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Sociology notes (all to date)

by: Jessica Elliott

Sociology notes (all to date) SOC200

Marketplace > Marshall University > Sociology > SOC200 > Sociology notes all to date
Jessica Elliott
GPA 2.4
Introductory Sociology
Autumn O’Toole

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Introductory Sociology
Autumn O’Toole
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Jessica Elliott on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Bundle belongs to SOC200 at Marshall University taught by Autumn O’Toole in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Marshall University.


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Date Created: 10/15/15
Sociological Imagination An Introduction Mt Is Socioloav Sociology is the study of human society The Sociological Imagination Coined by C Wright Mills this tool helps us to Connect our personal experiences to society at large and greater historical forces Make the familiar strange or to question habits or customs that seem natural to us What Is a Social Institution Social institutions are networks of structures in society that work to socialize the groups of people within them Examples include The legal system The labor market The educational system The military The family What Is Social Identity The way individuals define themselves in relationship to groups they are a part of or in relationship to groups they choose not to be a part of The Historv of Soci0102V Auguste Comte Positivism a philosophical system that holds that every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof and that therefore rejects metaphysics and theism Harriet Martineau first to translate Comte s written works to English one of the earliest feminist social scientists wssical Soci0102V 19th century Karl Marx theory of historical materialism which identifies class con ict as the primary cause of social change Max Weber emphasis on subjectivity became a foundation of interpretive sociology Emile Durkheim founder of positivist sociology developed the theory that division of labor helps to determine how social cohesion is maintained or not maintained in that society wssical Soci0102V Georg Simmel formal sociology or a sociology of pure numbers for instance how a group of two is different than a group of three Modern Sociological Theories Late 19th centuryvery early 20th Functionalism Talcott Parsons Various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve a function to keep society running Con ict Theory Ralph Dahrendorf The idea that con ict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social change and society in general Modern Sociological Theories Feminist Theory Ann Oakley Emphasized equality between men and women and wanted to see women s lives and experiences represented in social studies Symbolic Interactionism Erving Goffman A micro level theory in which shared meanings orientations and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people s actions Bevond Modern Postmodernism Early 20th mid 20th century A condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history replacement of narrative with pastiche multiplecon icting identities resulting from disjointed affiliations Midrange Mid 1920th Robert Merton A theory that attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function neither macro or micro Contemporary Mid20th George Herbert Mead Antonio Gramsci American Sociology Early American sociology became prominent at the University of Chicago so the perspective that emerged became known as the Chicago School Chicago thinkers include Charles Horton Cooley George Herbert Mead W 1 Thomas WEB DuBois Jane Addams The Chicago School focused on empirical research with the belief that people s behaviors and personalities are shaped by their social and physical environments Socioloav and Its Cousins Sociology focuses on making comparisons across cases to find patterns and create hypotheses about how societies work now or how they worked in the past Sociology looks at how individuals interact with one another as well as at how groups small and large interact with one another Socioloav and Its Cousins Distinctions are important but a lot of overlap exists between the works done in different academic disciplines Divisions within Soci0102V Microsociology understands local interactional contexts focusing on facetoface encounters and gathering data through participant observations and indepth interviews Macrosociology looks at social dynamics across whole societies or large parts of them and often relies on statistical analysis to do so Concept Quiz 1 Which of the following is an example of using one s sociological imagination a being in unfamiliar surroundings and imagining being in a more comfortable place b creating different hypotheses to explain an individual s behavior c creating a story to explain unfamiliar social customs d being puzzled by how people in another country greet one another and then thinking about how people in your own country greet one another and why they do it the way they do Concept Quiz 2 Social identity is a a construct that no longer has meaning in the postmodern era b a collection of social roles that a person might fill c a way that individuals define themselves in relation to groups they are a part of or groups they choose not to be a part of d determined by the social group into which a person is born Concept Quiz 3 The Chicago School of American Sociology emphasized the importance of a the social and moral consequences of the division of labor b the environment in shaping people s behavior and personalities c heavy statistical research d none of the above Concept Quiz 4 Sociology is distinct from other academic disciplines in its attempt to a embrace quantitative and qualitative research b ask probing questions about how societies function c detect patterns in how different societies handle or respond to similar phenomena d examine human interaction on the micro level Concept Quiz 5 Which of the following is an example of a study that might be undertaken by a macro sociologist a assessing how people choose where to sit on a public bus b observing customers responses to being greeted upon entering a store c conducting a statistical analysis of when professional men and women choose to start families d examining how men and women react to riding in an elevator with an infant Discussion Questions 1 Had you ever heard of sociology before a Yes b No Discussion Questions 2 Have you ever taken a sociology class before a Yes b No Chapter Two Methods Research Methods 0 Research methods are standard rules that social scientists follow when trying to establish a causal relationship between social elements Approaches to Research 0 A deductive approach to research 1 Starts with a theory 2 Develops a hypothesis 3 Makes empirical observations 4 Analyzes the data collected through observation to confirm reject or modify the original theory Approaches to Research An inductive approach to research 1 Starts with empirical observation 2 Then works to form a theory 3 Determines if a correlation exists by noticing if a change is observed in two things simultaneously 0 Causality vs Correlation 0 Causality is the idea that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another factor 0 Causality vs Correlation 0 Sociologists conduct research to try to prove causation To prove causation correlation and time order are established and alternative explanations are ruled out Variables What Are We Studying 0 A dependent variable is the outcome that a researcher is trying to explain 0 An independent variable is a measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable The Hypothesis 0 A hypothesis is a proposed relationship between two variables represented by either the null hypothesis or an alternative hypothesis Mt Mges Good Research 0 Good research should be valid reliable and generalizable Validity does the study measure what it is intended to measure Reliability if you conduct the study again will you get the same results Generalizability will the findings of this study apply to some other population or group of people How Feminist Method0102V Is Different Feminist methodology Treats women s experiences as legitimate empirical and theoretical resources Promotes social science that may bring about policy change to help women Is as conscious of the role of the researcher as that of the subjects being studied Tvpes of Bail Collection Types of di l collection used in socigl research participant observation interviews survey research comparative research experimentation content analysis historical methods Ethics of Social Research 0 Researchers must meet codified standards which are set by professional associations academic institutions or research centers when conducting studies 0 Researchers must guard against causing physical emotional or psychological harm to their subjects Ethics of Social Research Informed consent and voluntary participation are guidelines researchers use to ensure subjects know they are participating in a study and have voluntarily chosen to participate What Do We Do with Socioloaical Research 0 Public sociology refers to the practice of using sociological research teaching and service to reach a wider not solely academic audience and to in uence society Concept Quiz 1 Which of the following describes the deductive approach to research a A researcher makes empirical observations and based on these observations he or she develops a theory b A researcher develops several hypotheses to explain a correlation he or she has observed between two factors c A researcher establishes causation and then develops a theory to explain it d A researcher starts with a theory forms a hypothesis makes observations and then analyzes the data to confirm reject or refine the original theory Concept Quiz 2 What is a moderating variable a a factor that is positioned between the independent and dependent variables but does not affect the relationship between them b a factor that affects only the independent variable in a hypothesis c a factor that can replace the dependent variable in a hypothesis d a factor that affects the relationship between the independent and dependent variables Concept Quiz 3 A thermometer that consistently gives readings that are five degrees cooler than the actual temperature is a valid but not reliable b reliable but not valid c neither reliable nor valid d both reliable and valid Concept Quiz 4 Which of the following data collection methods are commonly used in social research a comparative studies surveys interviews b historical methods participant observation case studies c natural experiment doubleblind study comparative research d content analysis census panel survey Concept Quiz 5 Social research that tries to engage a nonacademic audience and in uence society is often referred to as a public sociology b macrosociology c feminist sociology d qualitative sociology Discussion Questions 1 What is the best research methodology to do this study a participant observation b interviews c survey research d comparative research e experimentation f content analysis g historical methods Discussion Questions 2 Much research is done on college campuses with college undergrads as research participants Do you think this is a problem a Yes b No Chapter 3 Culture and media What Is Culture 0 Culture can be loosely defined as a set of beliefs traditions and practices What Is Culture 0 The concept of culture has evolved and expanded throughout history 0 The oldest understandings of culture focus on the distinction between natural environment and What is modified or created by humans What Is Culture Concepts of Culture 0 As Europeans came into contact with nonWesterners culture evolved in terms of differences between peoples which could be viewed positively or negatively Colonialism Ethnocentrism 0 In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries a new dimension was added to the concept of culture the idea that culture involved the pursuit of intellectual refinement Material vs Nonmaterial Culture 0 Material culture is everything that is a part of our constructed environment such as books fashion and monuments 0 Nonmaterial culture encompasses values beliefs behaviors and social norms Cultural Relativism 0 Coined by Ruth Benedict in the 1930s this is the idea that we should recognize differences across cultures without passing judgment on or assigning value to those differences Cultural Scripts 0 Cultural scripts are modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural but that may strongly shape beliefs or concepts held by a society Subcultures 0 A subculture is a group united by sets of concepts values traits andor behavioral patterns that distinguish it from others within the same culture or society Blues and Norms 0 Values are moral beliefs 0 Norms are how values tell us to act 0 Socialization is the process by which a person internalizes the values beliefs and norms of society and learns to function as a member of that society Reflection Theorv 0 Re ection theory states that culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere A Marxist version of re ection theory argues that cultural objects re ect the material labor and production relationships that went into making them What Is Media 0 Media are any formats or vehicles that carry present or communicate information books posters Web pages clay tablets and radio 0 Mass media refers to any form of media that reaches the mass of the people Media 0 Hegemony refers to the impact of media on culture and how people and societies shape and are shaped by the dominant culture The Medig Life Cvcle 0 Media studies open paths of investigation including textual analysis and audience studies how people create media and the biases involved in that creation how media re ect the culture in Which they exist how individuals and groups use the media to change culture Media Effects 0 Media effects can be placed into four categories according to their duration and intention shortterm and deliberate longterm and deliberate shortterm and unintentional longterm and unintentional Where Do Stereotypes Come From Intentionally or unintentionally subtly or overtly the media can create or reinforce ethnic racial gender religious and other stereotypes POEM Economv of the Media 0 Media ownership in the United States is in the hands of six companies 0 Those companies affect the information and messages communicated to the public POEM Economv of the Media 0 The media especially advertisements play a large role in the maintenance of consumerism the belief that happiness and fulfillment can be achieved through acquisition of material possessions POEM Economv of the Media 0 The globalization of the media has spread American culture around the world This has effects on culture values and ideas on others39 behavior and it has experienced a drop in popularity recently because of some American foreign policies POEM Economv of the Media 0 Culture jamming is one example of subverting the power of media Concept Quiz 1 Which of the following is an example of material culture a Buddhist temple b music Web site c English garden d all of the above Concept Quiz 2 Ideology can be described as a an aspect of material culture b a system of concepts and relationships that guides an individual or large group c an extreme point of view on a given topic d none of the above Concept Quiz 3 Cultural scripts are a modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural b a type of roleplaying that helps people learn about different cultures 0 a type of study developed by sociologists to catalog cultural differences d patterns of behavior that can be found in almost all cultures Concept Quiz 4 Examples of media include a television websites and radio b books magazines and ancient scrolls 0 records cave paintings and streaming video d all of the above Concept Quiz 5 True or false The globalization of the media has spread American culture around the world a true b false Discussion Questions 1 Have you traveled to another country a yes b no Discussion Questions 2 In your opinion how does the media impact culture a The media creates culture we do what we see on TV b The media simply shows us culture we don t mimic TV TV mimics us c Both of the above TV shows us our culture and then we mimic what we see d None of the above the media has no impact on culture Chapter 4 Socialization and the Construction ofRealitv What Is Socialization Socialization is the process by which individuals internalize the values beliefs and norms of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society Limits of Socialization However socialization cannot explain everything about a person s development and personality Biology is also a very important component It is a combination of biology and social interactions that makes us who we are Charles Horton Coolev Theorized that the self emerges from our ability to assume the point of view of others and imagine how those others see us George Herbert Mead Mead developed a theory about how the social self develops over the course of childhood Infants know only the I but through social interaction they learn about me and the other They develop a concept of the generalized other which allows them to apply norms and behaviors learned in specific situations to new situations George Herbert Meamp 0 Mead stressed the importance of imitation play and games in helping children recognize one another distinguish between self and other and grasp the idea that other people can have multiple roles Eric Erikson He established a theory of psychosocial development that identifies eight stages that span a person s lifetime Each stage involves a specific con ict that a person must resolve in order to move on to the next stage Agents of Socialization 0 Families school peers the media and total institutions are all important socializing agents or environments 0 A total institution is an institution in which one is totally immersed that controls all the basics of daytoday life 0 Interview Resocialization 0 a change in values beliefs or norms through an intense social process 0 Social Interaction 0 Robert Merton s role theory provides a way to describe social interaction mtuses and Roles 0 A status is a position in society that comes with a set of expectations An ascribed status is one we are born with that is unlikely to change An achieved status is one we have earned through individual effort or that is imposed by others mtuses and Roles 0 One s master status is a status that seems to override all others and affects all other statuses that one possesses 0 Roles are the behaviors expected from a particular status mtuses and Roles 0 Role con ict occurs when the roles associated with one status clash with the roles associated with a different status 0 Role strain occurs when roles associated with a single status clash Either of these may lead to role exit Gender Roles set of behavioral norms associated primarily with males or females in a given social group or system Gender theorists argue that gender roles can be more powerful and in uential than other roles that people fill The Socigl Construction of Reality Socigl constructi People give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions It s an ongoing process that is embedded in our everyday interactions The Socigl Construction of Reality 0 Symbolic interactionism is a microlevel theory based on the idea that people act in accordance with shared meanings orientations and assumptions Erving Goffman s dramaturgical theory views social life as a theatrical performance in which we are all actors on metaphysical stages with roles scripts costumes and sets The Socigl Construction of Reality 0 Ethnomethodology is an approach to studying human interaction that focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world convey this understanding to others and produce a mutually shared social order The Socigl Construction of Reality 0 Harold Garfunkel developed a method for studying social interactions called breaching experiments which involved having collaborators exhibit abnormal or atypical behaviors in social interactions in order to see how people would react The Socigl Construction of Reality 0 The Internet has created new types of social interaction that don t incorporate verbal and visual cues people are accustomed to relying on It has also changed society by creating new types of crimes and new ways of communicating The Social Construction of Reality 0 Because our reality is socially constructed an unexpected change in that reality can be upsetting frustrating or just plain incomprehensible 0 We all have a stake in maintaining consensus on shared meanings so that our society can continue to function smoothly Concept Quiz 1 In social development theory the self can be defined as a the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person b one s sense of agency action or power 0 the identity of a person as perceived by others d all of the above Concept Quiz 2 According to George Herbert Mead s stages of development children learn to recognize an other through a formal games b imitation 0 playing informally With other children d none of the above Concept Quiz 3 are common agents of socialization a Siblings b Teachers 0 Television programs d all of the above e none of the above Concept Quiz 4 Which of the following is an example of a total institution a elementary school b sports team c convent d political party Concept Quiz 5 Which of the following theories argues that people s choices about how to act are based on shared meanings orientations and assumptions a symbolic interactionism b functionalism c dramaturgical theory d postmodernism Concept Quiz 6 Harold Garfunkel is well known for a developing the theory of impression management b creating breaching experiments c investigating the armed forces as a total institution d his analysis of socialization agents Discussion Questions 1 Have you ever been told that you act like your parents a yes b no 2 Are you adopted a yes b no Discussion Questions 3 Do you have siblings a Yes b no 4 Are you a twin a yes b no 5 How similar do you think you are to your siblings a very similar b somewhat similar c not similar Chapter 5 Groups and Networks Socigl Groups Social groups form the building blocks for society and for most social interaction The sociologist Georg Simmel argued that the key element in determining the form of social relations in a group is the size of the group Socigl Groups Simmel emphasized in particular the differences between social relations in a dyad group of two and a triad group of three Dyad is the most intimate form of social life because the two members are mutually dependent on each other if one member leaves the group the group ceases to exist Socigl Groups When a third person joins a dyad that person can fill the role of Mediator the con ict resolver Tortious gardens the person who profits from disagreement from the others Divide et impera divide and conquer the individual who purposefully breaks up the other two Socigl Groups As group size increases the number of possible relationships increase in a group of three three possible relationships exist but in a group of four six possible relationships exist Socigl Groups From Groups to Networks A social network is a set of relations a set of dyads held together by ties between individuals A tie is a set of stories that explains our relationship to the other members of our network while a narrative is the sum of the stories contained in a series of ties From Groups to Networks Embeddedness refers to the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network From Groups to Networks A structural hole is a gap between network clusters or even between two people that would benefit from having the gap closed From Groups to Networks Social capital The information knowledge of people or ideas and connections that help individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power in them High amounts of social capital in a community generally means that the community is tightly knit and can come together to face challenges and make improvements Network Analysis in Group Research Network analysis researchers use the basic concepts about groups and social networks that we have discussed to investigate how group life shapes individual behavior Organizations An organization is any social network that is defined by a common purpose and has a boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world Organizations Organizational culture refers to the shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group Organizational structure refers to the ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization Organizations Institutional isomorphism refers to a constraining process that forces one organization to resemble other organizations that face the same set of environmental conditions The Wealth of Networks The Internet has facilitated an opensource or peerbased production model which promotes access to the end product s source materials Wikipedia and Linux are two examples of opensource platforms Concept Quiz 1 One of the unique characteristics of a dyad is that a each member exerts supraindividual control over the other b there is an inherent asymmetry to the relationship 0 if one member of the group leaves the group ceases to exist d all of the above e none of the above Concept Quiz 2 Jose goes to a training session for election volunteers in his precinct There are 15 participants and two trainers This would be an example of which kind of group a party b large group 0 primary group d small group Concept Quiz 3 refers to the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network a Isomorphism b The strength of weak ties c Embeddedness d Connectivity Concept Quiz 4 A structural hole is a a weak tie in a social network that eventually breaks b a gap between two people or two groups that have complementary resources and could benefit from having a closer connection 0 a lack of social capital in a community d a gap in the data collected as part of a network analysis Concept Quiz 5 Organizational culture refers to a the embedded ties that connect members of a formal social network b the shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group c the ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization d whether an organization uses an autocratic or consultative decisionmaking process Discussion Questions 1 Do you have a Myspace or Facebook account a yes b no 2 Do you have any online friends that you have never met in real life a yes b no Discussion Questions 3 Are territorial social groups those based on physical closeness important a They are as important as they used to be b They are more important than they used to be c They are less important than they used to be Chapter 6 Social Control and Deviance Mt Is Socigl Devignce 0 Social deviance is any transgression of socially established norms Minor transgressions of these norms can be described as informal deviance Formal deviance or crime involves the violation of laws Devignce and Socigl Control 0 Social cohesion refers to the way people form social bonds relate to each other and get along on a daytoday basis Devignce and Socigl Control Emile Durkheim theorized that social cohesion is established either through mechanical solidarity based on the sameness of society s parts or members or Organic solidarity based on the interdependence of specialized parts or members Devignce and Socigl Control Punitive justice is focused on making the violator suffer and thus defining the boundaries of acceptable behavior 0 Rehabilitative justice examines the specific circumstances of an individual transgressor and attempts to find ways to rehabilitate him or her Deviance and Social Control 0 Social control is the set of mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals 0 Normative compliance is the act of abiding by society s norms or simply following the rules of group life Devignce and Socigl Control Informal social sanctions Are unspoken rules and expectations about people s behavior Help maintain a base level of order and cohesion in society and form a foundation for formal social control Devignce and Socigl Control 0 Examples of formal social control include laws and the authority of police officers Devignce and Socigl Control 0 Robert Merton s strain theory argues that deviance occurs When a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals 5 ways individuals cope with social forces and deviance Strain Theory Innovators accept the goals of the society but they look for new or innovative ways of achieving those goals Strain Theory 0 Retreatists don t accept the goals of the society or the means of achieving those goals Svmbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance 0 Symbolic interactionists take a micro view of society examining the beliefs and assumptions people bring to their everyday interactions to find the causes or explanations for deviance Svmbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance Labeling theory People see how they are labeled and accept the label as being true People behave the way that they think someone with their label should behave Svmbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance Primary deviance the first act of rule breaking which may result in the rule breaker being labeled deviant and thus in uence how people think about and act toward him or her Secondarv deviance Refers to acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result of a person s new deviant label Svmbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance Stigma negative social label that changes your behavior toward a person also changes that person s selfconcept and social identity has serious consequences in terms of the opportunities made available or rather not made available to people in a stigmatized group Svmbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance Broken window theorv of deviance Philip Zimbardo explains how social context and social cues impact the way individuals act People who wouldn t exhibit a certain behavior in one social context might do so in another context Where the behavior seems more permissible Crime 0 street crime refers to crime committed in public and is often associated With violence gangs and poverty 0 Whitecollar crime committed by a professional against a corporation agency or other business 0 corporate crime type of Whitecollar crime committed by the officers or executives of a company m 0 It can be difficult to measure crime rates over time for a variety of reasons including Changes in how crimes are defined Fluctuations in Whether people report crimes In the case of murders improvements in medical technology Crime Reduction 0 Deterrence theory is a philosophy of criminal justice based on the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits Crime Reduction 0 Recidivism occurs When a person Who has been involved in the criminal justice system reverts back to criminal behavior Crime Reduction 0 Since the 1970s there has been a change from a more rehabilitative sense of justice to a more punitive one in the United States This is evidenced by historically high rates of incarceration Chapter 7 Stratification What Is Stratification 0 Stratification refers to systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships Views of Inequality In the eighteenth century J eanJ acques Rousseau argued that private property creates social inequality and that this inequality ultimately leads to social con ict View of Inequality 0 Ferguson and Millar agreed with Rousseau but they also argued that this is good because it means that some people are getting ahead and creating assets a form of wealth that can be stored for the future View of Inequality Thomas Malthus viewed inequality favorably but only as a means for controlling population growth thought that a more equal distribution of resources would increase the world s population to unsustainable levels and ultimately bring about mass starvation and con ict View of Inequality Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel s masterslave dialectic Hegel believed Most social relationships were based on a masterslave model Over time society would have more and more free people and the masterslave model would die out as the primary social relationship Forms of Stratification Forms of Stratification Karl Marx felt that society was divided strictly into two classes the proletariat or working class and the bourgeoisie or employing class Forms of Stratification Erik Olin Wright developed the concept of contradictory class locations which is the idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between the two pure classes defined by Marx Forms of Stratification 0 Max Weber s concept of class is based on grouping people according to the value of their property or labor in the commercial marketplace Forms of Stratification 0 The status hierarchy system is a system of stratification based on social prestige Forms of Stratification 0 The elitemass dichotomy system is a system of stratification that has a governing elite a few leaders who broadly hold the power of society How Is America Strati ed Todav 0 Socioeconomic status refers to an individual s position in a stratified social order How Is America Stratified TodaL The income gap between highincome and lowincome individuals has increased dramatically over the last 30 years How Is America Stratified TodaL Poverty has an official government definition but there are also less official categories such as the working poor and the nonworking poor sometimes called the underclass Global Inequality Taking a broad view of history it is clear that global inequality has increased dramatically in the past 500 years Social Mobilitv 0 Social mobility the movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society can be either horizontal or vertical and can take place on the individual or group level


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