Week 7 Notes
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Colean Notetaker on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 11762-002 at Kent State University taught by John Updegraff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Psych 1 1762002 John A Updegraff Week 7 Notes Memory Chapter 9 0 Three Kinds of Memory 1 Sensory Memory Iconic Visual lasts a split second Echoic auditory lasts a few seconds 2 Short Term Working Memory A mental sketchpad that lasts about 2030 seconds 3 Long Term Memory Explicit memory Semantic memory like facts and figures lyrics Episodic memory memories of events and experiences Implicit memory Procedural memory how to do things Classicaloperant conditioning 0 How big is shortterm memory For most people short term memory can store 7 or 2 pieces of information Shortterm memory is the bottleneck 0 What gets sent to longterm memory Serial position effect First and last items of a list easier to remember than those in the middle Primacy effect First items always easier to remember Items presented earlier can be rehearsed longer Rehearsing first item interferes with later items Recency effect Last items usually easier to remember Only true if test immediate follows the list Last items most likely to stay in shortterm memory How info is ORGANIZED also MATTERS Things don t just get thrown back into LTM Things get hooked up and consolidated with what s already in LTM What you already have in memory can help you remember new information Ways to help organize Make connections on the spot Visualize Use mnemonic deVices Categorical clustering organizing by chunks Acronyms organizing by letters Pegword method organizing by Visual images Rhymes and melodies organizing by sound 0 Two kinds of amnesia Retrograde amnesia Loss of past memories often those that happened shortly before a trauma to the cerebral cortex Anterograde amnesia Memento and 50 First Dates Often caused by damage to the hippocampus Leads to inability to form new memories by cutting off passageway from STM to LTM 0 Memory Storage Memories are stored all over the brain not just in specific spots Hippocampus is like the filing clerk that sends shortterm memories to longterm storage in the cortex Cerebellum is Where implicit memories are stored such as riding a bike Classical conditioning effects e g bell food Operant conditioning effects e g pecking food 0 Memory Retrieval Recall vs Recognition Recall is retrieVing information learned earlier Recognition is identifying information preViously learned Retrieval cues Context effects Being in the same situation that you learned helps With retrieVing Moodcongruent memory When happy more likely to recall happy memories When sad more likely to recall sad memories 0 Memory Retrieval Does retrieving the memory change it For semantic memories the answer is NO For episodic memories the answer is YES 0 Episodic memory is a Reconstruction Episodic memories are not like video recordings We make up memories on retrieval B eliefs and expectations fill in the blanks Brain addschanges details but doesn t tell you it s doing so Misinformation effect When you incorporate misleading information into your memory of an event Bad Memory Bad Justice 75 of wrongful convictions are based on eyewitness testimony In 20 of police lineups an eyewitness will pick out an innocent person What affects accuracy of lineups Crossrace are 15x more likely to have misidentification than samerace Longer time between event and lineup Stress experienced at time of event When are memories most likely to be reconstructions and not reproductions When we think about the event many times Especially when event can be captured in a story When our memory contains a lot of details Longer you think about an imagined event the more details you add When the event is easy to imagine When we focus on emotional reactions rather than on what actually happened Development Chapter 10 0 What abilities are infants born with Newborns have a number of survival re exes Rooting touch cheek and they open mouth and search for nipple Swallowing put something on lips and they swallow Moro startle them and they arch back arms ing out sideways Grasping put finger in their palm and they ll grasp it Stepping hold them up and they ll step forward Newborns orient towards human faces and voices Newborns recognize the sound of mother s voice 0 What abilities they aren t born with Many visual abilities Newborns lack fully developed color vision Many colors washedout can t discriminate grays from blues Newborns can t focus well at things beyond 812in 3dimensional vision Infants won t respond to visual cliff until they ve been crawling for 2 weeks 0 Many basic cognitive abilities Newborns haven t learned causeeffect relationships yet For newborns if they can t see it it doesn t exist 0 Jean Piaget Children are active thinkers constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world Schema A concept or framework that helps us organize and interpret the world around us Assimilation Interpreting one s new experiences in terms of an old schema Accommodation Modifying one s schema so that it can incorporate new information 0 Piaget s Developmental Stage Sensorimotor stage 02yrs Children discover by sensing and doing Children begin differentiating old things and new things Can observe this through habituation or EEG measurements Preoperational stage 26yrs Language develops Ability to take another s perspective Concrete operational stage 612yrs Formal operational stage 12 yrs Abstract thinking develops 0 Was Piaget Right For the most part yes Some things he wasn t exactly right about Genes and social environment matter too Some kids progress faster than Piaget describes Transitions are not as smooth as his theory suggests 0 Attachment An emotional tie with another person 0 Attachment and Social Development The quality of the motherchild relationship sets the tone for many future social relationships Harry Harlow discovered that monkeys raised without mothers had serious social problems when they were older Harlow tried to isolate the important mother factor Food and nourishment Comforting physical contact 0 Functions of Early Infant Attachment Safe Haven When distressed an attachment figure provides a source of comfort Secure Base When in new environment an attachment figure offers a source of affection and security that promotes exploration 0 Measuring Attachment in Humans In humans quality of attachment is measured using the strange situation test Infant mother and stranger in a room Mother leaves room Infant is with stranger Mother returns Both mother and stranger leave room Infant is alone Stranger returns Mother returns Mother encourages baby to explore Focus is on the baby s response when mother leaves and when mother returns 0 Infant Attachment Style Secure attachment style 66 of US babies In presence of mother child freely explores but may return for reassurance When mother leaves child is distressed When mother returns child seeks contact Avoidant attachment style 20 In presence of mother child may explore but less than securely attached child When mother leaves child rarely cries or may show anger When mother returns child avoids her AnxiousAmbivalent attachment style 12 Even in presence of mother child may show anxiety When mother leaves child is distressed When mother returns child seeks contact but also resists it by kicking or squirming 0 Infant Attachment Styles Reactions to the Strange Situation Test SST at 1218 months is a good predictor of future social and academic skills 0 Infant attachment styles may also be related to A primary care giver heshe is responsible supportive warm or heshe is cold irresponsible sometimes warm Current feelings it is easy to get close to others I am uncomfortable getting close to others I find others are reluctant to get close to me 0 Early Attachment and Romantic Styles Kristin Mickelson Kent State found that adult s romantic styles are strongly correlated With their reports of how their parents treated them Secure romantic style 60 Have relationships characterized by happiness trust and friendship Tend to have longer more satisfying romantic relationships Avoidant romantic style 25 Have some fear of intimacy emotional highs and lows and jealous Anxious ambivalent style 15 Experience love as involving obsession emotional highs and lows and extreme sexual attraction and jealousy 0 Early Attachment and Romantic Styles Early attachment may in uence later close and romantic relationships Attachment styles tend to be stable over time But life events can change them 0 Kohlberg s Stages of Moral Development Preconventional morality before age 9 Will I get busted Will I get a reward Conventional morality early adolescence Takes into account other people s evaluations Am I breaking a law What Will other people think of me Postconventional morality late adolescence Everybody has a right to live Do unto others as they should do unto you The ends justify the means Life is worth more than 1000 0 Was Kohlberg correct Sort of yes Older a child is more likely Will be in a higher stage Lots of variation Can t attach ages May be very culturespecific Individualistic cultures value postconventional morality more than collectivistic cultures
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