnon Studied Yanomamo Indians of South America Showed how difficult it is to avoid being ethnocentric o Yanomamo were hideous dirty o Cleaned hands by spitting tobacco juice into them and rubbing them together o Would clean Chagnon with dirty hands Feelings of disorientation from encountering different cultures culture shock o Chagnon felt culture shock when he had to live in the dirty conditions of the Yanomamo o Challenge ones takenforgranted assumptions about the way things should be 0 Empirical world Things that can be observed through the use of one s physical senses If something39s not observable its of little interest to sociologists Inconvenient facts o Pieces of evidence that contradicted what you have always believedwanted to believe Ex men with same jobs earn more money than women whites earn more money than African Americans 0 Ethnocentrism Process of judging other people and their customs and norms as inferior to ones own people customs and norms o Believing our way of living is better than others o See differences of indication of inferiority Foreigners Europeans had thought Africans weren39t even humans because of their different customs Europeans thought native Americans were like wild beasts 392 Believed this made them justified in killing the wild animals 0 Cultural Relativism Belief that other people and their was of doing things can be understood only in terms of the cultural context of those people o Goal is to understand people we have to look for clues in their culture Nothing to do with assessing which ways of doing things are better or worse o quotWhich was is better or worse is not a sociological question must be objective to understand peoples behaviors in terms of their culture and social situation 0 0 Chapter 5 0 Vocabulary of science Conceptlabel applied to things with similar characteristics Constructs describe things that exist analytically but not directly observable Variable concepts or constructs of interest to us o Thought to in uence or be in uenced Income in uences voting behavior o Has varying attributes Religion Jewish catholic protestant lndependent in uences causes something to happen cause Dependent in uenced by other things happen due to a cause effect 2 Depends on independent variable Hypotheses relationship between variables o Can be true or false o Create to test whether the relationships are true or false Reationships directionality o Positive variables that vary in same direction Ex increased eating causes increased weight o Negative variables that vary in different direction Ex increased exercise causes decreased weight Operational de nitions o Transforming the variables into something that be observed and measured o Listing attributes count the presence or absence of those attributes in the real world Ex gender women men o List must be exhaustive everything or person observed must t into one category o Mutually exclusive no one can t into more than one category Mean average add all values amp divide by the number of values Median number in the middle Mode number that occurs most frequently in a set of numbers Chapter 6 doing social research 0 Quantitative research data easily expressed in numbers 0 Qualitative research focuses on nature of behavior amp meaning 0 Survey o Straight forward questions o Strengths Get info from large number of people Appropriate for discovering basic demographic information Allows researchers to obtain info about things that cannot be observed directly attitudes 2 Ex do you think the president is doing a good job o Weakness Not a good way to measure people39s actual behavior Might provide with misleading information In People might not want to admit something 2 People cannot give an accurate account of their behaviors o Guidelines Adapt phrasing of questions to education level of respondents but don39t be insulting 2 Don39t sound patronizing Avoid double negatives Avoid marathon questions Don39t ask double barreled questions Don39t ask leadingloaded questions Don39t ask questions respondents cant answer Artifacts o Learn from artifacts about people39s culture o Ex archeologists digging up old bones and nding out information from them Content analysis o Subjecting some text to careful scrutiny to see what it reveals about its author the times in which it was written and so on Ex elementary school readings showed that women are girls are included as typecast and boys were always the hero 0 0 Chapter 7 culture 0 Culture Material cuture all things that humans make or adapt from nature o Ex computers houses food etc Nonmaterial cuture made from intangible things o Ideas about truth and beauty o Divide into 5 categories Symbols language norms values and beliefs Norms o Rules about behavior o Way to judge importance is to observe how people respond if the norm is broken Ex you have to wear clothes o Types Folkways U Casual norms 2 Violations are not taken seriously 2 Ex eating cereal for breakfast Mores 2 Re ect important rules 2 Norms against unjusti ed assaults on other people Taboos 2 Norms so deeply held 2 Thought of violating upsets people 2 Ex eating human esh Culture as a product of action o Culture systems are created by humans o Different groups of humans have different cultures Different meanings for words Different gestures Culture as a condition element of action o Culture puts us all in the same rut o Every society has problems that must be solved People nd solutions and stick with them Ex nding shelter move into house o People all act similar Eating everyone must eat Don39t eat salad with our hands or eat dessert before dinner 0 Cultural diffusion o Cultural things adopted from other societies o Americans adopted sushi from japan o Material culture is easier to diffuse than nonmaterial culture 0 Cultural leveling o Cultural diffusion increases differences between cultures decrease o Ex cities all have mcdonalds whether its NYC or London 0 Subculture o People with in society whose shared values norms beliefs and use of material culture sets them apart from other people in the society they become subcultures o Religious beliefs can cause subcultures o Ex eagles fans are a subculture o Frequently they disappear become aspects of their beliefs are adopted by members of a larger culture o Not completely separate from the larger culture 0 Counter culture o Special form of subculture o Hold values beliefs norms or use material culture in ways that set them apart from the larger culture but also threaten the parent culture o Ex KKK ldioculture o Every group has to some extent a culture of its own o System of knowledge beliefs behaviors and customs shared by members of an interacting group to which members can refer and employ the basis of further interaction o Ex baseball teams each develops its own norms Nicknames jokes gum chewing 0 Chapter 8 Social Structure 0 Social structure 0 Set of relatively stable roles patterned relationships among statues 0 Status o Position that a person occupies in a social structure Ex family statues mother father etc social statues upper middle lower class o Some statues are achieved throughout life Ex college graduate o Some are ascribed Placed at birth into status and cant escape 2 Ex sex race ethnicity o People want to know what others statues are Help us interact with each other and no what respect people deserve Ex what do you do for a living 39 translates to what is your occupational status Status symbols o Clues of what people status is Ex police uniform wedding ring book bag Knowing about people status makes it easier to interact with them o People with certain status are expected to behave in a certain way 0 Roles Role sum total of expectation about the behavior attached to a particular social status o Ex sociology teacher Status professor Role to teach Statues and roles exist independently of their occupants o Professors must always meet a minimal role of expectations regardless of who they are 0 Role strain Statues can have demanding roles o Students May have many classes and too much work extracurricular activities jobs friends Incumbent is hard pressed to meet all of the roles Status inconsistency Most of us occupy more than one role Individual occupies many statues that do not mesh with social expectations o Ex 50 year old returns to college to get degree Takes on status as student also has role of middle ages man father husband and businessperson Has professor that is half his age now he must refer to them as Mr or Mrs And he is referred to by his name Person with a particular ascribed status achieves an inconsistent status o Ex women truck driver nontraditional student older How people perceive the statues gives status inconsistency o Ex Thurgood Marshall rst African American to sit on supreme court People on elevator thought he was a valet not a justice 0 Role con ict Demands of roles can clash Juvenile court judge who is a parent o Must treat all defendants alike parents are supposed to love and be loyal to their children o Judge couldn39t act impartial towards their child if they got in trouble 0 Master status Most of us occupy many status and have many roles Having one status in uence how people perceive your other statues o Ex female teacher Students see her as a female before as a professor being a female is her master statue Gender ethnicity can be master statues People can be offended when their achieved status are not as appreciated as their ascribed statues 0 Groups Statues de ne who you are and the people you associate with most of us live our lives in groups o one of more individuals with who we share some sense of identity or common goals and with whom we interact within a speci c social structure o we can understand individual behavior only if we study the individuals within the context of their groups social aggregation o collectivity of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time fans for sports teams concerts 0 primary groups Charles H Cooley o How humans become socialized o Most important socialization took place in primary groups like family and friendship o People learn rules of social life and cooperation Secondary groups Usually distinguished from primary groups by size Impossible to be as intimate with large groups than it is with small groups Relationships tend to be a means toan end Formal organizations and bureaucracies Weber Quintessential secondary group Formal organizations come together when groups of people band together to achieve a speci c goal o Make money for stockholders provide a service Formalize their relationship with one another Usually operate under a charter or constitution that speci es positions within the organization o President VP etc Bureaucracy o One of the more important manifestations o Ideal type What is left when you strip away all parts that are not necessary There is the principle of xed and of cial jurisdictional areas which are generally ordered by rules 2 People have speci c areas Principles of of ce hierarchy and of levels of graded authority mean a rmly ordered system of super and subordination in which the lower of ces are supervised by the higher ones 2 Strict chains of command structures pyramid 2 Orders come from top and go to bottom Management of modern of ce is based on written documents which are preserved in their original form 2 Signi cant moves are recorded Of ce management usually presupposes through and expert training 2 Hiring and promotion are based on individuals ability to do the job Of cial activity demands the full working capacity of the of cial 392 Specialized division of labor administrative work is fulltime Management of the of ce follows general rules which are more or less stable and can be learned Knowledge of the rules represents special learning Goal displacement 0 Process becomes more important than the outcome o Doctor more interested in lling out paperwork than treating the patients Chapter 9 society and social institutions 0 Statues and roles are enduring and repetitive Universities may get new presidents but the everyday life of students remains the same Society 0 Totality of people and social relations in a given geographic space 0 Coextensive with nation states Self suf ciency no group quali es as a society unless it provides the resources to answer all of its members basic needs 0 Societal needs 0 Continuing supply of new members socialize new members deal with sickness and health issues select members for certain jobs and tasks create knowledge control its members defends against enemies produce and exchange goods and services promote social unity and search for higher meanings Meets needs though social institutions o An accepted and persistent constellation of statues roles values and norms that respond to important societal needs 0 Family is an institution o Ideal type of family those who depart form this may be subject to informal negative sanctions from others Raising a child but not being married 0 Nature of social institutions 0 Generally unplanned develop gradually o When faced with a particular problem people try a variety of ways to solve their needs o The quotbest way becomes a pattern for generations to follow o How a society solves a problem must t its existing social values and norms o Overtime behavior becomes habitualized Routines allow people more room to think about other things o Only survive if they can be explained reasonably and logically lnherently conservative they change but slowly o Institutions are legitimized by logical and appeals to the nature of things o Any attempt at change seems to be an attack on nature as well as logic o Ex same sex marriage People don39t believe that is the way it is meant to be 0 lnterdependent change in one institution brings changes to others o Technological and economic changes disrupt peoples routines and cause institutional change Women use to stay at home with the children WWII women took men39s place in the work force and stayed in the workforce when the men returned Lead too 2 Schools setting up after school programs work force making equal rights for women men doing more work around the house etc Statues roles values and norms associated with an institution in a society frequently bear little resemblance to those in another society o Many different kinds of rule Monarchy tyranny aristocracy representative democracy o Different religions and customs change the way institutions work 0 Social change trend toward increasing specialization As society grows and becomes more complex institutions become more specialized o Family use to be much broader Church use to have more power o Ex no longer can place laws and collect taxes Institutions limit people39s choices Chapter 10 Socialization 0 Socialization Process by which people aquire cultural competency and through which society perpetuates the fundamental nature of existing social structures Life long process most intense for young people Needed in order for society to survive so new members can take place of those who have died Social factors determine a persons social self Children raised outside a social environment are not socialized o Anna 6 years locked in attic because her grandfather was ashamed that she was born out of wedlock never cuddled or talked to when rescued she couldn39t walk talk or do anything that showed intelligence died 4 years later and only progressed to level of a 2 12 year old lsabeHe born to unmarried mother kept in seclusion rescued at 6 12 managed to catch up with members of her age group she had communication with her deaf mute mother while in seclusion o children need social interaction children in orphanage were far less advanced than children in prison nursery who were raised by their mothers without social interaction humans nd it difficult to survive cant develop a social self relatively organized complex of attitudes beliefs values and behaviors associated with an individual 0 how socialization works 0 dynamic process 0 looking glass self o Charles Horton Cooley o Social self arises though interaction with others o Based on our perception of how others see us we develop our re ected or looking glass selves We imagine how we look to other people We imagine other peoples reaction to our appearance We have some self of self feeling pride or shame o We learn who we are in the intimacy of primary groups especially our family o Primary groups are potent agents of socialization o The I and the Me o George Herbert Mead Self involves 2 phases 2 Me 0 Part of self based on how one sees others as seeing oneself When you see yourself from another perspective 0 Uniquely you your personal reactions to the situation 2 Social self is a product of the ongoing interaction between the Me and the I In Children aren39t born with the me and the i 0 They develop these parts of their selves and the ability to use them through play and games 2 Play is an essential part of human development 0 Play simple imitative behaviors 0 As they play children o Begin to appreciate the perspectives of others o Build up a sense of themselves as something that other people look at and make judgments about 0 First exposure to taking on the rules of others o Ex playing schoolquot o First step in developing me 2 Games 0 Have rules and speci c roles Rules and roles apply no matter who occupies the role 0 Participating in games enhances a children39s ability to do role taking o Take on the role of another and see how things look from that point of view o They have required a generalized other Attitude of the whole community Socialization is always changing as it interacts with a variety of agents of socialization 0 Family 1 agent of socialization most children wholly dependent on their family acquire competency in non material amp material culture o communicating what is right and wrong tying shoelaces using forks etc o family is main source of ascribed statues o parents expect different things from children as they grow towards adulthood o higher a parents social status the more they expect certain behaviors from their children ex intellectual curiosity 2 needed to do well in high status jobs lower class parents would more value obedience 2 needed to do well in lower status jobs o parents tend to pass on to their children the outlooks that are suited to their own experiences in the world 0 school provide education prepare students to accept what teachers and administrators believe will be the students place in the social structure rst time for students to be treated in the same relatively impersonal manner 0 Mass media Exposure in uences peoples perceptions of reality More exposure more likely ones interpretation and perceptions of social reality re ect the television world Peer groups 0 Have fun and socializing agent Learn a great deal about how they are expected to behave Socializes children to become independent from adult authority Experience social distinction o Distinguish between the kids that are valued and those who are not The workplace 0 1 make a career choice 0 2 anticipatory socialization o learning and playing at a work role before entering it o ex internships 3 nds employment and learns reality of the job and its advantages and disadvantages o nd ways of coping with the reality of theirjob 0 resocialization and total institutions 0 total institutions o people are cut off from the rest of society stripped of their individuality o goal is to take away the individuals self and give him a new one more in keeping with the needs of the total institution goal resocialization o Ex military Degrading ceremonies Depersonalization o Frequently fail to meet their goals To be successful must not tear down incomers but build them back up 0 0 Chapter 11 Deviance and Social Control 0 Relativity of deviance Norms vary across societies what is considered deviant varies across societies o They change over time o Almost impossible to nd something deviant in all cultures 0 Norms vary within a particular society and different subgroups have different norms We have different expectations for different kinds of people o Ex girls are not expected to use chewing tobacco Nonsociological theories of Deviance 0 First attempts to explain were biological factors o Deviants were biological failures 0 Some have tried to nd physical characteristics of criminals Others treat deviance as a result of personality factors o People with strong conscience tend to be good those with weak tend to be bad Sociological theories of Deviance Deviance is tied to social norms Collective conscience and structural strain o Emilie Durkheim o Focused on suicide Nothing seems more personal than suicide o Concerned with rates of suicide and changes in rates o Society worked as a well oiled machine Societies worked well if they had a collective conscience 392 Totality of beliefs and sentiments common to the members of the society 2 Made up of values beliefs norms and goals shared by the people of a society Symptom of society falling apart was high rates of suicide 2 Wondered what is was about society that lead to increased suicide rates 2 Found rates high in industrializing countries 2 Rates were manifestations of the amount of social strain in the social system 0 As societies grew larger things that help people together began to fail o Several sources of suicide Egoism 2 Occurs when people are not well integrated into society 0 Lack ties to social groups 0 Unmarried people protestants Anomie 2 Social confusion due to rapid social change 2 People do not want to experience the constraint of social norms 2 State wherein society fails to exercise adequate regulation of the goals and desires of individual members Structural explanations of suicide 0 Structural Strain 0 Robert Merton o Anomie and modern social structure Focus on structural strain as a cause of deviance anomie is built into the structure of modern society anomie occurs when the norms of a society do not match its social structure all social systems have 2 characteristics 2 accepted goals for their members 2 means to reach these valued goals modern societies gap or disjunction between goals and means 2 a system of cultural values extols virtually above all else certain common success goals for the population at large while the social structure rigorously restricts or completely closes access to aroved modes of reaching goals for a considerable part of the same population American dream is frequently a myth 2 College is not available to some no matter how smart they are Responses to anomie U Conformity People continue to accept the goals of success and achievement and the means of hard work even when it isn39t getting them anywhere U lnnova on Accept and pursue accepted goals of society but devise new ways of reaching the goals when they don39t have the right means o Ex no way to get wealth embezzle money 0 Rejects means to achieving goals 2 Ritualism 0 Reject cultural goals but continue to pursue the means 0 Go through motions without caring about the goals o Ex teacher who shows up to class but puts no effort in 2 Rebellion 0 Reject both cultural goals the means and substitute new ones 0 Tear down society and build a new one Legitimate vs illegitimate means 2 Legitimate and illegitimate means to success are unequally distributed in society 2 Bank robbers Pick banks closer to freeways give drivers a cut etc 0 Learning to be deviant O 0 People learn to be deviant through socialization Becker jazz musician noticed lots of people smoked pot Widely though that their was something wrong with personality of pot smokers or they suffered from some psychological maladjustment Smoke to escape Becker began sociological study of pot use 2 Becoming a smoker involved 3 processes 0 Learning to smoke o Novice doesn39t get high the rst time o Need proper technique to get high Hold in 0 Learning to perceive the effects o 1 achieving physiological effects of the drug o 2recognizing and identifying the effects o social support helps 0 Learning to enjoy the effects o quottaste for sensations o people might feel paranoid thirsty hungry dizzy but they learn to enjoy 0 societal reaction perspective labeling theory 0 O 0 response of audience to deviant act being judged and labeled deviant has signi cant consequences if you treat people as a deviant and cut off their opportunities to be anything other than deviant you increase the chances that they actually will become deviant primary deviance rst act arises out of variety of social cultural psychological and physiological factors o secondary deviance subsequent acts after means of social defense or adaptation to problems created by rst act o stigma of negative social labels can spoil a persons identity any attribute that discredits a person or disquali es him from full social acceptance 3 types of stigma 2 abominations of the body 0 clearly visible physical marks scars injuries 2 blemishes of individual character 0 labels of mental disorder dishonesty alcoholism 2 tribal stigmas 0 discredited for membership in particular racial religious or ethnic group discredited identity 392 stigma is visible or known discreditable 2 hidden stigma but in dancer of feeling full force of stigma functions of deviance Maintenance of Status quo and social change o hating social enemies helps unite society o deviance clari es society39s norms and moral boundaries o encourages social change 0 caution about crime data o can make assumptions that are not true o blacks use more drugs false blacks make up less of population cops cracking down on crack with blacks are more likely to use chapter 12 strati cation and inequality evaluation ranking system people in high ranking groups get larger shares of valued social stuff o wealth power and respect people in lower ranking groups get smaller shares of social rewards results in social strati cation o people at top are considered better than people on bottom o 3 things in common persist for a long time resistant to change bolstered by widely accepted legitimating rationales 2 widely accepted beliefs that something is fair and just 2 make people believe that these systems are fair 3 categories of strati cation systems o caste estate and class 0 Caste systems Ones rank is determined at birth Based on ascribed characteristics Determines a persons prestige occupation residence and social relationships India 4000 years ago o Only allowed to interact with people of the same sub group o Placed into group at birth o Divides society into groups distinguished and connected with 3 characteristics Separation in marriage and contact Division of labor Hierarchy ranks groups as superior or inferior Cant interact with people from lower castes Legitimating rationale in Hindu religion Transmigration 2 Believed that each person is born into a particular caste as a result of his or her actions and thoughts in a previous life 392 Karma inexorable application of the law of cause and effect o 4 varnas brahmans 2 priests seers and philosophers Kshatriyas Warriors royalty and adminisrators Vaishyas 2 Producers merchants farmers skilled workers shudras 2 peasants and unskilled workers untouchables 2 too impure within each varna are castes o still in effect today with sanctions even though it is outlawed Estate systems 0 Persons place is determined at birth 0 Contact between different members is allowed but usually impersonal Marriage between different members is forbidden 0 Feudal system during middle ages in Europe 0 England o 3 estates o rst nobility came into power after William the conqueror proclaimed himself king of England con scated everything from original English o second clergy church had great power o third peasants tied legally to land commoners and merchants became part of this estate o social rank assigned by God best people in highest rank 0 industrialization broke down system Class systems 0 commonly thought that best people work their own way into the highest ranks o this beliefjusti es classbased strati cation systems as fair andjust o people believe that same opportunity is available to all o class system is result of your own efforts traits and abilities and not the result of economic or social factors o people end up where they deserve to be 0 Theoretical conceptions of class 0 Karl Marx o Need to understand where people stand relative to means of production to understand an individuals resources personality values and beliefs o People in industrial society fell into 2 social classes Upper owned means of production bourgeoisie Lower made up of workers proletariat Weber o Class Group of people who have the same typical change for a supply of goods living conditions and personal life expenences Class situation is a market situation o Social strati cation was multidimensional Need to take into account not only economics but dynamics of power and status in society 0 Power probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance o Authority power seen as justi ed o Must take into account the degree to which people have social status 0 Class means socioeconomic standing SES Slavery Not included in system of strati cation o Slaves can exist within caste estate and class systems o Slaves function is to serve others no political rights o Slaves treated as property Chattel slavery Most frequent in agricultural societies 0 Slaves can be freed outcastes cannot lose their caste status Social mobility and open vs closed systems 0 Horizontal mobility o Movement from one occupation to another in the same stratum Vertical mobility o Movement up or down in strati cation system Intergenerational mobility o Changes in position in stratification system by different generations of family members Son attains a higher status than his father Intragenerational mobility o Career mobility o Occurs within a person39s lifetime o Occurs in open system o 0 Chapter 14 Inequality and ascription Why a dollar is not always a dollar Some peoples dollars cost most and buy less Educauon o Investment go into debt and pay tuition because they will get better jobs o Payoff for college degree is higher for white s than blacks Asians blacks or Hispanics and higher for men then women o How much you make depends on who you are Men are paid more then women Money will buy you more or less depending on who you are o Banks distinguished between loan applicants based on criteria other than money o Subprimelending Loans re ect what a banker can get away with rather than carefull assessment of actual credit risk Minorities more likely to get subprime home loans then men women more likely than men Developed for people who present greater risk for lenders Car dealerships White Men given best deals People who earned least money were asked to pay the most for their cars Milk more expensive in city than suburbs Buying from rent to own stores will cost 2 to 5 times as much as buying at department store 0 Prejudice Prejudice and prejudgment O O O O Prejudice is based on inaccurate information and illogical arguments Prejudice is an unjusti ed prejudgment People tend to hold onto prejudices even in thef ace of contradictory information Prejudice sustained by stereotypes Oversimpli ed generalized images about members of a particular group Involves attitudes and beliefs 0 Discrimination 0 involves behavior 0 Merton o Timid bigot Person who prejudices but does not discriminate unless it is convenient to do so Ex business owner who is prejudice against minorities but doesn39t discriminate because he needs their business o Fairweather egalitarian Doesn39t prejudice but discriminates because its convenient Ex boss tells you to discriminate against minorities so they do not come to restaurant so provide slow service and overcharge them or else you will be red O Bigot Person who is prejudice and discriminates no matter what o All weather egalitarian Person who does not prejudice and does not discriminate no matter what 5 categories of discriminatory behaviors o verbal rejection derogatory nouns to refer to people telling jokes to put people down avoidance avoiding interaction with people from particular groups active discrimination acting to exclude members of particular groups from education employment housing political or recreational opportunities physical attacks violence or threat of violence extermination participating in lynching s massacres genocides or pogroms individual discrimination 0 individual discriminates against another individual industrial discrimination O O isms denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operation of society ex preference given to children with alumni to different coHeges discrimination and isms different from ordinary discrimination act of discrimination that occur at the institutional level or when they occur at the individual level are consistence with institutional patterns of discrimination o dominant group in society discriminating against minority group dominating group getting discriminated against is shocking 2 white males not getting jobs because minorities need to get it o pyramiding effect cumulative impact of encounters with racist behavior 0 social construction of minority groups different taxonomy for races race o socially constructed attribute that is tied to beliefs about differences in the physical makeup of different individuals ethnicity o shared cultural heritage o how people in a social group are perceived 0 gender differences in personalities of females and males standardized males and female in society different tribes had different personalities regarding the sexes o one tribe women were the dominant sex overlooked the real source of most differences between men and women o sex differences biological differences o gender differences social expectations 0 0 Chapter 5 amp 6 of core Nothing is really real socially 0 Everyone agrees amp works to enforce it 0 Empiricism o Difficult o Example optical illusion o 2 people can look at the exact same thing amp see different things social things are commonly seen differently among people o spinning ballerina people think she39s spinning different directions o beach ball same ball people have different perceptions of what it looks like o awareness test amp gather evidence video easy to miss something if you are not looking for it 0 important o Example Challenger space craft Destroyed teacher aboard to teach lesson in space Launched in cold temperature probability of damage is higher in cold temperature because of O ring s sensitivity to cold Statistics showed this data Thought canals had it Then thought no water Water found o Universe Everything revolves around earth Everything revolves around sun Planets go around sun everything else is unrelated o Science used to check others empirical ndings o Thinkpairshare reasons empiricism is important El El El help s gure out mistakes make us more knowledgeable helps nd hard facts we need facts instead of opinions help ensure safety of others 0 ex observing weather speed limits help build society that you want with values amp morals 0 help prevent certain behaviors predict societies behaviors o education values reasons empiricism is dif cult El El El everyone see s things differently society can be different for everyone many people don39t attach same meanings to things what you observe is interpreted by what you already know 0 you believe in ghosts you think door shutting is ghost hard to discriminate among data 0 hard to lter out quotnoise people don39t agree with what they39re looking at it can bring con ict you can be wrong things threaten how valid an observation could be observing people39s behavior many things variables people39s behavior 0 Empirical sociology Marriage amp cohabitation chart o living together before 5 less likely to stay married for 5 years partner amp sexual violence survey o 15 women have been raped o more likely to be raped by someone you know or an acquaintance should marijuana be legal o people with more education favor legalization O 0 Concepts Easy physical things car doughnut Harder chair many different kinds of chair Hardest freedom nonphysical 0 Concept Mental image that summarizes a set of similar observations feelings or ideas Not the same thing as a variable Only exist in our heads Abstract ideas Ex academic performance skill as a student 0 Variables Exist in the real world Measure concepts Ex GPA Something that measures a concept Example o Concept make of car o Variable make of car 0 Attribute A characteristic of a variable o Ex variable make of care o Attribute Ford chevy Toyota etc 0 Operationalize Transform the concept into something that can be observed and measured o To operationalize list attributes o Easy make of car list attributes o Harder chair No legs rocking chairs sofa etc o Hardest freedom How free is the us How free is Syria How do you know 0 0 Variables amp attributes examples Variable gender Attributes male female Variable voted in last election Attribute diddid not vote 0 Operationalization When we transform a concept into something which can be observed amp measured we are operationalizing that concept 0 Operationalizequotfreedom Step 1 o Be speci c A religious freedom B political freedom C economic freedom D expressive freedom E sexual freedom Step 2 o Convert your concept into something that can be observed amp measured usually more than one way to do this ex religious freedom 2 number of different churches step 3 o how will you measure it Ex Number of churches for religious freedom 2 Drive around amp count 2 Phone directory 2 Census data 0 Catholic protestant etc Many ways to do this 0 Operationalize love Step 1 o Friendship Step 2 o Number of best friends people say they have Step 3 o Ask people o Survey 0 0 Zack Rubin s quotmeasurement of romantic love A a lot of different ways to operationalize love B bunch of questions called an quotindex C Love and liking 13 questions each D asked quotlove questions about girlfriendboyfriend quotlike questions about platonic friend or opposite sex Think of boyfriendgirlfriend o If were feeling bad my rst duty would be to cheer them UP o I feel easy to ignore faults Think of platonic friend of opposite sex o When I am with were almost always in the same mood o I would highly recommend for a responsible job o is one of the most likeable people I know proves we can measure anything in sociology o even abstract concepts amp tell them apart like quotlike amp 39 love 0 recap 0 concept summarizes a set of related observations ideas or feelings variable measure this concept quotin the real world 0 attribute characteristics of the variable independent amp dependent variable 0 independent o a cause causes something to happen o in uences something 0 dependent o a result result of something happening o in uenced by something 0 control variable 0 most things have more than one cause 0 you know is a cause 0 you don39t want it to affect your dependent variable so you control it 0 direction of relationships 0 positive relationship 0 as sleep decreases your immune system decreases O hypothesis 0 testable statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables independent amp dependent 0 test the relationship between 2 variables 3 desirable properties o testable expectation empirical o use 2 variables o clearly states the direction of the relationship needs to be speci c asking survey questions 86 answer options should be o mutually exclusive only 1 answer o exhaustive at least 1 question adapt the phrasing to your audiences level but don39t insult them avoid double negatives avoid marathon questions too long don39t ask double barreled questions o asks 2 questions at once o ex what is your political party amp did you vote last election don39t ask loadedleading questions o leading question leads respondent to pick the smarter sounding or more socially acceptable answer Ex do you think people should pay the unfair graduated income tax or should they be allowed to pay the much better at tax Bad do you support our troops 2 Problem people wouldn39t tell you if they didn39t support the troops Solution approach the concept differently try to use neutral language 2 How often have you sent a letter to troops abroad o Loaded question Uses a word that is loaded with negative connotations Examples 2 1 Do you support increasing assistance to the poor 2 2 Do you support increasing welfare 0 Support for 1 is 39 higher than 2 Welfare has negative connotation Bad if you couldn39t afford a required textbook would you steal it 2 Problem steal is loaded Solution try to use neutral language 2 Better if you couldn39t afford a required textbook how would you go about getting it don39t ask questions they cant answer examples o what is your gender Male Female 0 Likert type item Asks people to assign a number to a feeling Ex very likely likely not likely not at all likely Unobtrusive measures Try to nd out about social world o Without bugging people o without giving them a chance to lie spin forget or misremember Artifacts beer cans 0 Existing statistics UCR crime statistics 0 content analysis ads movies twitter feeds o clues that they give you about peoplesociety 0 text typed language also pictures dialog song lyrics the overt message 2 not hidden message 0 ex 1970 women39s movement Picture of women holding books with no clothes on 0 text a women is supposed to wear pantyhose not read books o subtext your looks are more important than your knowledge o subtext hidden or assumed message subliminal though not technically correct 0 killing me softly Kilborne magazine ads o depicting women o sex too casual in culture o sex too important for the wrong reasons lust women not for love and intamcy 0 walmart ad 0 subtext 0 language uses smart language big words o its scienti c to shop at walmart o walmart is predictable pictures o her of ce scienti c looking o store looks clean 0 body language o happy family o baby is happy smiling amp sleeping 0 subtext o walmart wants you to think that smart people shop there o good moms shop at walmart dad doesn39t shop just drives o quotit s the most important thing in my life 1 baby 2walmart 3job 4 husband 0 what is the main strength of using the survey method research 0 It can obtain data from large amounts of people o They are also costef cient can be preformed in a timely manner amp can explore causal relationships among variables 0 Which is false about surveys Surveys are a good way to gather data about peoples actual behaviors O 0 Analyzing 1 variable univariate analysis Univariate single variable o Example Gender Post graduation plans Bivariate analyze 2 variables simultaneously o Example Number of drinks by gender Gender amp weed o A female bought weed 31 o B Female haven39t bought weed 87 o C male yes 63 o D male no 69 o Draw table Readings Davis 1 what was the topic of Davis39s research o What the opposite sex looks for in a partner o What characteristics men and women seek o Men seek more physical and sexual characteristics in women o Women seek nancial support and personality characteristics 2 what did he actually analyze o Personal ads that people had put out o From Vancouver Sun only Saturday ads 3 what were his ndings about what men wanted in women o Men were more likely to seek attractiveness sex pictures physique 4 what were his ndings about what women wanted in men o Professional steady employment intellectual value commitment and honesty emotion Culture is foundational What we can say What we can wear Right and wrong o Polygamy mainline protestant vs Mormon o ncest you can dance with your cousin but a Navajo boy may not dance with a girl from his clan It determines what you can eat o Biological process is caught in the cultural web Content analysis culture in pulp ction o Differences in material culture In Europe you can get a beer anywhere Royal with cheese instead of quarter pounder Incest in medieval England o Taboo in our culture o Ancient Egypt among royalty o Trobriand islanders man and father39s sister Cannibalism taboo Cultures differ Norms vary between subculturecounterculture amp main culture o Juggalos Paint faces love faygo soda have hand symbol o Ex Taliban tried to execute a girl for going to school 0 Ethnocentrism o My way our way in the best way o Applying the frame of reference provided by one s culture to an object person or group of a different culture o People in every culture are ethnocentric 0 Cultural relativism o Practice of trying to understand other people and their ways of doing things in terms of their cultural context o Opposite of ethnocentrism o Necessary for sociological research Society 0 A bunch of people 0 Distinctive ways of life 0 Society culture amp race o No matter the physical characteristics of the society culture is something that is independent of those characteristics o Similar to hardware vs software o Hardware is all the same worldwide o Only the software is different Anderson39s street vs decent family 0 Primary goal of street kids is getting respect 0 Most people interested in getting respect o Sports social skills 0 Decent families vs street families o Decent symbol 2 College degree language I don39t swear folkway 2 polite obey law taboo 2 agree with mainstream culture value In hard work belief 2 hardship is a test from God o Street symbol 2 Clothing jewelry stolen goods as trophies Language 2 Come up hard holding you own folkway 2 look tough ght don39t make eye contact strike children to teach them respect more 2 you39ve got to have juice taboo 2 mainstream taboos plus don39t back down from ght don39t snitch value U aggression respect belief 2 police don39t care police actively work against violence solves problems status amp role 0 status o position a person occupies in a social structure ex student sonldaughter role o sum total of expectations norms about the behavior of people who occupy a speci c social status student study work hard sondaughter obey family traditions make family proud Zimbardo quotQuiet Rage 0 3 statues for each 3 statues 2 examples of roles o prisoner obey guards o guard preform counts order prisoners around have authority over them o prison warden oversee guards amp prisoners 0 no long term effects Thomas theory 0 If a situation is real in someone39s mind they will respond with real behavior In Zimbardo experiment what was the expectation of the status of 3939prisoner To obey orders In Zimbardo experiment they were only together for a short time and they had no resources so to make prisoners obey orders became if not the central purpose of the experiment This made Zimbardo prison even worse than a real prison because in real prisons there are other activities such as working out that the prisoners can take part in What part of Zimbardo lm was a lie 0 Everything Symbolic Interactionism How do we get people to do what we want them to do o We de ne the situation to our advantage 0 How o By acting the part 0 quotActing o verbal expressions te prisoner 416 thank you 416quot quotits in my nature to be obedient o other expressions sounds urggggh laughter crying tears facial expression body language o similar too but not exactly like acting o sometimes these are true sometimes false ex Fake laughter studies our quotacting techniques o costumes o props o scripts people follow imaginary scripts to preform roles symbolic interaction and social structure verbal expressions other expressions costumes props o all help people see and evaluate reality o people constantly work to interpret these items to help determine what behaviors mean o this helps us determine and display status amp role role con ict social structure isn39t a well oiled machine for example expectations of statuses can clash o status friend and student o role party amp get good grades example o police of cer went AWOL during hurricane Katrina to be with his family his job or his family concept map example sociological imagination draw a map of relationship between culture social structure amp individual we39re born not knowing how to do much grip re ex suck re ex hunger re exvoid bowelsbladder cry re ex do not know self name etc think of enormity of this task think of how many hundreds or thousands of little tasks you have to master just to make it to calss o reasonably on time o reasonably fed o reasonably clothed from baby toanyone o ex Rihanna tattoos major pop star cigs etc de nition of socialization adaptation of people from babies into the people they become example baby learning to preform sport turns into major athlete rather it means something a lot like quoteducation quotpractice is closer for individuals o process by which individuals acquire quotcultural competency learn stuff o rabbit hole alert process by which individuals get a sense of themselves as an individual quotbecome someone for society o process by which society perpetuates existing social structures o example families constantly need new members of the quotfamily will cease to exist Pennsylvania constantly needs new citizens to know what Pennsylvania is or it will cease to exist Both individuals and society need socialization to survive Socialization is not complete once the individual reaches puberty Socialization and the family o Families exist because through the socialization they provide We learn stuff so that we can make our own family and support it Also provide us with the experiences we need to become someone who wants a family Agents of socialization o Aspects of social life that socialize us Family 1 2 Tie shoes learn differences between right and wrong School 2 Reading learn to accept being evaluated learn to work for a reward Mass media 2 quotacculturative distorts reality Peer groups 2 Appropriate gender roles Workplace 2 Workplace mores task speci c technical and social skills 0 How does quotfamily work as an agent of socialization o Satis es primal human need for affection and comfort and reassurance Possessed by all primates Possibly manymost mammals 392 Monkey experiment 0 Went to warm towel quotmonkey instead of food 0 Do you feel sorry for the monkey o Yes it was unnatural for the monkey to be taken away from his mother 0 Socialization is critical for children to develop a sense of self 0 A sense of self is critical for learning 0 Synergy all three elements build upon each other over time o 0 Primary groups o Family closest friends o Groups we are in quotfor their own sake Not for economic gain education etc Intimate face to face association cooperation Can be competitive o What do we want from out primary groups Affection o Power of primary groups We will conform to any group norm or try to look like were conforming Foundational nature of culture 2 To normal people what sociologists call quotnorms are reality 2 Thomas theorem 0 Socialization o Forindividuals Learn stuff Become a person gain a self o What is self Social self quotRelatively organized complex of attitudes beliefs values and behaviors associated with an individual we are not born with it its development begins in infancy 2 biology and society both contribute to the development of the self 2 the self out ability to be aware of ourselves as individuals may be distinctive to humans importance of others 2 people cannot acquire cultural competency without the love and care of other humans 2 people cannot acquire a sense of quotself without the love and care of other humans 2 that39s why its called SOCALization 2 evidence 0 unethical to preform ex toddler placed in woods without any human contact he wouldn39t develop self no primary group no sense of self failure to thrive o the wild boy of averyon discovered in forest at age 11 walked on all fours and ate animals raw could not speak or follow commands but was not mute ofdeaf never successfully socialized died around 40 discovered at age 5 no human interaction inadequate diet lived in a closet never recovered died 4 years later never successfully socialized good sense of self Thriving o sabelle discovered at age 6 o Fritzl Lived with deaf and mute mother inadequate diet Recovered quickly became normal in 2 years Successfully socialized 3 children kept in dungeon with their mother who loved them will they be successfully sociaized So far signs are good Full metal Jacket Rated r for resocialization Have to be taught to kill o Not quotborn to kill o Ex mission for snipers to kill Japanese soldiers Snipers sent out alone didn39t kill anybody 2 I didn39t have it in me to kill someone the marines o quotanybody s son will do Gwynne Dyer 1985 Examples of depersonalization o Shaving head o Uniform o New name Degradation o Lenard walk with pants down sucking thumb o Lenard eat doughnut while everyone does pushups o Call women39s names o Running in groups Chatting weird things o Ceaseless insults Values amp beliefs o Old value human life o new life human life is shit o what did the marines do to change this old value You will be killed if your killer instinct is not clean dehumanize soldiers o old belief life is fair o new belief life is unfair o what did the marines do to change this belief virgin Mary no matter what I say it will be wrong o old norm don39t kill anybody o new norm kill o what did marines do to change this norm Kennedy if you don39t kill them they will kill you total institution a place of residence and work goal to change people o large number of people o cut off from wider society for a long time o enclosed o formally administered examples o marines Parris island recruit depot o prison o mental hospital deviance is behavior that violates norms 0 not immoral or bad 0 positive deviance Rosa Parks deviance varies across cultures norms are quotsocial facts 0 Durkheim o Social facts are manners of acting thinking and feeling external to the individual which are vested with a coercive power be virtue of which they exercise control over him Norms and deviance are relative 0 Deviant behavior is behavior that violates norms 0 Virtually anything can be right and anything can be wrong o Norms vary across societies o Norms vary across subcultures within a culture o Norms change over time o What is considered deviant varies Deviant relative to its time and place o Cultural relativity What39s deviant depends on where you are o Ex is a 19yearold frat boy with a beer considered deviant by The state of Pennsylvania 2 Yes His peers 2 No o is a 19 year old frat boy without a beer considered deviant by the state of Pennsylvania 2 No His bros U yes Always wondering how to react when others breach norms Murder unlawful killing o But is killing always unlawful War Robbery unlawful taking of propertyquot o Is taking property always unlawful Towing car eminent domain Norms vary across societies o Afghan Buzkashi Great change to practice cultural relativism What is the US norm that is being violated 2 Dragging around dead animal o Japanese lkizokuri What US norm is being violated 2 Eating live frog raw still alive Norms change over time o Beatles vs lil wayne Girls go crazy for both 0 Norms and deviance are relative and socially constructed o Socially constructed People make new norms all the time Abandon old norms all the time Choose how to react to the breach of norms Saints and the Roughnecks Labeling Theory o Labeling theory Labels affect how others interpret our actions Labels become part of self concept and we behave accordingly o Upper class youths committed more deviant acts than lower class youths o But lower class youths were more likely to be sanctioned than upper class youths o Why People labeled upper class kids as good and lower class as bad Labels stuck even when counter to reality Upper class youths actively avoided labeling had access to cars so were deviant elsewhere o Primary deviance Deviance everyone does mostly don39t get caught Labeled conformist o Secondary deviance Primary deviance is caught and punished Labeled deviance Reacts by committing more deviance Chapter 8 Ascribed status Achieved status Formal organizationsbureaucracies Group o Primary o Secondary Master status Role Role con ict Status 0 Questios 81 amp 83 Chapter 9 0 Action o Habitualized o Institutionalized o Difference 0 Attributes of institutions o lnherently conservative o Change slowly o lnterdependent o Frequently differ from one society to another 0 Institutionalized o Norms o Roles values statuses Sef suff cientcy Social institution Society Societal needs and their institutions Chapter 10 Agents of socialization Anna and isabelle compared o Signi cance of early human contact Ceremonies degradation depersonalization Cooley looking glass self Mead o I Me Play Games Generalized other o Role taking Rites of passage Socialization Social self Spitz prison study Total institution Resocialization OOOO Chapter 11 Relativity of deviance Nonsociologicalexplanations o Lombroso o Psychological factors quotaggressive personality vs super ego 0 Sociological explanations o Becker how people learn to enjoy weed o Chambliss why people deviate Labeling theorysocietal reaction theory 2 Primary deviance 2 Secondary deviance o Durkheim Anomie Collective conscience vs structural strain Egoism Anderson 0 Street vs decent families 0 What is the function of the code of the streets What does it do 0 What is the main difference in street and decent attitudes towards the police Zimbardo Describe the set up How did Zimbardo assign people the roles Why do we underestimate the power of situational controls 0 What are role expectations and how do they affect behavior Dwyer O Mardi Gras Made in China Observe O O O O Ethnocentrism AmericanChinese reactions to Mardi Gras How highly do Americans value what the Chinese workers make for them Family expectations of young girl workers Wages Working conditions Environment Work hours Living conditions Strati cation systems Class Ascribed characteristics are not related to ability Ascribed race ethnicity gender accent Race is not related in any way to any ability Gender and race differences are socially constructed and maintained 0 Ex society decided what it means to be white and you go along with it o Ex society decides what it means to be male and you go along with it Cultural Focus on race Race is total socially constructed There is no genetic basis for race o There is no genetic characteristic that all members of one race have but no members of another race have Cant group people by skin color o Skin color changes continuously over space Thus there39s no place on the map at which you can say quotrace x ends here and quotrace y begins here No skin color that de nes a race 2 US addresses the issue via the quot1 drop 0 1 drop of African American blood makes you quotblack genes for race are unrelated to other genes abilities no concordance o genetic differences in appearance do not correspond with any other characteristics o for example no concordance between black skin and jumping ability 2 swedes 2 nigerians genetically speaking there is less variation between humans than between most other species 85 of these differences are between any 2 individuals of the same race genetically 2 swedes are as difference or more different than a swede is from a Nigerian gender does not equal sex sex o biologicalphysical characteristics o body partsfunctions o biological differences gen aha o secondary differernces hipsstraight hips boobs 0 gender o culturalsocial characteristics o ideas of what it is to be masculine or feminine angles of gender 0 body vs ideas 0 bodies are not all that different 0 animals have sex but not gender 0 most people are in between only moves stars are ideal combination ofgenderandsex 0 gendersodahzauon 0 stereotype threat 0 US culture overemphasize sex differences Even obvious sex differences are 0 not all that different between sexes 0 able to be socially manipulated o body hair muscles size and tone breasts o o o butt lip face o
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