Exam 1 Lectures
Exam 1 Lectures Poli Sci 103
Popular in Intro to International Relations
Popular in Political Science
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations October 6 2015 Lecture Issue 2 Women in Combat Today women make up 15 of US military 0 Increasingly active in forward positions convoy protection policing operations 0 Increasing numbers of of cers are women around 16 of majors through higher ranks Why have women not played a more active role in combat 0 Strength Biology Division of labor Ultimate Gender and Con ict Question Would a state draft women to ght in order to avoid being overrun or destroyed o NO Would women be brought into combat to ght an asymmetric war two very different sides ghting each other ie US vs ISIS 0 Yes Note here is where norms gender and the nature of modern warfare mix Issue 3 Women in Development Women suffer higher costs when development lags o Twice as many women as men are illiterate o 80 of traf cking victims are women 0 72 of refugees are women and children 0 1 in 17 women die in childbirth or pregnancy in the least developed countries Empowering women ahs been shown to be effective at promoting development 0 Ex micro nance and growth pawn shops small loans given to groups studies show women do much bettermake more money 0 Ex growth and hunger food projects directly targeted for women and children do much better than broad projects Equal education has improved development 0 Ex improves birth control and family planning 0 Ex improves returntoinvestment on education 0 Ex lowers corruption Feminism and IR Differing Perspectives in the Field Some put feminist approaches on par with realism liberalism etc Others note gender as key variable to explain IR outcomesissues Professor stresses the second group Review Time Difference bw Liberalism liberal institutionalism liberal nationalism 0 There are other kinds of liberalism besides these two we re just focusing on institutionalism and nationalism for now 0 Liberal Institutionalism lGOs 0 Liberal Nationalism democratic peace Neorealism not covered in lecture don t worry about 0 Looks at polarity how many great powers are there 1 some war 2 no war 3 a lotofwar 0 Structural theory Balancing vs Bandwagoning 0 Say war is breaking out what side do you join 0 Balancing siding with the weaker power to even things out o Bandwagon side with stronger power see who s going to win and join their side and hope they don t run over you Consequences of Vietnam War 0 Tried to weaken president and their ability to go to war changes in power 0 Changes in US public now question why we re in war lnterwar period massive economic disaster after the roaring 205 the GD hits The global depression helps bring socialism to power Nazis in GER Mussolini in ITA JAP militarism increased 0 First responses of states was isolation not cooperation economic blocs currency devaluations Spiral vs Deterrence Model 0 Confronting aggression what s the best move Hit deter or let it go it39s a one time thing for attention 0 Spiral true actor not hostile just acting out but you hit them anyway and they get upset and hit back this can lead to unwanted war 0 Deterrence hostile if you don t hit they get stronger ie Hitler Rationality and political realism 0 Most basic theories assume some basic level of rationality o In general a lot of people behave rationally Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations Tuesday September 4 2015 Whv Studv IR 0 35 years ago 1980 0 Afghanistan 0 Iraq invades Iran bc of the revolution 0 Iran quotour laws will come from god 0 Israel Lebanon Palestinians Palestinians attack Israel Israel invades Lebanon Lebanon tears 0 Cold War heating back up w the Soviet Union Soviet behavior around their border regions 0 Today 0 Same types of problems still there with same countries Terrorism 0 Social media was used to track down terrorism and this worked but now people like ISIS are using it to their advantage as well Trade 0 Give and take with underpaid labor and increase in price China 0 Friendly Foe The next super power in just a matter of time Kev ConceptsTerms States a recognized by UN geographic unit with de ned boarders 193 states in the world 0 Who de nes a state The UN 0 Then there are 0 Nations an identi ed religious cultural linguistic group 0 Nationstates where everyone in the state considers themselves a part of the same nation 0 Nationalism how much a person feels their nation and state are congruent Nations wo state 0 Palentinians Kurds Chechens Zapotoes Ossetians Tatars Rohingyans Hill Tribes 0 Purchasing Power Parity PP Value of all goods and services produced in a given year in a given country NorthSouth Gap Refers to the disparity of income bw the North and South Country 0 Also a disparity in population 0 How 0 Timing of industrialism o Colonialism 0 Institutional development Sovereignty o The right of noninterference o Treaty of Westphalia o Signed 1645 o Ended the 30years War which the power of the Holy Roman Empire 0 Reinforced previous treaties guaranteeing right of religious practice Sovereignty o ldea that states may do as they wish within their own territorial borders 0 NOT a legal right NOR written international law 0 Sovereignty is custom it s a norm o Is sovereignty violated YES By whom o Is it okay to violate sovereignty According to international law in some circumstances Collective security Genocide 0 Who decides UN The strong state Sovereignty w Responsibility 0 Recent movements among Western govs Abuse of power and crimes against humanity strip states of sovereignty Lack of gov control or massive civil wars Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations September 13 2015 Lecture Agenda Finish World War II o Postwar institutions China s Civil War Global Alliances Vietnam War The War 911939 Germany invades Poland 121939 Soviets invade Finland 0 Land grab on Soviet part so they can get more costal area 0 Defeat Finland but barely even though Finland has a very weak army 61940 Fall of France to Germany 0 Set up German leadership throughout France but not in all of it 11941 USGB have developed joint war plans 0 Before this we were sitting on the sidelines but still helping GB on the side 61941 Germany invades Soviet Union 0 Huge surprise 0 Stalin disappears for months nervous breakdown 1271941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 0 This was a huge surprise to America sixth months prior we had been planning a treaty with them 121141 Germany declares war on US 0 The World War began Spiral vs Deterrence Model What is the proper defense policy in the face of a military chaHenge 0 Answer in 1938 peace After all everyone pulled the trigger quottoo soon in 1914 WWI and look what happened Spiral It got out of control and no one really wanted that war Didn t really hate each other that much we just thought we did 0 Answer in 1945 strength Appeasement is the surest way to war Deterrence We worried about the spiral model and got sucker punched If someone hits you you should hit them back 0 Now everyday debate should we worry about China making a base Is this a threat to us Should we act on this or sit back Need to take into account what you think their intentions are Problem unless you can read minds you don t know Aftermath of WWII Devastation of War 0 61 countries took part 0 110 million troops mobilized o 55 million dead 25mil military30mil civilian 1trillion war material USSR loses 30 of GDP Japan 562 billion US 341 billion Germany 5 billion cubic yards of rubble 00000 Would it Happen Again 0 This time we will help Germany rebuild Can a set of rules be instituted that will make sure this never happens again 0 Bretton Woods July 1944 British and Germans meet and ask what caused WWll Hitler But there s more how did he get to power The recession Try to come up with a system to prevent this from happening again 0 United Nations 0 Marshall Plan June 1947 Bretton Woods 0 Architecture of post WWll global economy International Band for Reconstruction and development IBRD world bank 0 Help Germany Controversial today 0 No longer helps Germany but other countries International Monetary Fund 0 Prevents countries from devaluing their currency 0 In exchange for money they demand changes o This can be controversial when they go too far Fixed exchange rates 0 Gold was worth the same amount everywhere 0 Problem value should go up and down General agreement on Trade and Tariffs GA39IT Today WTO world trade association 0 MFN most favored nation 0 Can t play favorites with your tariffs 0 Tariff is the same across the board 0 The UN 0 Hope a league of nations with teeth 0 Institutions General assembly quotparliament of manquot 0 One country one vote Security Council enforcement arm for peace 0 Could decide when to swoop in and stop things 0 The Veto System 0 Take the 5 winners of WWII and give them permanent veto powers where at any point they can stop what s happening in the security council Reality squabbling between US and USSR paralyzed much of the UN system from its inception to the end of the Cold War System has a lot of power in theory but little in practice 0 Marshall Plan 0 People were turning to communism and are spurred by Soviet Union quotyour lives are horrible where s the US You should turn to SUquot American realizes what s happening We need to give them money June 1947 124 billion for Europe to help rebuild and start growth About 100 billion in current dollars Attempt to spur economic growth and development Reaction to poor economic conditions Reaction to SovietCommunist electoral strategies Condition to receive the money Europe must attempt to integrate itself economically Plan works within three years you re getting major economic growth in Europe unemployment is down in ation is down etc China s Civil War 19451949 KMT Kuomintang held power through alliance with economic elite business elite Soviets enter Paci c theatre very late but as a condition gained rights to disarm the Japanese northern China Chinese industry is carted back to Soviet Union Japanese weapons given to Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong Send Marshall again and he offers the same thing but this time comes back and tells Congress not to waste the money nothing good will come of it 0 Congress did it anyways and all the money was wasted US does not normalize relations until 1973 Global Alliances Before WWII we didn t have any alliances bc you risk being dragged into a war you don t want due to your alliances But having alliances during WWII was really nice NATO still with us today 0 Has expanded 0 Has become about democracy and military promotion USJapan USSouth Korea Warsaw Pact ChinaRussia Nonaligned movement Vietnam March 1954 Dien Bien Phu 0 French lose to Indochina 0 Geneva convention calls for elections 1955 Eisenhower supports coup 0 why If you lose Vietnam then you lose a lot of surrounding land 1959 First US combat troops October 1961 JFK s two reports what should I do 0 TaylorRostow amp BowlesHarriman 0 TR says double down 0 BH says get the hell out Now 0 Kennedy chooses TR 1111963 Ngo Den Diem assassinated leader of Vietnam 0 Kennedy has the chance to do something But a week and a half later he was assassinated August 1964 Gulf of Tonkin o Couple American ships attack in South Vietnamese waters 0 Johnson new pres goes to Congress and says we have to double down and get serious about this They agree 0 Summer 1969 US troop levels maximum well over half a million US troops are in Vietnam 0 197073 Nixon begins withdrawal yet widens war Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations September 13 2015 Lecture Agenda 0 Vietnam PostCold War 0 Political Realism o Anarchy 0 Making agreements o Rationality o Deterrence Challenges to Realism Fallout From Vietnam 0 Shift to D tente 0 IR used to be all about ghting and war 0 IR in 19705 eased up and started shifting toward economics 0 Restrictions on Presidential power 0 War Powers Act president needs permission from Congress to go to war Decline of quotCold War consensus causes major shifts in public opinion and foreign affairs 0 Public opinion is now all over the place 0 bC the public is so ill informed should it have any sway What role should it play in democracy 1989 Fall of Berlin Wall End of Cold War 0 Europe changes again to modern map Political Realism o Explains how international politics works 0 Of all ideastheoriesconcepts in IR political realism has the longest history 0 Central theory to history of IR 0 For decades considered the dominant theory in the eld 0 Has become the theory everyone loves to hate which probably means it s on to something Realism Emphasizes power 0 States will always work to increase the power 0 Is pessimistic 0 quothuman history is full of great power wars it will happen 0 quotat some point China and US will be in WWIII Focuses on states often assumes states are unitary actors Usually assumes anarchy Usually assumes rationality Realists Sun Tzu o Considered original Realist 0 quotPower rolls out of the barrel of the gunquot o Ordered Thucydides 0 Strength always preferred to weakness Hobbes o In the state of nature we all die We kill each other or are killed by nature or animals 0 This is why we need government to create powerful rules to keep bad things from happening Machiavelli o quotLie cheat and steal Do what ever you need to get power then use that power to destroy your enemiesquot Morgenthau o Writes after WWI here s how you need to act as a leader Key to Realism power 0 Tricky what s power Complex concept 0 Someone who s powerful is someone who can get you to do something you normally wouldn t do 0 Power quotthe ability to get someone to do something they would not otherwise doquot Dahl o Relational o Counterfactual the problem with power did people not do something because they were told not to Or were they not going to do it any ways 0 Usually we implicitly assume action Measuring Power 0 How to measure state power 0 GDP military size wealth credit rating human capitol education etc allies population size natural resources talent power geography trade etc 0 Notice these are all material capabilities tangible things Power comes in Different Types 0 Material Power realism 0 GDP Military forces natural resources 0 Agenda setting institutionalism 0 Setting rules constraining decisions 0 Social constructivism 0 Identity quotsoft powerquot 0 You value certain people differently than others but you value them in a different way than their wealth or strength 0 Social Power Ex creator of Apple stood on that stage and made people want something without threatening them Six Assumptions of Realism by Morgenthau o 1 Politics is driven by human nature 0 Optimists Spinoza and Neihbur People are inherently good 0 Pessimists Hobbes and Machiavellie People are inherently bad 0 2 lnterests are de ned in terms of power material power 0 Cannot look at motivationintentions too hard to measure Just assume it s bad it will save you time 0 Motivation has no connection to outcome 0 3 The nature of power can change 0 4 Morality is linked to politics but context matters o It is not about morality but prudence o If you need to do something immoral to help your country do it be prudent 5 The morals of one nation are not universal 0 Don39t force one s morals on another 6 Politics is an autonomous sphere 0 Focus on just politics don t worry about religion and economics 0 Remember the context Morgenthau was writing in 0 Right after WWII Additional Assumptions 0 Anarchy concept of anarchy is very important Unitary actor o Rationality Anarchy 0 Def lack of hierarchy Absence of sovereign arbiter to solve disputes allocate resources or enforce agreements DOES NOT mean chaos No police you may have friends to help you but that s not like going to a mutual third party like the police Implications of Anarchy Security dilemma 0 Def increasing your own security will usually erode your own security will come back to haunt you bc your new weapons will intimidate others and have them see you as a threat 0 Remember Morgenthau cannot gauge intentions Difficulty in making agreements o If you don t trust anyone it s going to be hard to make an agreement and there s no world police to help gure it out 0 Three Treaties with Russia no nuclear weapon on moon Antarctica or space Made this agreement bc we don t trust each other These three things were things we didn t really want to do any way why put nuclear weapons on the moon and it could easily be check use a telescope 0 States worry about enforcement What if someone cheats Agreements Enforcement is key concern for states Realists believe cheating is endemic Ronald Reagan quottrust but verifyquot The consequences of being cheated on vary 0 Trade agreements 0 Environmental agreements o Arms agreements Cheating on trade and environment isn t as big of a deal as cheating in arms Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations September 13 2015 Agenda 0 Political Realism o Rationality o Deterrence Challenges to Realism 0 Liberal Theories of IR 0 Liberal institutionalism 0 Liberal internationalism An Analoqv IR scholars often use the game called the quotPrisoner s Dilemmaquot to describe international politics 0 Two involved in crime gt questioned separately quotyour friend ratted you out if you rat them out you ll help your casequot 0 No central enforcement of agreements o No or little communication Rational selfinterested players people look out for themselves Tragic outcome end up with an outcome you could probably do better than but you just can t help yourself 0 Going to war rather not but can t help it The Rationality Assumption Realists andliberals assume that states and their leaders are rational actors Def of rational quotagreeable to reason sensible Implications for states 0 Identify and pursue quotnational interests Leaders can say I can tell you what the most important things are for my state to accomplish 0 Expected utility calculations 0 Similar to costbene ts calculus Pwin x bene t gt Cost This is controversial bc you can easliy nd cases of people not following this if people always followed this there d be no gambling But People Love to Question This 0 Which is longer the red line or the blue line Cognitive LimitsBiases 0 Availability heuristic you liken your current situation to a situation that happened recently sometimes it s an accurate analogy sometimes it s not Hindsight bias things seem different afterwards people overestimate things Selfserving bias if people give you good feedback you don t question the logic if you get bad feedback you re quick to question it and prove it wrong Sunk cost fallacy what s my opportunity cost right now quotI already spend the money on the badger game I m going even though its negative 20 and l have better things to doquot Fundamental attribution error 0 Effects of framing how you present options to people 0 A 45 gingerbread seems very reasonable next to a 150 one Seriously Why the Rational Model 0 Most believe humans posses quotbounded rationalityquot 0 May not always perform exact costbene t calculation but we improvise and do pretty well 0 Don t confuse bad outcomes with irrationality It gives us a baseline of comparison 0 Would you expect the opposite to be true 0 This is consistent with our everyday assumptions Deterrence Bargaining is a key concept for realists o How do states compete in IR short of war They bargain threaten Key example of bargaining is deterrence All bargainingdeterrence arguments are based on rationality assumption 0 Question how do you preserve your power 0 Deter others from challenging you 0 Deterrence quotthe policy of persuading an adversary through the threat of military action that the costs of an action will outweigh the benefits 0 Elements 0 Adversary o Threat usually but doesn t have to be military 0 Costs 0 Bene ts 0 Actions what are you trying to stop them from doing 0 Deterrence Theory Grew out of economics RAND studies Nash Von Neumann Morgenstern How do we think about interdependent decisions Cost Bene t Calculations PWN x Bene t gt Costs 0 Deterrence is not just about creating costs 0 Like the game of chicken How do you win at chicken 0 Most try to manipulate Cost 0 PWN x Bene t gt Cost 0 Threat if you do something I ll punish you 0 Problem punishment must be costly to the threatener Why 0 Creates strong incentive to bluff 0 Ex nuclear deterrence during the Cold War The Art of Deterrence 0 Strategies of deterring an adversary o Create selfpunishment through quotaudience costsquot quotI should not be your president if I can t get these nuclear bombs out of Cubaquot 0 Convince others of irrationality quotI m just crazy enough that I may launch weapons 0 Cutting off options Burn all the ships once you get somewhere so you prevent yourself from going back Automatic tripwires 0 Note generally it is believed that deterrence is easier than compellence 0 Problem with deterrence is you never really know when it s worked 0 Can you deter everyone ls lran deterrable ls ISIS o If not threatening them is pointless and expensive 0000 Rationality Bargaining and Deterrence One reason realist covet power is for bargaining o Bargaining situations like deterrence rely on rationality There may be exceptions but these exceptions Summarizing Realism o Emphasis on material Power Pessimistic Stresses the importance of anarchy 0 Security dilemma 0 Enforcement problems Focus is on states usually treated as unitary rational actors If Not Realism Realism is controversial Today realism is challenged on a number of fronts 0 Liberal theories 0 Constructivist approaches Why the challenges 0 End of the cold war Rise in democracy 0 Rise of the European Union 0 Rise of international organizations Realists say these things don t matter that much but if they didn t matter then why are so many states making so many of them 0 Rise of Democracy 0 Decline of con ict Liberal Theorv Historical Liberal Theory has nothing to do with democratrepublican o Morgenthau legalmoral liberalism Modern liberalism has two strands 0 Liberal institutionalism 0 Liberal internationalism Both focus on political institutions 0 Political institutions persistent and connected sets of rules may be formal or informal 0 Liberal institutionalism international institutions 0 Liberal internationalism domestic institutions Both agree with realists about certain assumptions anarchy rational actors and pursue power Liberal lnstitutionalism Accept many realist assumption 0 Anarchy importance of material power statecentric ration unitary actors 0 Yet reach a very different conclusion Cooperate Unraeling o What do we need Repeated game that does not end 0 You won t be too mean to your roommate at the end of the year bc you know you ll be around her again More information exchange The European Union 0 The history of Europe 0 187071 FrancoPrussian War 200k dead 0 191418 WWI 8 million dead 0 193945 WWII 129 million dead 0 How would you stop another war 0 Create political institutions to change actor incentives o 1951 ECSC o 1957 Treaty of Rome 0 What does it do 0 Creates a permanent forum They know they re going to see each other every day there s no walking away from this which makes them less likely to screw each other over 0 Increases transparency Must share size of army and weapons 0 Promotes reciprocity You do something to me I ll do something to you 0 Solves collective action problem for punishment 0 Provides issue linkage Promotes bargaining France gets what they want in agriculture Germany in something else Liberal Institutionalism 0 International institutions mitigate anarchy 0 Importance of quotshadow of the futurequot Cooperation is thus common through international institutions fears of cheating can be lessened information is exchanged sidepayments are possible Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations September 24 2015 Lecture Agenda Liberal Theories of IR 0 Liberal institutionalism 0 Liberal internationalism The Realist Response 0 Power and institutions 0 Relative gains The Evolution of Cooperation Reciprocity you do back to someone what they did to you 0 Axelrod s tournament tournament of Prisoner s Dilemma that scientists economists etc partook in gt all described their strategies about the game many wrote pages and pages Winner two rules 1 Cooperate in the rst round 2 Copy what the person did to you the rst round Axelrod then wrote quotthe evolution of cooperation Shadow of the future o If you know you re going to see them again you ll behave differently Exchange of information o Promotes transparency Ok Wise Guv What has happened to the euro then Did the institutions fail Possibly 0 Lack of punishment for Greece 0 Lack of punishment for GermanyFrance Not punished for being out of the range they were supposed to stay in with their Euro 0 Lack of collective action on bailout funds Why What about the unitary actor assumption What About Domestic Politics Do we think domestic politics matters IR doesn t really focus on this but it DOES MATI39ER 0 Who is president matters as well as who he has around him 0 Parliamentcongress 0 Public opinion 0 Media 0 Interest groups Liberal Internationalism Immanuel Kant wrote Perpetual Peace 0 1975 Perpetual Peace if you look at a state and they have 0 Republican government democracy 0 Commerce trade 0 Cosmopolitan communities international institutions 0 Then the world will be peaceful Evidence since 1815 no two democracies have fought a war against one another 0 Democratic peace Why the democratic peace 0 Public opinionrepresentation people don39t like war 0 Democracy has representation of the people so they have a say in war or no war 0 Mutual understanding we don t think we re threatening therefore don t think others are threatening 0 Mutual enemies Trade democracies trade more as well as ally more 0 Cultural similarities mutual understanding 0 Leadership turnover leaders don t have time to covet things the new people have new ideas lssue the dyadic problem lf all these things were true it would predict that all democracies would ght less but this is not true democracies ght more than anyone else they just don t ght with each other 0 Why is this Democratic Peace 0 What is a democracy 0 Competitive elections 0 Broad adult suffrage 0 Protection of minority rights 0 Respect for civil liberties Why do we care about de nitions 0 Democracy with adjectives o Electiononly democracies Does having elections make a state a democracy Do these elections create the peace o If competition is imperfect what does this say about the democratic state Summarizing Liberal Approaches Still believe in anarchy and rationalistic powermaximizing leaders But 0 International institutions mitigate anarchy 0 Domestic politics can mitigate powerhungry leaders 0 Cooperation is more common than con ict Realism s Resoonse Realism has not taken the liberal challenge lightly Realists critique liberal internationalism as we did democracy is often not paci c We now focus on two main realist responses to liberal institutionalism Critique 1 Power and Institutions Institutions are common and maybe even powerful but they represent the interests of the great powers Ex security council Ex IMF voting EU and US control almost half of the IMF voting Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations September 29 2015 Lecture Agenda 0 The realist response to liberal theories 0 Power and institutions 0 Relative gains 0 Social Theories o What is social power 0 Three examples The Realist Response to Liberal Theories Power and Institutions Critique 1 o Institutions are common and maybe even powerful but they represent the interests of the great powers ie the US It39s the powerful states calling the shots Ex Security council IMF voting EU and US make up 50 of it Critique 2 o Goes back to prisoners dilemma 9 it s about the relative outcome not the absolute outcome 9 doesn t matter if people do get better just as long as they re not doing better than you You re willing to defect every time so you don t lose to the other person even if it means you losing gains 0 Realists vs Liberalists 0 Do not agree on fundamental nature of IR pessimistic vs optimistic 0 yet agree on some basic things Anarchy Material power and institutional power rules matter a lot States or domestic actors are driven by preferences Theory Review 0 Note what is similar 0 Preferences are assumed R s power don t risk loosing it in the short run L s power but it s easier to get through cooperation in the long run 0 All power is material Social Theories Constructivist Approaches 0 Preferences what states or leaders want are not xed but shaped by relationships interactions or context 0 A realist or liberal would ask quothow did a state achieve their national interestquot 0 A constructivist would ask quothow did a state come to have that particular national interestquot 0 Power can be material or social This makes room for norms to in uence behavior 0 Note it is an approach not a theory quotConstructivism focuses on what Searle has called 39social facts things like money sovereignty rights which have no material reality but exist only bc people collectively believe they exist and act accordinglyquot 0 Money as a social fact Money is worth what we think it s wo h What is Social Power 0 Famous people have a lot of social power have no education on IR but are able to in uence people Constructivist Approaches 0 Why the rise in constructivism End of Cold War 0 Ideas ended cold war 0 Seeming rise in power of international norms The fact that we pay attention to violations of norms and are mad about them show that they are powerful o Emphasize o Norms 0 Identity who people think they are and how that gives them power in the world 0 Interactions with other people 0 Example 1 who is a threat 0 The realist answer who has the most guns 0 The constructivist answer some actors more threatening than others but not bc of sizewealthmaterial Past interactions Perceptions of intentions 0 Have threats changed over time 0 Who am describing A nonstate actor takes captives forces captives into slavery engages in mass rape attack civilians and militaries alike Barbary pirates US fought them for four years 18001804 0 Knights of RhodesMalta speci cally formed to ght against pirate o What were pirates Ransomers and rapists Attacked civilians and militaries alike Nonstate actors Terrorists 0 quotBut Pirates are not a threatquot quotOn average more than one ship each day is attacked robbed hijacked or sunkquot Still an economic threat but socially don t view them as a threat 0 Dress up as pirates have mascots Johnny Depp etc Threats do change 0 Pirates still an economic threat but not seen as an equal to other terrorists Example 2 what do states value 0 How will a state maximize its security Build alliances weapons But which weapons 0 Are some weapons considered quotcoolquot 0 Are some weapons considered quotmodernquot 0 Several constructivist scholars have argued that technological arms races are about social factors Are there certain types of weapons you get whether you need them or not just to intimidate others 0 Aircraft carriers Extremely useful for power projection Impressive feats of engineeringtechnology quot45 acres of oating airportquot 0 Own zip code Enough generators to power a city of 100k Yet extremely expensive 0 48 billion to build Refueling nuclear and updates 23 billion Decommissioning expensive as well Who needs them 0 The UW has 11 super carriers 0 How many other states have super carriers 0 UK is planning on building 2 0 France is thinking about building 1 USSR started building 2 They signal that you re willing to spendburn money bc you care about your defense it s a status symbol 0 Example 3 science policy 0 United Nations Education Science and Cultural Organization UNESCO Founded in 1945 to promote collaboration 0 Promoted science policy RampD programs 1965 Would not do science but oversee it Would have access to executive 0 Science bureaucracies then begin to sprout up everywhere Guatemala 14 scientists 01 GDP on RampD Congo DCR 9 Scientists set up government of 50 people looking over these 9 scientists 0 They didn t need this but they set up a part of government for overseeing science bc they were told to do so and told this would show they are a serious state How Do These Changes Happen Norm entrepreneurs 0 Ex activistsNGOs amp slavery never forced to stop slavery had individuals push for it 0 Individuals that have high social power that make you stop and think 0 Epistemic knowledge communities 0 Ex scientists and global warming Socialization 0 Ex NATO amp Military officers Norms o Constructivists are also interested in the power of norms o Norms a principle of right action binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide control or regulate proper and acceptable behavior There s some principle out there that stops you from doing something Logics of Behavior 0 Logic of consequences A state behaves a certain way bc they calculate the possible consequences of their actions 0 Logic of appropriateness A state behaves in a certain way bc they believe they should behave a certain way 0 You do it bc you re supposed to do it don t ask why 0 How do norms and conventions develop o Theyjust happen 0 Norm Violation o How often does a norm have to be violated for it not to be a norm Murder Child prostitution Drug use Genocide Torture 0 There s a strong norm against all these things but that norm is often broken 0 Violating an environmental norm DDT Outlawed but malaria vs DDT 9 DDT wins Malaria is the leading killer in Africa Kills nearly a million a year most children under that age of 5 DDT banned internationally for many years Two con icting norms want to protect our kids but harms environment 0 Laws of War The Geneva Convention and the laws of war 0 Who is combatant Who is civilian What are the exceptions Ex female suicide bombers quotthat just doesn t seem rightquot ambulance bombs People take advantage of the norms of females not being combatants and ambulances being safe vehicles NormsTaboos o Are there some very strong norms that one would never violate o nvading a neighbor Trade wars Autarky Chemical weapons Biological weapons Nuclear weapons Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations September 29 2015 Lecture Agenda 0 Social Theories o What is social power 0 Three examples 0 Review of Theories Gender Theories in IR Do Norms Matter Realists no window dressing Yeah you say nice things to the public but you re going to do what you want to do 0 Liberals possibly Usually through institutions If it s something leaders see as through the UN then maybe there s some power there Constructivists yes They shape an constrain state behavior Sovereignty as a Norm in IR 0 How did it become a norm 0 Habituation doing something over and over again after a period of time people stop asking why you re doing it o Selfinterest develop sovereignty as a norm so people don t mess with you 0 Logic of appropriateness vs logic of consequences 0 Consequences do something bc you might get hurt if you don t 0 Appropriateness do something bc it s what s right Enforcing Norms What about enforcement o How are norms enforced Maybe laws 0 Social sanction quotNaming and shaming if someone calls you out in public you don t like that you re not being physically hurt Can you do this to states Naming and Shaming 0 quotWrite for rightsquot write to leaders about what you don t like about what you re doing shame them 0 Not a material force a moral force 0 Trafficking in Persons Report people in the 39watch list almost always moves to good list it s a signal that we don t like what you re doing we re keeping an eye on you people respond to this o quotSakharov Plazaquot Sakharov wrote about how Russia needed democracy US named street for Soviet Embassy Sakharov Plaza to remind them every time they had to write shame them 0 To change people s behavior shame them Ouestionl Why do States Give Foreign Aid Four Answers Realism source of leverage you give countries a bunch of money as aid and if you want something back from them you take it back or threaten to cut off countries 0 US does this Japan is famous for this 0 Lots of evidence for this 0 Liberal Institutionalism o Institutions promote 0 Liberal lnternationalism 0 Domestic groups promote 0 Many interest groups in US that lobby for foreign aid Shipping if we provide food aid those in shipping make a lot of money by having to deliver it bc it has to come from US Constructivism 0 Logic of appropriateness it s a good thing to do morally 0 Social identity Question 2 How did States Respond to the Ebola Outbreak Why were so many people dying There were no doctors nurses or enough room in hospitals Who helps and Why 0 Realists only states directly affected or with strong strategic interests in the region will respond strongly o This is a yes and no US immediately became involved but not very much until it started to spread to the US then we really became involved 0 Liberal lnstitutionalists international organizations will promotecreatefacilitate cooperation 0 Liberal lnternationalists domestic actors will push states to help 0 Constructivists humanitarian norms will push states to help Comparing lR Theories Realism Liberalism Constructivism Types of power Material Institutional Social Key actors States Statesinstitutio Groupsindividu ns or domestic als actors Ontology Individual Individual Social Outlook Pessimistic Optimistic Optimistic Theory example Balance of Democratic Social identity power peace Realism Haans Liberalism Elsa Constructivism Anna One Final Social Theory 0 Feminist theory 0 Difference feminism 0 Liberal feminism o Postmodern feminism 0 Why feminism 0 Very likely that gender matters greatly for a number of policies we care about Difference Feminism Claim real differences exist bw men and women 0 Women have different skill sets 0 Ex nurturing con ict resolution 0 Ex more social interactions better group decision making Hypothesis more women in IR different outcomes such as more cooperation Liberal Feminism Claim no real social differences bw women and men 0 Women are excluded from leadership which is bad More women must emerge in IR since women behave similar to men Hypothesis women would behave similar to men in positions of power Issue 1 Public Opinion and War 0 Gender gap nearly all public opinion polls nd gaps bw women and men in their support for waging war
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