Chapter 18- Heart Anatomy
Chapter 18- Heart Anatomy KNR 182
Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology II (lecture)
Popular in Kinesiology
verified elite notetaker
This 58 page Bundle was uploaded by Christina on Friday October 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to KNR 182 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Rinaldi-MIles in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II (lecture) in Kinesiology at Illinois State University.
Reviews for Chapter 18- Heart Anatomy
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/16/15
IC gtZ gtZgtOltlt W uIltmOIO lt XZE 5N 0222 Am Imm gt3m83lt Structure of the Heart The heart is a hollow four chambered muscular organ weighing approximately one pound It is estimated that the heart contracts some 42 million times and ejects 700000 gallons of blood each year Equivalent to 2000 gallons per day or about 56 liters per minute 132 gallonsmin Structure of the Heart Loca on In the mediastinum between second rib and fifth intercostal space On the superior surface of diaphragm Twothirds to the left of the midsternal line Anterior to the vertebral column posterior to the sternum Midstemal line 2nd rib Diaphragm Stemum Point of maximal intensity PMI Figure 181a Aorta Supe or vena cava Pulmonary trunk Diaphragm C Parietal pleura cut A Left lung Pericardium cut Apex of heart Figure 1810 Structure of the Heart Anatomy of the Heart Approximately the size of a closed fist The adult heart has the shape of a blunt oone The blunt rounded point of the cone is called the apex and the larger flat portion at the opposite end of the cone is called the base Bracnlocephallc artery Superior vena cava nght pulmonary artery Asoencing aorta Pulmonary trunk Right pulmonary veins nght atrttm Right coronary New In light autoventncular groove Antertor cardlac vein ngm ventrlcle Marglnal artery Small cardiac vein lnterlor vena cava b Copyright 2001 Benjamin Cummings an luprlnt ot Addlson Wesley Longman lnc Lett oommon carotld artery Lett subclavlan artery Aortrc arch ngamenturn artertosum Let pulmonary artery Lett pulmonary veins Lett atrtum Auricle Clrcumltex an Lott coronary artery In lett atrloventrlcrlar groove Lett ventrtcle Great cardiac vein Anterior Interventncutar artery h antertor r sulcus Apex Aona Lei pulmonary atter Let mimonaty veins Audclo Lott 1le Great We vein Posterior vein oileft venlride Len vent cle Apex 0 Copyright 02001 Benjamin Cummings an Inp nt o Addison Westey Longman Inc Swodor vena cava Right Manatyanery Right pulmonaty veins Right atrium Wetior vena cava Flight coronary anew in m atnoventncuar gmovo Coronary sinus Postenor Intervenma anew i1 possenor intonentdcular sums Middle catdlac vein Rightvommlo Structure of the Heart Pericardium The heart is enclosed and protected by a loosefitting sac with dense fibrous connective tissue called the parietal pericardium fibrous and serous layers The area between the heart and the parietal pericardium is called the pericardial cavity which contains a watery lubricating fluid called the pericardial fluid Copy wczom Benjamin Cm ngs an WMAddisonWeelay Longman Inc Pericardium Superficial fibrous pericardium Protects anchors and prevents overfilling Parietal lines the cavity Visceral lines the organ Fluid is a very slippery thing that reduces friction When the heart beats the last thing we want is friction When friction builds up we get heat which causes problems Fibrous pericardium Parietal layer of serous pericardium Pericardial cavity Epicardium visceral layer of sercus ericardium yccardium Endccardium Hea wall Heart chamber Figure 182 Pericardium Deep twolayered serous pericardium Parietal layer lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium Visceral layer epicardium on external surface of the head Separated by fluidfilled pericardial cavity decreases friction Outer balloon wall comparable to parietal serosa Air comparable to serous fluid Inner balloon wall comparable to visceral serosa a Copyrlmt 2001 Benjamin Cummlngs an imprint ol Addlson Wesley Longman lnc Hean b Copynml 02001 Beniariln Cummings an imprint oi Addison Wesley Longman Inc J I Parietal pericardium Pericardial space containing serous fluid Visceral pericardium Flemember from Chapter One Serous Membrane Serosa Thin doublelayered membrane separated by serous fluid Parietal serosa lines internal body walls Visceral serosa covers the internal organs Structure of the Heart Heart Wall three distinct tissue layers comprise the heart wall 1 epicardium outermost layer visceral layer of the serous membrane 2 myocardium thick middle layer Arguably the most important layer of the heart Spiral bundles of cardiac muscle cells Fibrous skeleton of the heart anchors cardiac muscle fibers supports great vessels spiral bundles very purposeful in how they are set up formed Spiral set up twisting contraction9 allowing blood to work against gravity pushing blood up and out of heart 3 endocardium innermost continuous with endothelial lining of blood vessels Lining is smooth to prevent friction Layers of the Heart Wall 1 Epicardium visceral layer of the serous pericardium Fibrous pericardium Parietal layer of serous pericardium Pericardial cavity Epicardium visceral layer of sercus ericardium yccardium Endccardium Hea wall Heart chamber Figure 182 Layers of the Heart Wall 2 Myocardium Spiral bundles of cardiac muscle cells Fibrous skeleton of the heart crisscrossing interlacing layer of connective tissue Anchors cardiac muscle fibers Supports great vessels and valves Limits spread of action potentials to specific paths I x 7 Cardiac 7 muscle bundles l39 7 74 Figure 183 Right ventricle Muscular interventricular septum Copyrita 2001 Benjamin Warnings an Imprint o Addison Wesley Longnan Inc Left ventricle Layers of the Heart Wall 3 Endocardium is continuous with endothelial lining of blood vessels Fibrous pericardium Parietal layer of serous pericardium Pericardial cavity Epicardium visceral layer of sercus ericardium yccardium Endccardium Hea wall Heart chamber Figure 182 Aorta Left pulmonary artery Left atrlum Left pulmonary Superior vena oava Right pulmonary artery Pulmonary trunk 39 x veins Right atrium m 39 x t i Mitral blouspld Right pulmonary 39 valve veins 1 g r t Fossa ovalis Peotinate muscles Triouspid valve Right ventricle Aortic valve Pulmonary valve Left ventricle Papillary musole y Chordae tendineae v Interventrioular septum Trabeoulae oarneae f 1 f t Epicardium lnferiorvena oava 39 xn 1 Myocardium V N Endooardium w W M i e Frontal section a Figure 184e Right Heart Atrial Septum Top Chambers Atria Bottom Chambers Ventricles Left Heart Right Left Ventricle Ventrice Ventricular Septum Chambers Four chambers Two atria Separated internally by the interatrial septum Coronary sulcus atrioventricular groove encircles the junction of the atria and ventricles Auricles increase atrial volume Chambers Two ventricles Separated by the interventrioular septum Anterior and posterior interventrioular suloi mark the position of the septum externally Left common carotid artery Left subclavran artery Aortic arch Ligamentum arteriosum Brachiocephalic trunk Superior vena cava Right pulmonary artery Ascending aorta Pulmonary trunk Left pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins Auricle of left atrium Right pulmonary veins Circumflex artery Right atrium Left coronary artery Right coronary artery in coronary sulcus in coronary sulcus Anterior cardiac vein Right ventricle Left ventricle Great cardiac vein Anterior interventricular artery in anterior interventricular sulcus Right marginal artery Small cardiac vein Inferior vena cava b Anterior View Apex Figure 184b Atria The Receiving Chambers Walls are ridged by pectinate muscles Vessels entering right atrium Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Coronary sinus Blood that is going to the right side superior venocava is draining deoxygenated blood from the coronary sinus Vessels entering left atrium Right and left pulmonary veins Receiving chambers Blood that is draining back to the heart is received in the 2 atria Atria are separated by the interatrial septum Both atriums are separated from the ventricles by the coronary sulcus Ventricles The Discharging Chambers 2 ventricles Separated by intravascular septum Walls are ridged by trabeculae carneae Papillary muscles project into the ventricular cavities Vessel leaving the right ventricle Pulmonary trunk Vessel leaving the left ventricle Aorta Aorta Left pulmonary artery Left atrlum Left pulmonary Superior vena oava Right pulmonary artery Pulmonary trunk 39 x veins Right atrium m 39 x t i Mitral blouspld Right pulmonary 39 valve veins 1 g r t Fossa ovalis Peotinate muscles Triouspid valve Right ventricle Aortic valve Pulmonary valve Left ventricle Papillary musole y Chordae tendineae v Interventrioular septum Trabeoulae oarneae f 1 f t Epicardium lnferiorvena oava 39 xn 1 Myocardium V N Endooardium w W M i e Frontal section a Figure 184e Heart Valves Ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart Types of Valves Atrioventrioular Valves AV Semilunar Valves SL Pulmonary semilunar valve Aortic semilunar valve Right Atrium f Left R ht Atrioventricular 399 Valve Atrioventricular 5 b d Valve Icuspl tricuspid night Left m39tra39va39ve Ventricle ventride Right quot Left Semilunar Semi39unar Valve Vave pulmonic aortic semilunar semilunar Heart Valves Atrioventricular AV valves Prevent backflow into the atria when ventricles contract Tricuspid valve right Mitral bicuspid valve left Chordae tendineae anchor AV valve cusps to papillary muscles Only found in AV valves guide wires to keep these valves from flapping all the way up Think of an umbrella The wires help to prevent it from flapping all the way up when it gets windy G Blood returning to the heart fills atria putting Direction of pressure against blood flow atrioventricular valves atrioventricular valves are Atr39um forced 0 en 1 p Cusp of atrioventricular valve open As ventricles fill atrioventricular valve flaps hang limply into ventricles s n N A l i h r Atria contract forcnng 3 C Odae tendineae additional blood into ventricles 1 1 Papillary quot muscle Atrium Ventricles contract forcing b od against atrioventrioular valve cusps Cusps of atrioventricular valve closed trioventricular valves c ose Blood in ventricle apillary muscles contract and chordae tendineae tighten preventing valve flaps from everting into atria b AV valves closed atrial pressure less than ventricular pressure Figure 189 Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Area of cutaway Mitral valve Tricuspid valve V Chordae tendineae Papillary attached to tricuspid valve flap muscle c Figure 1880 Opening of inferior Mitral valve vena cava a Chordae Tricuspid valve 7 quott endlneae Myocardium of right ventricle Myocardium of left ventricle Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Papillary Interventricular Mlltral valve muscles septum Tricuspid d valve Figure 188d Heart Valves Semilunar SL valves Prevent backflcw into the ventricles when ventricles relax Aortic semilunar valve Pulmonary semilunar valve Valves at the base of the ventricles Aorta Pulmonary trunk As ventricles contract and intraventricular pressure rises blood is pushed up against semilunar valves forcing them open a Semilunar valves open As ventricles relax and intraventricular pressure falls blood flows back from arteries filling the cusps of semilunar valves and forcing them to close b Semilunar valves closed Figure 1810 Pulmonary valve Aortic valve 394 Mitral valve Tricuspid valve W Myocardium Tricuspid right atrioventricular valve Mitral left atrioventricular valve AOl th valve Pulmonary valve Flbl OUS skeleton a Anterior Figure 188a Myocardium Tricuspid right atrioventricular valve Mitral left atrioventricular valve Aortic valve Pulmonary valve Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Area of cutaway b Mitral valve w I I Trlcuspld valve Figure 188b Aorta Left pulmonary artery Left atrlum Left pulmonary Superior vena oava Right pulmonary artery Pulmonary trunk 39 x veins Right atrium m 39 x t i Mitral blouspld Right pulmonary 39 valve veins 1 g r t Fossa ovalis Peotinate muscles Triouspid valve Right ventricle Aortic valve Pulmonary valve Left ventricle Papillary musole y Chordae tendineae v Interventrioular septum Trabeoulae oarneae f 1 f t Epicardium lnferiorvena oava 39 xn 1 Myocardium V N Endooardium w W M i e Frontal section a Figure 184e Structure of the Heart Heart blood vessel and circulatory routes Major Blood Vessels Inferior amp Superior Vena Cava Deoxygenated blood from body to the heart R atrium Pulmonary Artery Deoxygenated blood from heart R ventriclePulmonary Trunk to thelungs Pulmonary Vein Oxygenated blood from lungs to heart L atrium Aorta Oxygenated blood from heart L ventricle to rest of body Superior PU39monarY Pmmonary Asiansing Vena Cava Vem Artery or a Descending Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Inferior Vena Cava Left Pulmonary Vein Right Left Pantonary Ventric39e Ventricle Aorta Arteries carry blood away from the heart Aorta Pulmonary Arteries Takes deoxygenated blood to the pulmonary circuit to be oxygenated Coronary Arteries Veins carry blood towards the heart Superior Vena Cava Inferior Vena Cava Coronary Sinus Pulmonary Veins Takes oxygenated blood back to the heart to be ejected to the rest of the body Superior vena cava Left pulmonary artery Right pulmonary artery Pulmonary trunk Left pulmonary veins Right pulmonary veins Left auricle Left coronary artery Right auricle Great cardiac vein Anterior interventricular artery R39ght coronary left anterior descending artery artery Anterior cardiac vein I Left ventricle Small cardiac vein Inferior vena cava Apex of the heart Superior vena cava Aorta Right pulmonary artery Left pulmonary artery 39 Left pulmonary veins quot Right pulmonary veins Left auricle Circumflex artery l e 4 Left atrium Cardiac vein I Right atrium Inferior vena cava Coronary sinus Middle cardiac vein Left ventricle Posterior interventricular artery Right ventricle b Apex of the heart Assignment 7 Will be posted on our course site following class today Can be found in the Assignments tab under Unit IV Please use the Discussion Boards for questions Assignment is due on Sunday October 21St at 10pm Pathway of Blood Through the Heart The heart is two sidebyside pumps Both sides of the heart pump at the same time Right side is the pump for the pulmonary circuit Vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs Left side is the pump for the systemic circuit Vessels that carry the blood to and from all body tissues o YouTube How The Heart Works Both sides are pumping at the same time Capillary beds of lungs where gas exchange occurs Pulmonary Circuit Pulmonary veins Pulmonary arteries Aorta and branches Venae cavae Left atrium Left ventricle Right atrium R39 h 39 Ig tventrIce Systemic Capillary beds of all body tissues where gas exchange occurs I Oxygenrich COZpoor blood I Oxygenpoor COZrich blood Figure 185 Pathway of Blood Through the Heart Right atrium 9 triouspid valve 9 right ventricle Right ventricle 9 pulmonary semilunar valve 9 pulmonary trunk 9 pulmonary arteries 9 lungs both sides are pumping and moving blood Ventricle 39 Pathway of Blood Through the Heart Lungs 9 pulmonary veins 9 left atrium Left atrium 9 biouspid valve 9 left ventricle Left ventriole 9 aortio semilunar valve 9 aorta Aorta 9 systemic Circulation Ventricle 39 Blood from systemic circuit Jr Venae cavae and coronary sinus Jr Right atrium Tricuspid valve 4 Right ventricle Pulmonary valve 4 Pulmonary trunk 4 Pulmonary arteries 4 Alveolar capillaries lungs 4 Pulmonary veins 4 Left atrium Mitral valve Left ventricle Aortic valve 54 Blood to systemic circuit Pathway of Blood Through the Heart Equal volumes of blood are pumped to the pulmonary and systemic circuits Pulmonary circuit is a short lowpressure circulation Heart to the lungs doesn t have to travel very far Systemic circuit blood encounters much resistance in the long pathways Myocardium in the left ventricle is much thicker than that of the right ventriclethink about it9 it has to pump blood a lot further Anatomy of the ventricles reflects these differences Heart valves and the path of blood through the Heart Heart Valves ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart VideoYouTube Cardiac Cvcle Heart Pump Cuparisea Pump Chambers Left Pump Chabers right atrium right Veatriele left atrium le Pump Valves Left Pump Valves right atrievenu ieular valve trieuspid valve right semilunar valve semillmar valve le atrlve trieular valve b ieuspi valve er mitral valve left semilunar valve artie semiluuar valve Pump Bleed Vessels Pump Bleed Vessels Veins inferir superior veua eava Veins right and left ulmw ary vein aerta Pump Cireulatiuu Left Pump Cir eula eu systemic eere nary Heart Pump Cnmparismm Right Pump Btnnd Left Pump Blood deKygenatedfdexyhemeglebim exyg atedfexyh m l bin Pump 1111302 S tllll39r tl l Left Pump HMJOE S l llll39 tl l t0 Body s backup t0 3111 mechanism Pump Resting Cardiac utput Left Pump Rating Cardiac utput t0 6 liters minute ten liters 6139 minute Both sides of the heart pump the same amount of blood
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'