Psychology 213 Lifespan Development
Psychology 213 Lifespan Development Psy 213
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This 29 page Bundle was uploaded by Brooke Schmitt on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psy 213 at Illinois State University taught by Sara Harris in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Continued Notes Resilience o The ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development 0 Factors in resilience Personalcharacteristics Warm parental relationship Social support outside family Community resources and opportunities Theories of Development 0 Scienti c Method A fourstep process 0 Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied 0 Collect research information o Analyze data 0 Draw conclusions Theoryset of ideas that helps explain some phenomenon and once we have these ideas it helps us be able to make predictions 0 Example Theory of attachment Hypotheses The assumptions or predictions to test the accuracy of the theory 0 Looking at different attachment styles longitudinal studies Psychoanalytic Theories Describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion o Freud s theorygt sexuality aggressive drives 0 Erikson s psychosocial theory Eight stages of development unfold as we go through life He believed that we continue to develop and involve up until the day we die He said during each stage of development we are faced with a con ict and by how we react or deal with this con ict is how we go into the next stage 0 Trust vs Mistrust example Autonomy vs shame and doubt If you don t trust its less likely to gure things outgt feel shameful 0 Evaluation 0 Emphasis on A developmental framework Family relationships Unconscious aspects of the mind 0 Criticisms Lack of scienti c support Too much emphasis on sexual underpinnings An image of people that is too negative Cognitive Theories o Piaget s cognitive developmental theory 0 He said that children are active learners Vygotsky s sociocultural cognitive theory 0 Vygotsky s theory emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development 0 Information processing theory Emphasizes that individuals how we develop cognitive skills what processes are involved 0 Manipulate information 0 Monitor it o Strategize about it 0 Evaluation 0 Contributions Positive view of development Emphasis on the active construction of understanding 0 Criticisms Skepticism about the pureness of Piaget s stages Little attention to individual variations Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories Development can be described in terms of behaviors learned through interactions with our surroundings o Skinner s operant conditioning behavior is shaped by whether or not the consequence of a behavior is rewarded or punished o Bandura s social cognitive theory we aren t just blank slates that you pour information in to Children really do think from environment 0 Evaluation 0 Emphasis on Scienti c research Environmental determinants of behavior 0 Criticisms Little emphasis on cognition in Skinner s view Inadequate attention paid to developmental changes Ethological Theory 0 Ethology study of the behavior of animals in their natural habitat 0 Theory stresses that behavior is Strongly in uenced by biology Tied to evolution Characterized by critical or sensitive periods a period in development in where if you don t get the right stimulation you can not develop it wont learn it 0 John Bowlby Attachment to a caregiver over the rst year of life has important consequences throughout the life span 0 Evaluation 0 Contributions include Focus on the biological and evolutionary basis of development Use of careful observations in naturalistic settings observing people in their natural environment it is not arti cial Microsystem Factors within the individual and the immediate setting 0 Sex gender age health 0 Direct interacting between parent and child husband and wife 0 Person and the environment both in uence each other 0 Meso System Relationships between the various microsystems for example relationship with home and school looking at relationships Exo System the environment that does not contain the individual but has an indirect in uence on them 0 for example Parent work place o If the parents are grouchy and moody can result in a con ict with partner or child Can effect quality of parenthood Macro system doesn t have a direct in uence more so a indirect effect 0 For example the government social policies culture values economic circumstances which all effect the individual Chronosystem It is not a speci c setting or trait rather it is the temporal or time dimension timing of events in uence development 0 For example the effects of divorce on children looking at adolescent verse child How they respond or cope with it In uences changed work places change babies born and they grow up environmental changes Bronfenbrenner s ecological theory 0 Evaluation 0 Contributions include Systematic examination of macro and micro dimensions of environmental systems Attention to connections between environmental systems Emphasis on a range of social contexts beyond the family 0 Criticism Giving inadequate attention to biological factors Too little emphasis on cognitive factors Eclectic Theoretical Orientation Does not follow any one theoretical approach 0 Selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it Chapter 2 Natural Selection and Adaptive Behavior 0 Natural selection how we select our environments 0 Adaptive behavior Evolutionary Psychology Emphasizes the importance of adaptation reproduction and survival of the ttest in shaping behavior Evolutionary developmental psychology 0 All of our behaviors exist helped our ancestors survive 0 Not all behaviors are good 0 Maladaptive in winter eat more stay inactive put on fat to stay warmsurvive Possible that type of behavior has evolved to obesity epidemic Genetic Foundations of Development 0 Genes and chromosomes 0 Genetic principles Chromosome and genelinked abnormalities 0 Human life begins as a single cell Nucleus of each cell contains chromosomes 0 Genes Unit of hereditary information are short segments of DNA 0 Location of genes on chromosomes determines impact of genes on development 0 Health diseases and psychological problems 0 Human genome consists of many genes that collaborate Activity of genes is affected by their environment 0 Have 25000 in genetic code 0 Child with parents with history of aggression becomes aggressive because environment genes Know environment plays a big role because of adoption cases 0 Stress can activate markers radiation temperature changes can in uence gene expression Genes and Chromosomes o Mitosis meiosis and fertilization o Mitosis reproduction of cells Body cells 23 pairs of cells or 46 total 22 are identical 23rOI pair determines our sex males are xy females are xx 0 Meiosis Cell division that forms sperm and eggs gametes o Fertilization A stage in reproduction when an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell called a zygote Mutated gene permanently altered segment of DNA chance eventsradiation something goes wrong in pregnancy 0 Genotypeinformation we inherit not something you see Susceptibility genes illnesses behaviors make us more vulnerable to having a disorder disease etc Accelerated aging Ex heart difficulty early in life Longevity genes genetic factors that make person less vulnerable or susceptible to genes 0 Phenotype Genetic principles 0 Dominant and recessive genes principle 0 One gene of a pair always exerts its effects dominant for example brown hair far sighted dimples overriding the potential in uence of the other generecessive for example bonde hair nearsighted freckles o Sexlinked genes 0 When a mutated gene is carried on the X chromosome the result is called Xlinked inheritance Males are most effected by this They only have one x so if the x has it then they have it Nothing to override it into another x ex autism heart diseases learning disabilities ADHD o Polygenic inheritance Polygenically determined by the interaction of many different genes Gene gene interaction 0 Height personality cancer diabetes intelligence FIND NOTES FROM FRIDAY September 11th Hazards to Prenatal Development Psychoactive drugs 0 Caffeine 0 Alcohol Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD a cluster of abnormalities and problems that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy 0 Nicotine o Cocaine babies growing up taking in cocaine will result in having to deal with withdrawalpains Methamphetamine Marijuana little effect on babies 0 Heroin harmful to babies all the same consequence that can occur with adults can occur in babieslow birth weight pre mature delivery Incompatible blood types don t match 0 Environmental hazardslead mercury and pollution Maternal diseases mumps u syphilis Other parental forces 0 Maternal diet and nutrition Healthy birth weight would be 2030 pounds rather than higher because higher can cause high blood pressure diabetes birth weight and walking around Being under weight can result in brain development growth capability to ght off diseases and infections 0 Maternal age risk of having a baby with down syndrome at age 35 is 1 of 100 Risk of having a child with autism at any age is 1 of 68 o Emotional states and stress Signi cant amounts of stress likely to have miscarriages having birth to still born baby baby with high level of cortisol which can result in behavioral or learning problems Study example during 911 looking at pregnant women that had a direct connection to the event Had women in 1 2nd and 3rd trimester Took cortisol to the women and took the babies after birth Saw women who were directly impacted form 911 and had been directly impacted by post dramatic stress 3rCI trimester women and it resulted in high levels of cortisol in both the women and the babies born 00 High level cortisol addhd aggression are effects of this 0 Paternal factors Men who are older 50 and beyond their babies are at an increase likelihood of miscarriage low birth rate and developmental problems 0 Relation to children with autism with fathers of old age Prenatal care 0 Varies enormously from one woman to another 0 Usually involves 0 De ned schedule of visits fro medical care which includes screening for Manageable conditions Treatable diseases can affect the baby or the mother 0 Comprehensive educational social and nutritional services Very important Birth and the postpartum period 0 The birth process occurs in three processes 0 First stage is the longest uitary contractions begin 1520 min apart 0 Second birth stage when the baby is born cervic comes out and moves through the birth canal 0 Third stage afterbirth the placenta and umbilical cord or any other membranes are delivered this stage lasts 1520 minutes Methods of childbirth 0 Medication o Analgesia used to relive pain Include tranquilizers barbiturates and narcotics such as Demerol Anesthesia used in late first stage labor and during delivery to block sensation in an area of the body or to block consciousness Oxytocin synthetic hormone used to stimulate contractions Speeds things back up Methods of childbirth 0 Natural childbirth method in which no drugs are given to relieve pain or assist in the birth process 0 Prepared childbirth includes a special breathing technique to control pushing in nal stages of labor 0 Other nonmedicated techniques to reduce pain 0 Cesarean delivery the baby is removed from the uterus through an incision made in the mother s abdomen The transition from fetus to newborn 0 Birth involves considerable stress for the baby 0 Stress hormones can help o If the delivery takes too long the baby can develop anoxia o Anoxia the fetus or newborn is not given the proper supply of oxygen before during or right after birth 0 The longer the baby go greater risks such as brain damage cognitive and physical impairment and etc o Apgar scale Widely used to assess the health of newborn at one and ve minutes after birth 0 Evaluates infants heart rate respiratory effort muscle tone body color and re ex irritability 0 Score between 13 0 Score between 46 baby needs some type of assistance oxygen heart might not be beating right 0 Score between 710 baby is in good condition Low birth weight and preterm infants 0 Conditions that pose threats to many newborns Low birth weight infants Any baby under 5 pounds at birth Very low birth weight is 3 pounds and under Extremely low birth weight 2 pounds or less Low birth rate have higher disease or death rate Born 3 weeks or more before birth date Pre term infants Small for date infants Pregnancy could of gone wrong mom sick or malnutrition OOOO The amount of time determined by how long in the womb 0 Incidence and cause of low birth weight varies considerably from one country to another Smoking poor health no proceeding help or care when needed 0 Consequences of low birth weight more health and developmental problems than normal birth weight infants 0 Learning disability 0 Attention de cit hyperactivity disorder 0 Breathing problems such as asthma o Nurturing includes 0 Kangaroo care more often seen where there were lack of hospitality and high poverty they swaddle the baby between the women s chest or mans It has been successful to putting weight on the babies and raising the temperature Babies that get this care gain weight faster eat and sleep better and they recover more quickly than babies who don t have this intervention 0 Massage therapy Bonding o The formation of a connection especially a physical bond between parents and the newborn in the period shortly after birth The postpartum Period 0 The period after childbirth or delivery that lasts for about six weeks 0 Or until the mothers body has completed its adjustment and has returned to a nearly prepregnant stat 0 Physical adjustments 0 Emotional and psychological adjustments Chapter 3 Height and Weight 0 The average American newborn is 20 inches long and weighs 7 pounds 0 Most of the newborns are 18 to 22 inches long and weigh between 5 and 10 pounds 0 Grow about 1 inch per month during the rst year 0 By 2 years of age 0 Infants weigh approximately 26 to 32 pounds 0 Average 32 to 35 inches in height Human brain 0 Contains tens of billions of nerve cells at birth 0 Shaken baby syndrome brain swelling and hemorrhaging o Shaking of babyparent looses it in a way The Brain 0 Brains development 0 Mapping the brain Brain has two halves Lateralization specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other 0 Speech and grammar housed in the left hemisphere of the brain 0 Ability to understand metaphors and humor housed in the right hemisphere of the brain 0 Left side where positive emotion is generated 0 Right side responsible for negative emotion 0 Early experience and the brain 0 Children in deprived environment may have depressed brain activity 0 Brain demonstrates both exibility and resilience Take notes from PowerPoint of September 18th The brain 0 Early experience and the brain 0 Children in deprived environment may have depressed brain activity 0 Brain demonstrates both exibility and resilience 0 Language skills tend to be easier to recover then spatial skills Music therapy is used for people with brain damage works well it makes learning easier and progression quicker Sleep 0 Typical newborn sleeps 1617 hours a day 0 Parents biggest complain is night time waking infant sleep related problem Babies wake a lot in the night when hungry While adults are more effected by melatonin levels 0 REM sleep rapid eye movement sleep Newborns spend half their time in this Helps with brain stimulation With the eyes moving rapidly it helps develop eye muscle and strengthens their eyes 0 Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS Occurs when an infant stops breathing usually at night 0 Greatest in the rst 12 months of life o It is sudden can not pin point a reason 0 Common characteristic who died of this at birth had poor Apgar scales includes muscle tone issue heart rate 0 Babies have weak re exes at birth ability to move around and get a item off of us 0 Low birth rate babies at higher risks Prenatally babies of smoking parents are at heighten risks as well as babies who live with smokers having someone living in the home that smokes 00 Nutrition 0 Breast versus bottle feeding 0 Breast feeding is better 0 Bene ts of breast feeding outcomes for the child Gain weight at a more appropriate rateduring infancy Have fewer gasteruall or testerial infections Fewer respiratory tract infections colds etc Lower risk of childhood obesity Does not effect intelligence with using one over the other no cognitive factors towards this Nutritional needs 0 Are individual among infants Babies have around same nutrition goal like older adu s Adequate early nutrition is an important aspect of healthy development Giving babies table food increases likelihood of allergies you have to careful and aware of allergy reaction Giving babies food that do not have good nutrition value increase obesity at early age McDonalds or pops for example Motor development 0 Infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting o Perception and action are coupled together 0 Perceive and environmental support 0 Motor skill is developed by 0 Development of the nervous system signals have to be going to carrying out skill o Body s physical properties and its possibilities for movement 910 months of age fat is peaked cannot carry own weight on own 0 Goal the child is motivated to reach Present something to the kid to get them motivated to walk to a certain distance 0 Environmental support for the skill Physical layout Socially encouraging applause OOOOO Re exes o Built in reactions to stimuli o Govern the newborn s movement 0 Genetically carried survival mechanisms that are automatic and involuntary o In born involuntary and automatic 0 Rooting re ex do not need to know exact for test Gross motor skills 0 lnvolves laremuscle activities 0 Such as moving one s arms and walking o Newborn infants cannot voluntarily control their posture 0 Development in the second year 0 Toddlers become more mobile are motor skills are honed o By 1319 months Toddlers can pull a toy or climb stairs o By 1824 months Toddlers can walk quicklynot falling as often Balance on their feet when standing not tipping back Walk backward and stand and kick a ball not good at it but can do it Fine Motor skills 0 Involve more nely tuned movements 0 Grasping a toy using a spoon buttoning a shirt or anything that requires nger dexterity 0 Infants need to exercise their ne motor skills Pincer grip At rst babies palm things then they are able to 68 months use the pincher grasps like grabbing a blade of grass 0 Reaching and grasping has a profound in uence on babies cognitive skills There are able to touch objects come in contact opens up the door of exploration Object properties Looking for novel ways of interacting with environment Exploring sensory and perceptual development 0 Sensation occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors 0 Eyes ears tongue nostrils and skin 0 Perception interpretation of what is sensed 0 Very important of what babies are capable of doing 0 Studying the infants perception 0 Visual preference method studying whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attend to different stimuli o Habituation and dishabituation o Habituation name given to decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after a repeated presentations of the stimulus 0 Repeated exposure of object to baby causeing them to not have interest in it anymore 0 Dishabituation recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation 0 Repeated exposure to baby causing no interest then later exposure of same object brings that interest back Figure 331 visual acuity during the rst months of life 0 Visual acuity rst picture new born Other senses 0 Vision is the least developed Intermodal perception o Involves integrating information from two or more sensory modalities 0 Vision and hearing 0 Most perception is intermodal Piagets Theory 0 Processes of development 0 Schemes actions or mental representations that organize knowledge Behavior scheme Mental scheme 0 Assimilation using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences 0 Accommodation adjusting schemes to t new information and experiences 0 Sensorimotor stage lasts from birth to about age 2 0 Object permanence understanding the objects and events continue to exist 0 When they cannot directly be seen heard of touched 0 Looking at a baby only a few months old the baby will stare at the object where you put it and hid it wont be able to grasp it September 23 2014 Learning Remembering and Conceptualizing Operant conditioning o If an infants behavior is followed by a rewarding stimulus the behavior is likely to recur 0 Attention o Focusing of mental resources on select information o Habituation and dishabituation closely linked 0 joint attention baby is trying to derive meaning to object directing another attention by tracking and giving a baby feedback on what they are looking at by proving labels 0 Requires Ability to track another s behavior One person s directing another s attention Reciprocal interaction 0 Imitation 0 Example babies will imitate sounds and facial expressions 0 Involves exibility and adaptability o Deferred imitation occurs after a delay of hours or days Babies can imitate something that occurred hours or days previously 0 Memory 0 Involves retention of information over time o Implicit memory without conscious recollection simply and automatic Example babies looking at their mom s face compared to another and being able to identify difference 0 Explicit memory conscious remembering of facts and expedences 0 Childhood amnesia most adults can remember little if anything from the rst 3 years of their life Language Development 0 Language form of communication 0 Spoken written or signed ways of communicating 0 Based on a system of symbolsdepending on the language we speak 0 Consists of the words used by a community and the rules for varying and combining them 0 In nite generativity ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using 0 Finite set of words and rules How language develons Babbling and gestures 1 Crying birth to 2 months 2 Cooing 24 months of life strings of vowels 3 Babbling 6 months of age put continents and nouns together example mom or dad 4 Showing and pointing 8 12 months what they are interested in and what they need waving hi and bye Recognizing language sounds 0 Through experience and exposure 0 Babies understand a lot about language development prior to saying the words actual production How language Develops First words 0 Infancy receptive vocabulary considerable exceeds spoken vocabulary First words are usually categories of people familiar animals dogcat things that have motion cartruck toys they commonly interact with ball body parts eye along with common greetings bye hi Receptive vocabulary words the child understands what they understand is way ahead of spoken and vocabulary spurt Spoken vocabulary words the child uses Vocabulary spurt usually occurs around 18 months explosions of words that the baby produces They start using new words on a daily basis 0 By the age of 2 their vocabulary library is at 200 words 0 In order to produce them must understand 0 By age 6 vocabulary library is at 6000 words How language develops Two word utterances 0 To convey meaning child relies on o Gesture tone and context Telegraphic speech use of short and precise words without grammatical markers 0 Articles auxiliary verbs and other connectives Biological in uences Regions involved in language 0 Broca s area in the brain s left frontal lobe that is involved in speech production 0 Wernicke s area in the brains left hemisphere that is involved in language comprehension understanding the language Set up biologically to be able to understand and produce language 0 Language acquisition device LAD Chomsky s term that describes a biological endowment enabling the child to o Detect the features and rules of language including phonology syntax and semantics Environmental in uences Behaviorist view of language learning has several problems 0 Does not explain how people create novel sentences 0 Children learn the syntax of their native language even if they are not reinforced for doing so 0 Child will create novel sentences things that they have not heard before using basic categorization of language Vocabulary development is linked to o Family s socioeconomic status Looking at parents in poverty working all the time and being unavailable or lower educational levels in which they don t know the values of reinforcing language with the child Risk factors quot Children in poverty were read to 22 hours Children not in poverty read to 2500 hours 0 Type of talk that parents direct to their children 0 Commands less back and forth dialogue 0 Questions uses more language and developed vocabulary Child directed speech language spoken in a higher pitch than normal using simple words and sentences 0 Adults use when they are talking to babies 0 Three strategies to enhance child s acquisition of language 0 Recasting you say the sentence back to the child to clarify the correct way 0 Expanding add words and give the child more information ex red ballgt BIG red ball 0 Labeling telling the baby what each of the things they are looking at are Emotional development 0 Emotion feeling or affect that occurs when a person is in a state of interaction that is important to him or her 0 Biological and environmental in uences 0 Certain brain regions play a role in emotions o Emotionlinked interchanges Provide the foundation for the infantsdeveloping attachment to the parent 0 Social relationships Provide the setting for the development of a rich variety of emotions 0 Relationship and culture provide diversity in emotional expedences What types of emotions that are valued in one culture may be different in another persons culture 0 Emotional expression and social relationships 0 Crying o Smiling 0 Fear Stranger anxiety fear and wariness of strangers Separation protest distressed crying when caregiver leaves 0 Social referencing quotReadingquot emotional cues in other to determine how to act in a particular situation 0 Emotional regulation and coping o Caregivers actions and contexts can in uence emotional regulation 0 Soothing a crying infant helps infants develop a sense of trust and secure attachment to the caregiver Temperament 0 Individual differences in behavioral styles emotions and characteristic ways of responding o Describing and classifying temperament Chess and Thomas classi cation Easy child eat and sleep on predictable schedules happy baby and go with the ow adapt to new things Difficult child respond intensively and negatively to most situations always angry cries and fusses a lot not regular eating schedule up and down routines slow to accepting new changes Slowtowarmupchild Emotional and personality development 0 Biological foundations and experience 0 Biological in uences 0 Gender culture and temperament Parents may react differently to an infants temperament attitude and behaviors o Goodness of t Match between a child s temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with 0 Strategies for temperament sensitive parenting 0 Attention to and respect for individuality o Structuring the child s environment 0 Avoid applying negative labels to the child Personality Development 0 Trust 0 Developing sense of self 0 Independence o Autonomy verses shame and doubt Attachment 0 Attachment close emotional bond between two people 0 Freud infants become attached to the person that provides oral satisfaction where they receive their food from 0 Ha rlow contact comfort preferred over food o Erikson trust arises from physical comfort and sensitive care Individual differences in attachment 0 Strange situation observational measure of infant attachment 0 Requires the infant to move through a series of o Introductions 0 Separations o Reunions with caregiver and an adult stranger in a prescribed order 0 Securely attached baby explore and make sure it is okay with mom looking at mom and when a stranger comes in they make sure to know where mom is once mom leaves the room the baby cries but is comforted as soon as mom walks back and picks them up 0 Insecure avoidant babies treat stranger and mom the same they are doing their own thing when mom leaves they are not distressed doesn t need a lot of comforting o Insecure resistant babies clingy as soon as they are born they hang on to mom when a stranger comes in they are crawling over mom can be irritable when mom leaves bawls and cries when mom comes back they need time to feel comfort they will push away until mom comforts them these babies are a mess o Insecure disorganized babies see in babies that have been abused or traumatized show strange behaviors may do repetitive types of things sit in weird postures not exploring or using mom as secure base they look disorganize and out of it when mom leaves they seem disoriented Caregiving Styles and Attachment 0 Maternal sensitivity linked to secure attachment Caregivers of insecurely attached infants tend to be 0 Rejecting o Inconsistent o Abusive Child Care 0 Parental leave 0 Variations in child care 0 Factors that in uence the Child Care effects are Age of the child Type of child care Quality of the program 0 Strategies parents can follow 0 Recognize that the quality of your parenting is a key factor in your child s development 0 Make decisions that will improve the likelihood that you will be good parents 0 Monitor your child s development 0 Take some time to nd the best child care Chapter 5 amp6 Body growth and change 0 Height and weight 0 Average growth 0 Growth patterns vary individually 0 Important contributors to height differences Ethnic origin Nutrition The brain 0 Does not grow as rapidly during early childhood as infancy o Undergoes remarkable changes 0 From 3 to 6 years of age 0 Rapid distinct spurts of growth in the frontal lobes o Myelination process through which axons are converged with a layer of fat cells Nutrition and exercise Overweight young children 0 Serious health problems in early childhood 0 Strongly in uenced by caregivers behavior 0 Determined by body mass index US has second highest rate of childhood obesity 0 Exercise 0 Young children should engage in physical activity every day Illness and Death 0 The United States 0 Leading causes of death in US children are Motor vehicle accidents Cancer Cardiovascular disease 0 Parental smoking a major damage 0 Children living with smokers affecting immune system Piaget s Preoperational Stage Preoperational stage second stage 27 years old 0 Child represent the world with images and drawing 0 Operations reversible mental actions 0 Allow children to mentally gure things out of their own Sub stages of Preoperational Thought Symbolic function sub stage Occurs roughly between the ages of 2 and 4 0 Limitations Egocentrism can not take another persons perspective Animism children give life like qualities to inanimate objects Vygotsky s Theory 0 Social constructivist approach emphasizes 0 Social contexts of learning 0 Construction of knowledge through social interaction 0 Zone of proximal development ZPD Range of tasks that are too difficult for the child alone but can be learned with guidance Scaffolding changing the level of support 0 Language and thought 0 Children use speech to communicate socially and to help them solve tasks 0 Private speech use of language for selfregulation Information Processing 0 Attention focusing of mental resources on select information 0 Executive attention Action planning Allocation attention to goals Error detection and compensation Monitoring progress on tasks Dealing with difficult circumstances Sustained attention focused and extended engagement with 0 Object task event or other aspect of the environment 0 Memory retention of information over time o Shortterm individuals can retain information up to 30 seconds with no rehearsal Theory of mind Awareness of one s own mental process and the mental processes of others 0 Ages 23 children begin to understand the following three mental states Perceptions Emotions Desires Early childhood education 0 Childcentered kindergarten education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical cognitive and socioemotional development 0 Developmentally appropriate education 0 Developmentally appropriate practice DAP Typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child 0 Education for young children who are disadvantaged 0 Project head start compensatory program designed to provide children from lowincome families Opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for success in school 0 Controversies in early childhood education Controversy over curriculum Universal preschool education The self 0 Initiative versus guilt 0 Children use their perceptual motor cognitive understandings and language skills to make things happen Have a great deal of energy for learning 0 On their own initiative then children at this stage exuberantly move out into a wider social word The great governor of initiative is conscience 0 Initiative and enthusiasm may bring guilt which lowers selfesteem o Selfunderstanding and understanding others 0 Increased awareness re ects young children s expanding psychological sophistication o Selfunderstanding substance and content of self conceonns 0 Physical activities are central component of the self in early cthhood o Unrealistically positive self descriptions Reason gives them a sense of purpose 0 Understanding others 0 Children start perceiving others in terms of psychological traits Saying quotI like here she is nice or mom I don t like himquot 0 Children begin to develop an understanding for joint commitments 0 Young children are not as egocentric as depicted in Piaget s theory 0 Parenting 0 Baumrind s parenting styles 0 Authoritarian parenting Restrictive punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and respect their work and effort Expect child to follow their rules and directionsgt expect child to not need expectations for things going to bed at a certain time very directive parents Children are 0 Higher rates of mental health problems stress anxiety and depression 0 Can be aggressive with peers because household is so strict Do not do well in school poor selfesteem don t usually work hard 0 Authoritative parenting encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their acUons Will explain to the child reason for something Make desiscons for child based off developmental level Reasoning and warmth with these parents Children are 0 Well adjusted do well in school work hard and are not easily discouraged by failure 0 Neglectful parenting parent is uninvolved in the child s life Not involvedgt up to dategt interested in what is going on with their children 0 Don t ask about child in school 0 Sometimes don t know where their child is when not home 0 Child are higher involved 0 ln delinquency 0 Poor school records dropping out o o lndulgent Parenting parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them Car crash example buying a new car after totaling it Often have immature irresponsible children Poor studentsgetting in trouble 0 Parents are always making excuses for each problem 0 Child have high risk of living with parents till 30 Parenting 0 Parenting styles in context 0 Authoritative parenting conveys the most bene ts to the child and to the family as a whole 0 Punishment 0 Corporal punishment is linked to lower levels of moral internalization and mental health 0 Handle misbehavior by reasoning with the child especially explaining the consequences of the child s actions for others 0 Kids who are frequently punished have higher levels of anxiety depression and more 0 There are more ethnic differences in corporal punishment Child Maltreatment 0 Types of child maltreatment 0 Physical abuse 0 Child neglect 0 Sexual abuse 0 Emotional abuse 0 Context of abuse 0 About 13 of parents who were abused themselves when they were young go on to abuse their own children 0 Child abuse more fathers than mothers 0 Child neglect more mothers than fathers Gender differences 0 Outcomes associated with this Sexually abused can overcome with intervention therapy and be treated to have a normal life after o If severely abusedsexually or physically can effect central nervous system how they react to actions 0 Can do long term damage if not intervened When they are adults can involve in substance abuse START OF NEW MATERIAL FOR EXAM 2 Chapter 7 Middle Late Childhood The Scope of Disabilities 0 Attention de cit hyperactivity disorder ADHD Characterized by inattention hyperactivity and impulsivity 0 Number of children diagnosed has increased 0 Possible causes Genetics Brain damage during prenatal or postnatal development Cigarette and alcohol exposure during prenatal development Low birth weight o If you have a parent or sibling that has it results in a higher increase to having it genetics Educational Issues 0 Individualized education planEP written statement that is speci cally tailored for the disabled student Body Growth and Change 0 Growth averages 23 inches per year 0 Weight gain averages 57 pounds a year 0 Muscle mass and strength increase as quotbaby fatquot decreases The Brain 0 Brain volume stabilizes Signi cant changes in structures and regions occur especially in the prefrontal cortex 0 Involves attention memory problem solving and planning 0 Activation of some brain areas increase while others decrease Exercise 0 Higher level of physical activity is linked to 0 Lower level of metabolic disease risk based on measures Cholesterol waist circumference and insulin levels Health Illness and Disease 0 Middle and late childhood is a time of excellent health 0 Disease and death are less prevalent 0 Many face health problems that harm their development Overweight children 0 Causes of children being overweight Heredity and environmental contexts 0 Consequences of being overweight Diabetes hypertension and elevated blood cholesterol levels 0 Intervention programs healthy eating education exposure to healthy foods family based intervention 0 Cancer 0 Second leading cause of death in children 514 years old Most common child cancer is leukemia Children with cancer are surviving longer because of advancements in cancer treatment 0 The scope of Disabilities 0 Learning disability difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language and the difficulty can appear in listening thinking reading writing and spelling Dyslexia reading disability broad can switch letters like b and d or slow at reading and pronouncing the correct words Dysgraphia writing skills written language skill disability Dyscalculia math learning disability it can be basic math facts or applying them October 12th 2015 Emerging Trends in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosis and Treatment What is an Autism Spectrum Disorder 0 A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized in varying degrees by dif culties in social interaction verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors Causes 0 No link to vaccinations supported in research original study has been found to be fraudulent Parents have noticed abnormalities near the time of vaccinations so they tend to gear towards it being from that 0 Recent research did nd a sensitivity to gluten but no relationship with Celiac disease 0 Abnormalities in brain development quotNeuroatypicalquot Brain scans have shown differences and structure 0 Genetics odds increase if a parent or sibling have ASD Closer in the family with someone who has autism the higher the risk to having someone else get it quotNeuroatypicalityquot Differences in the way the world is perceived and understood Rhett syndrome type of autism spectrum disorder in which mostly girls are diagnosed 68 months of age most children die early in childhood effects only girls most of the time Core features 0 Joint attention Tries to get someone else attention to get the attention on a speci c object for example pointing at a TV screen Children with autism tend to lack this 0 Theory of mind Other people have thoughts and beliefs that can be different than our very own people are motivated by beliefs and desires children with autism are unable to relate to other perspectives 0 Cognitive rigidity A child with autism will get angry and freak out over changing in schedule change in route you take to school etc o Singularfocus They seem like they are obsessed with a speci c topic toy DSM V Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder A Persistent de cits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts as manifested by the following currently or by history a De cits in socialemotional reciprocity ranging for example from abnormal social approach and failure of normal backandforth conversation to reduced sharing of interests emotions or affect to failure to initiate or respond to social interactions b De cits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction c De cits in developing maintaining and understanding relationships ranging for example from dif culties adjusting behavior to suit various social contexts to dif culties in sharing imaginative paly or in making friends to absence of interest in peers B Restricted repetitive patterns of behavior interests or activities as manifested by at least two of the following currently or by history examples are illustrative not exhaustive see TEXT a Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements b lnsistence on sameness in exible adherence to routines or ritualized patterns or verbal nonverbal behavior eg extreme distress at small changes dif culties with transitions rigid thinking patterns greeting rituals need to take same route or eat food everyday Educational lssues October 14th Notes Individualized Education Plan IEP 0 Before 1970 s children with learning disability separated from everyone else 0 Children have to be educated in the same env as their non disabled peers 0 Child in class room with an aid for example 0 Taken out of the classroom with whatever he is struggling with and then returns heshe to classroom 0 Want the kid in general ed in the most they can be 0 In General education classroom all day with aid or whatever help they need Least Restrictive Environment LRE Inclusion Piaget s Cognitive Developmental Theory Concrete operational stage Ages 7 to 11 Children can perform concrete operations and reason logically and are able to classify things into different sets Do not need visual supports they do not get caught up in perception on one object Seriationability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension 0 Example say you have 8 popsicle sticks with different lengths children picks one randomly and can put the sticks from largest to smallest or smallest to largest become to be able to order things Transitivity ability to be logical in combined relationships to understand certain conclusions 0 More complicated for example have 3 sticks with differencing lengths a largest all the way to c to be the smallest A is bigger than B B is bigger than C as well as A is bigger than C See this idea Evaluating Piaget s concrete operational stage 0 Concrete operational abilities do not appear in synchrony 0 Education and culture exert strong in uences on children s development o If no one has taught you to think logically this skill cant be just sprung up on your own they require practice and need reoccurring references to them to understand NeoPiagetians argue that Piaget got some things right but his theory needs considerable revision 0 Elaborated on Piaget s theory giving more emphasis to How children use attention memory and strategies to process information 0 Some children nd issues with how to approach a problem math such as order of operations what strategies are needed so they make errors 0 Training and practicing with them is a way to help them solve problems 0 Longterm memory A relatively permanent and unlimited type of memory 0 Increases with age during middle and late childhood 0 Knowledge and expertise Experts have acquired knowledge about a particular content area 0 Long term memory stays retained for longer kids can bring up memories Information Processing 0 Strategies Deliberate mental activities that improve the processing of information o Elaboration extensive processing of the information Try to relate information to their own lives 0 Engage in mental imagery Have a mental image of what you are trying to memorize 0 Understanding the material 0 Repeat with variation 0 Embed memoryrelevant language 0 Fuzzy trace theory Considering two types of memory representations 0 Verbatim memory trace memorize every single detail 0 Gist able to recall important aspects of what you learn without knowing every single detail you have the general gist of the information 0 Thinking o Involves manipulating and transforming information in memory 0 Creative thinking Ability to think In novel and unusual ways 0 Come up with unique solutions to problems 0 Convergent thinking produces one correct answer Kind of thinking tested by standardized intelligence No room for different answers 0 Divergent thinking produces many answers to the same queonn Creativity Intelligence 0 Ability to solve problems and to adapt and learn form expedences Individual differences stable consistent ways in which people differ from each other 0 Binet tests Mental age MA individuals level of mental development relative to others The normal Curve and Stanford Binet IQ Scores IQ stabilizes at 7 years old most predictable of your score 1 in 50 people have a iq higher than 130 l in 50 people have an iq less than 75
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