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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Kathryn Imming on Tuesday January 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CDE 232 at Arizona State University taught by Amy Reesing in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 191 views.
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Date Created: 01/06/15
Introduction to Life Span Development Chapter 1 Theories of Human Development Objectives De ne Development Historical Perspectives De ning Development The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people change or remain the same over time Historical Perspectives Original Sin children were perceived to as being basically bad born into the world as evil beings o Nature vs Nurture Nature genes Nurture environmental factors Tabula Rasa children are like a quotblank tablet and acquire their characteristics through experience o EX How we treat them is how they will turn out Innate Goodness children are inherently good o Nature Traditional Approach vs Life Span Approach Traditional emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence little or no change in adulthood and decline in late old age o No interesting changes in adulthood so no one studied adukhood Life Span emphasizes developmental changes across the life span from conception to death recognizing that development continues to occur throughout adulthood Characteristics of Life Span Perspective Development is Life Long No age period dominates development Development is Multidimensional 3 domains Physical DimensionDomain o Changesstability in physical nature o Puberty o Wrinkles and ne lines Cognitive DimensionDomain o Changesstability in thought intelligence and language SocioemotionalDimensionDomain o Changesstability in relationships with other people in emotion and in personality All 3 domains interact few factors belong exclusively to one domain Development is Multidirectional o Development involves both GROWTH as well as DECLINE o Any direction is possible up down stable erratic Development is Plastic o Plasticity involves the degree to which characteristics change or remain stable 2 complementary aspects of development 0 Human traits can be molded o Like a type of plastic such as silly putty 0 Maintain durability of identity o Like a type of plastic such as a regular Fnsbee Development is Multidisciplinary o Studied by multiple disciplines academic elds Development is Mulitcontextual o Individuals are embedded in multiple contexts o Normative age graded in uences Biological or environmental in uences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group 0 Puberty menopause etc o Normative history graded in uences In uences common in a particular generation or cohort such as baby boomers Holocaust 911 great depression wars etc o Non normative Life Events Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individuals life not applicable to many people 0 Lottery winners death of a parent as a child born with a tethered spine etc What Theories Do What is a theory o A theory is an interrelated coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and make predictions Grand Theories o Psychoanalytic o Cognitive o Behaviorism learning theory These are grand in that they are o Comprehensive o Enduring o Widely applied Psychoanalytic Theory Freud39s Psychosexual Theory Erikson s Psychosocial Theory Behavior is o Primarily unconscious beyond awareness o Heavily colored by emotion o Merely a surface characteristic with symbolic meaning Early experiences with parents extensively shape our behavior Freud39s Psychosexual Development Primary motivation for human behavior is sexual 5 stages Each stage focuses on a part of the body for experiencing pleasure Resolution of con icts determines adult personality 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development Oral Stage o Birth to 18 months o Mouth Anal Stage o 18 months to 3 years o Anus Phallic Stage o 3 to 6 years o Genitals Latency Stage o 6 to puberty o Sexual interest repressed Genital Stage o Puberty onward o Sexual reawakening Freud39s 3 Structures of Personality Id instincts unconscious no contact with reality no morality Ego executive branch addresses the demands of reality no morality Superego morality right or wrong our quotconscience Erik Erikson s Psychoanalytic Theory Primary motivation for human behavior is social o Relationships social interaction 8 stages and developmental tasks Crises are turning points of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential Resolution of crises will determine development quotntelligence is what you use when you don39t know what to do Piaget Piaget39s Cognitive Development Theory Children actively construct their understanding of the world 2 processes underlie development o Organization Children will organize their toys in speci c ways even when it just looks like random piles o Adaptation Assimilation and accommodation 4 stages of cognitive development o Cognitive Equilibrium state of mental balance If threatened how do we achieve equilibrium again o Assimilation Incorporating new information into our existing knowledge schema o Accommodation Adjusting to one existing knowledge schema to new information Piaget39s 4 Stages o Sensorimotor Stage Birth 2 years Understanding the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical motor actions Learning is active o Preoperational Stage 26 years Represent world with words and drawings Egocentric thinking o Concrete Operational Stage 611 years Children can perform mental operations Emergence of logical reasoning as long as reasoning can be applied to concrete examples 0 Cannot think abstractly yet 0 Something that they39ve experiences or there is a physical eample o Formal Operational Stage 12 years Think in abstract more logical terms Problem solving is more systematic and involves hypotheses Characteristics of Stage Theories Qualitative change from 1 stage to another Discontinuous view of development Hierarchical order of stages Tend to have the assumption that development is universal o No individual cultural differences taken into account BehaviorismLearning Theories Classical and operant conditioning Social Learning Theory o These are NOT stage theories o Arose in direct opposition to psychoanalytic emphasis on unconscious hidden urges o Only study what we can directly observe and measure o Development is observable behavior learned through expenence Classical Conditioning Early 190039s by Ivan Pavlov Neutral stimulus bell acquires the ability to produce a behavioral response salivating originally produced by another stimulus food John Watson little Albert and the rat Operant Conditioning BF Skinner Consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior occurring again o Reinforcement Increases the likelihood of behavior reoccurring o Punishment Decreases that likelihood of a behavior reoccurring Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura s Social Learning Theory An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the in uence that other people have over a person39s behavior Observational Learning o Humans can learn from observing others without personally experiencing reinforcement of punishment Modeling 0 The central process of social learning by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them What Theories Contribute Grand Theories o Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of the importance of Early childhood experiences Family relationships The unconscious o Behaviorism has shown effect of the immediate environment on learning o Cognitive theory has shown how intellectual process and thinking affect actions
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