Notes for exam 1-Mythology
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090214 OTHER WAYS TO THINK ABOUT MYTHS myths are not always religious coser to explanation of science try to rationalize how things came into existence record of how people tried to make sense of complicated world around them teaching tool for young members of society entertainment MYTH CONT not only conernced with the outside world but also feeling of the individual akin to Aristotles idea that watching tragic drama brings about catharsis provide an quotemotional consummationquot or quotwish ful llmentquot ike quotdreaming eraquot of the Aboriginesmyths and dreams provide similar insight into reality MYTHS AND POLITICS James Ruebel amost from moment of conception myths were subject to a quotpolitical reading revision and interpretationquot lt39s more than probable that many of legends were motivated not so much by desire to preserve oral history but to validate events with art numerous examples from beginning of Greek literature of concrete and systematic exploitation of myths by political leaders RICHARD DORSON ON MYTH 18th century mythology was its own science during enlightenment era the upsurge of rationalistic inquiry and new literature of exploration gave away to a reexamination of Pagon and Heathen myths By 19th century mythology which had previously only looked at Greek and Roman myths branched out to examine the myth of many peoples MAJOR FIGURE IN EARLY 20TH CENTURY ANTHROPOLOGIST BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI myth not an explanation in satisfaction of scienti c interest myth real in sense that it could be observed by the eld researcher in form of oral performance rituals ceremonies and in uence up a living peoples sociopolitical behavior RISE OF PSYCHOLOGY FREUD AND JUNG both men believed that mythic symbols encountered in religion and manifested in dreams and works of the imagination emerge from the deepest wells of psyche Freud our psychic sef divided in to 3 stages ego superego and id id entirely unconscious superego mosty unconscious and egomosty conscious truy reapsychic realities of unconscious which our conscious minds censor because they aretoo raw or dangerous to face unmediated myths serve as conscious mind39s strategy for making visible and comprehensible the internal forces and con icts that impact our actions and shape our thoughts JUNG Theory of collective unconscious could call it your quotpsychic inheritancequot it39s the reservoir of our experiences as a species a kind of knowledge we are all born with jung outlined 5 main archetypes 1 self regulating center of the psyche and the facilitator of individuation 2 the shadow the opposite of ego image often containing qualities that the ego does not identify with but possesses nonetheless 3 the anima feminine image in a man s psyche or 4 animos masculine image in a woman39s psyche 5 persona the quotselfquot that we present to others in an attempt to hide our shadow side INTRODUCTION TO THE GREEK GODS THE FIRST PARENTS First parents heaven and earth titans are their children Gods their grandchildren Cronus famous titan ruled over other titans until Zeus dethroned him and took power 12 great Olympians were supreme among the God39s and equaled a Divine family WHO WERE 12 Zeus Poseidon Hades Hestia Hera Ares Athena Apollo Aphrodite Hermes Artemis Hephaestus ZEUS AND HERA Zeus supreme ruler Lord of Slqrain godcloudgatherer Fals in love with many women enjoys entertainment of gods and mortals at war Hera Zeus wife and sister protector of marriage punishes women Zeus loves Cow and peacock sacred to her POSEIDON AND HADES Poseidon ruler sea Zeus39 brother gave the rst horse to man carries a trident 3 pronged spear Hades 3rCI brother ruer of the dead terrible but not evil king of death but not death himself ATHENA AND APOLLO 39Palas39 Athena daughter of Zeus alone no mother bore her sprang from his head in full armor protector of civilized life and agriculture embodies wisdom purity and reason ashingeyedgrayeyed Apolo son of Zeus and Leto born in Delos master musicial Archer god and healer God of light and truth Sun god Sometimes called 39Pheobus39 Apollo shiningbrilliant ARTEMIS APHRODITE AND HERMES Artemis Apollos twin sister ady of wild things Hunstmaninchief kept Greek eet form sailing to Troy unti maidensacri ced to her Goddess of moon Aphrodite goddess of love a soft weak creature at times without her there is no joy Hermes son Zeus and Maia Zeus39 messenger Cunning and shrewd master theif soemn guide of the dead ARES HEPHAESTUS AND HESTIA Ares god of war son of Zeus and Hera Murderous and hateful Cowardly in way the vulturehis bird Hephaestus god of re is lame and ugly a kind and peaceloving god HestiaZeus39 sister virgin goddess of hearth and home pays no distinct part in myths Mythology Book 1 THE RAGE OF ACHILLES Agamemnon took the priest39s daughter Chrysies Then priest offered a ransom to get his daughter back All the troops told him to give her back but he didn39t want to Apollo unleashed a wrath onto the army On the 10th day of the wrath Achilles musters everyone together Achilles had enough and got into it with Agamemnon He asked him to give the daughter back and then he will pay him back plus interest in time Agamemnon turned in on him and said you just want me to have no prize Then Agamemnon threatened to take Achilles prize to prove how much power he has over him Achilles wanted to give the daughter back to end the wrath and make the gods happy He was going to ght Agamemnon but Hera liked both of them a lot and didn39t want either one to die Athena came down and ordered Achilles to put down his sword and he will be reward three times over later Achilles went back to his camp but Agamemnon sent soldiers to come and get Achilles prize briseies Agamemnon let them take her and weeped for his loss His mother thetis came down to comfort him Then go talk to Zeus Meanwhile Odysseus took Chrysies to Chryse island to give her back to the priest and make a sacri ce to stop the wrath of Apollo They made the sacri ce gave the daughter back and celebrated for Apollo Apollo was happy and the wrath was done Thetis went to Zeus to ask him to honor Achilles for he is doomed to a short life and he deserves more She made Zeus angry and he didn t want to make Hera go to war with him so he bowed his head and made a pact with her to honor Achilles All the gods on Olympus went to talk to Zeus and Hera say Thetis there She was taunting Zeus about making plans with him He got angry with her and told her to listen to his orders and leave him be She was terri ed and the other gods wanted Hera to get back in his good graces so he would like the gods again and not do stuff for the mortal men over the gods Last two pages confusing Notes in class Only read through book 3 of illiad Not 4 Know how the scholars feel about the Iliad notecards iad an epic poem not a novel or short story NOTES ON PLOT AND THE EPIC Schoarship bv Mathew clark epic is inconsistent in principle the gods know everything but omniscient characters are inconvenient for a story so in practice the narrative homer treat the gods as if they need to be toldeven as if they can be deceived the story of the Iliad begins with Chryses39 problem his daughter has been taken by Adamemnon Chryses tries to solve his problem though supplication but his supplication fails and this failure becomes a problem in its own right an act of evil to be revenged She was war booty Forced into slavery and has no voice This capture is the beginning of such rage Chryses attempts to solve this new problem through appeal to Apollo which succeeds and this success is the act of revenge in the form of the plague The plague itself is a problem for the Achaens but after some other events it is eliminated Chryses39 daughter is returned to him and he prays to Apollo to relieve the suffering of the Achaens Hubris the abundance of pride Hera is on the side of the Greeks for the most part but in the meantime the elimination of the problem which is the plague has produced another problem the quarrel of Agamemnon and Achilles and Achilles subsequent withdrawal Basically he said screw you I am done You can try to win this war without me He believes that if he withdrawals then they cannot win the war without him He has that over abundance of pride Hubris TWO TYPES OF CORE INCIDENTS 1 The motive which is for the most part some kind of insult and the 2 Result which may be either punishment or reconciliation the crucial incident at the beginning of the poem must be the Quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles and the resulting insult the placement of the rst crucial incident can very it can come directly at the beginning of the story or it can follow a few other incidents which lead to it in the Iliad the rst crucial element the argument between Achilles and Agamemnon follows the quotgermquot of the plot the supplication of Chryses Speaker Dr Erwin Cook reationship of Patroclus and Achilles intercity gangs forms a group within society Code of the streets they are both obsessed with honor The insult doesn39t need to be true but one person just need to make it stick combat veterans with PTSD Book 2 THE GREAT GATHERING OF ARMIES All the gods went to sleep but Zeus was trying to think of a plan for Achilles He decided to send Agamemnon and dream In the dream Zeus command Agamemnon to arm his Acheans and attack Troy Atrides woke up and bolted to the Argives The next day Agamemnon held a council meeting to tell all the chiefs of his dream and then to get ready for battle Nestor said that if anyone else came forward with the dream they would say it was false but since Agamemnon is the bravest Achean then they would go to battle Agamemnon told the ranks that Zeus was tricking him and wants him to be shamed Atrides son of Atreus patronymic of Agamemnon or Menalaus Argives alternate name for Acheans Nestor oldest of the Achean cheiftans Lecture notes 090914 DISORDER IN THE ILIAD perspectives by Robert Vacca the human condition evoked in the Iliad is tragic and pessimistic Unredeemed suffering and loss is the inevitable fate of all persons and the rare moments of moral courage and compassion are ephemeral hard to nail down eeting hard to put into tangible terms offering no hope of an enduring solution for sorrow the gods are in large part responsible for the fragility of human good fortune they are powerful and they intervene constantly in human affairs but they are as a rule partisan deceitful unreliable and frivolous Hera hates the Trojans so much that to see them dead she is willing to abandon the Greek towns that have paid her special devotion Zeus in Book 2 sends a false dream to Agamemnon to induce him to begin a battle that he is doomed to lose Zeus sends the dream because he made a promise to Thetis Achilles mom Agamemnon is very hot tempered and you wouldn39t want to insult the gods and so he believed the dream However in another way the action of the gods is not random Homer has made them consistently the cause of the condition of strife con ict and violence that is the ground of the action of the Iliad in both a narrative and metaphysical sense The Greek name this condition is eris Eris dominates the Iliad examples of erisit is the war itself between the Trojans and Achaians it is the feral spirit of combat that lls the battle books39 it is the quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon and it is the hatred that impels Achilles to seek out Hector and kill him Eris is the plot and everything to do with the book Eris is so deeply set within Homer s world that whole world of the book is built on Eris although it might be more accurate to think of it as anticosmological since it is intrinsically destructive of all good order the catalog of ships is Homer39s way of saying look at how many men were involved in the war WHY ARE THE GODS SO OBSESSED WITH DISORDER in the century that extended between roughly 750 and 650 BC the religious pessimism of the Iliad was countered by the af rmation of the constructive justice of the gods in the Odyssey and in Hesiod39s Works and days the intensely competitive and con ictoriented society of classical Greece developed a model of mal personality in which the exercise of personal excellence called repeatedly for the use of physical force and aggressive behavior idealy that aggressive power would be directed against the enemies of one s household and community Socially justi ed in this way the display of strength and violence is called and is considered a virtue The Iliad as a poem of war has a rich vocabulary for describing con ict and the psychological states associated with it page 102 lines 100 an extended simile of men attacking in mythology states of violence in the norm tale of love and war Paris and Helen most beautiful woman in the world eloped He took her back to Troy where his father King Priam ruled Schemann was obsessed with nding Troy Darwin impacted our ndings about Troy Frank Calvert told Schlemann where to dig and look for Troy by excavation Went from lnstanbul across to sea to what believed to be Troy Hicilic hill 1870 Schlemann went to the spot that Calvert told him to go on Hicilic hill Calvert told him to dig several smaller trenches to see Troy because the city was so big and it had to be deep in the ground the deeper he dug the worse feeling he would get about the city not being there Then when he dug deeper he found an ancient city There was a pathway to a gate He announced that he found Homer s Troy and that he opened up a new world for Archeology in this site there are 9 major settlements and over 50 layers found jewels that were thought to be Helens but they were a thousand years to early another question was if the treasure that Schlemann found was genuine but it hasn39t been seen since next he went to Mycenae because that39s where Agamemnon was from in the stone ruins he found a circle of round stones with shaft graves In this area he found tons of gold in one he found three males They were covered in gold and had gold masks on also When the masks were lifted off the rst two bodies the skulls crumbled into dust The third one was preserved and Schlemann believes it was Agamemnon None of the ndings connecting him back to Troy Next stop the fortress of Hercules 9 miles from Mycenae Teirens they found bronze age Mycenae There was also wa paintings from the heroic age 09111114 Book 3 CONTINUATION OF ARCHEOLOGY VIDEO AND NOTES it appears to be a Greek disorderly human pop Had to be adjust disasters Homer reinterpreted traditional idea of why gods enter into world here the human desire is for peace but the gods send eris by deception to overturn what is good and the power that is set oose is one of increasing brutality so terrible that in the end it inverts the ordered world into moral anarchy more important to us than these accumulated incidents is the treatment of the cause of war itself It is striking that there is in books 24 no direct reference to the traditional explanation the Judgment of Paris in book 2 Agamemnon decides to test the resolve of the army before beginning battIe When he declares in the assembly that Zeus has turned against the Achaians and made them not warriors at all but ineffectual disgraces the army not angered by this taunting disparagement of its heroic excellence bots at once for the ships and is ready to sail home that very day Odysseus with the supports of Athena is hardly able to check the mutiny When the host has at last reassembled the macontented Thersites a low feow castigates Agamemnon for his greed and incompetence and Odysseus must put a stop to it by beating to silence with a staff Dissent has been sti ed at least for the moment but the Achaian resent of the war remains an issue the army has grown weary of this struggle that has dragged on for nine years without resolution and serves no apparent purpose beyond enriching Agamemnon with whatever booty may have been taken The crisis or morale is countered with vigorous exhortations by Odysseus and Nestor the nest speakers in the army why is the war being fought because Agamemnon has an ego He has a tortured soul one hand his image and his men and on the other he has all the commands from the gods to uphold the text shows how eris is dynamic a violence that is capable of increasing in both scale and intensity As this force expands throughout the later books of the Iliad we are able to see more clearly how eris is a central element in Homer s cosmology of inversion destroying all order and capable of constructing nothing 09116114 Exam will cover books 13 on Iliad and the whole Orestia HOMER AND THE WILL OF ZEUS perspectives by Joseph P Wilson homer or the tradition invents the plot of the work we may therefore assume that the will of Zeus conforms rather exactly to the will of the poet in that the will of Zeus in the Iliad operates to guarantee the honor of Achilles the will of the poet must be to do the same Moreover the honoring of Achilles will then condition all of the poet s decisions on the distribution of Keos the glory from Kuein quotto hearquot gained from oral poetry why is Zeus the way he is He embodies all things human fate is not the will of the poet but the poetic tradition to which the poet must in most instances conform lest he lose all of his authority a technical problem how does the will of Zeus actuaIIy operate in the poem and how speci cally does it relate to the program of the poet How does it guarantee that AchiIIes will be honored theory that the will of Zeus controls the poem Homer wrote the poem and he controls the will of Zeus in the poem What does it say about Zeus the poetic tradition Zeus controls all good all bad and in the end he wins Homer employs the will of Zeus as the motivation for the action of the poem because the tradition of epic which recorded the af ictions wrought by Zeus on Trojan and Greek alike mandated it Thus he af rms his membership in the tradition the poet never departs from the traditional view that Zeus wants to kill Greeks and Trojans alike but he demonstrates his mastery over that tradition by changing the terms under which the slaughter takes place whether we accept that argument and see the will of Zeus acting on events form a time prior to the Iliad or only posterior to the initial quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon the will of Zeus gruides most of the action form the end of Book 1 on to the ransoming of Hector s body by Priam in Book XXIV 14 what would happen if Zeus wasn t in the poem Someone else would step up in his place Would there even be a Trojan War Probably not The will of Zeus is the electricitv in the poem and without him there wouldn39t be any action lso the poet depicts Zeus s rather bloodthirsty intent and the beginning of book 2 Iliad 1124 know the importance of the quote Zeus thinks highly of Achilles Zeus owed a favor for Achilles mother and a main point is that the honoring of past favors is important to everyone Video clip siege of troy ancient discoveries 503E01 Did the war machine ever exist They found evidence that there were war machines used back in the Bronze Age evidence that these machines were being used 600 years before the Trojan War Votive offerings were meant for the gods so they could get on the gods good side and do good in battles Agamemnon wanted to control all of the Mediterranean Sea and getting Helen was the perfect excuse to strike at the Trojans the greeks used the gure 8 shields that were made out of wicket basket resilient and light 09118114 INTRO TO THE ORESTEIA TROJAN WAR BACKGROUND in 458 BC Aeschylus escalus then over sixty ve years old won the rst tragic prize at Athens with his trilogy the Oresteia these plays were written to be a public spectacle and be performed timeine of authors Homer 9th 8th centuries BC Hesiod 8th 7th centuries BC Aeschylus 524456 BC Sophocles c 496406 BC Euripides c 485406 BC Socrates 469399 BC Pato 429347 BC Aristote 384322 BC Ovid 43 BCE these plays were only played by men they acted as both men and women in the plays INTRODUCING THE PLAYERS Clytemnestra Agamemnon s wife Aegisthus39 lover lphigenia39s mother Queen of Argo Pursues the radical murder of her husband when he returns from Troy Agamemnon and Aegisthus have always been enemies Agamemnon victor of the Trojan War King of Argo son of Atreus kied his daughter lphigenia as sacri ce murdered upon his return by his wife m doubevoiced they talk back on each other sometimes speaks in character sometimes speaks on behalf of Aeschelus himself provokes the audience to engage itself in play aids in dramatic climax in Agamemnon the chorus is the elders of Argos Throughout the trilogy the chorus changes presents the war in epic terms ike real individuals the chorus seems to experience mood swings and second thoughts provides a lens through which to examine guilt and justice at times assumes great authority over the other characters refusing to let other speak WHO IS THE CHORUS Judith Fletcher a wellde ned person that has limited understanding of evernts in the play is tragic to some degree and enhances the dramatic events show a constant inability to face the truth about Agamemnon they are really judgemental CASSANDRA Agamemnon s war prize representative of women39s subordinate role in Greek society is also murdered by Clytemnestra teer of fates LEAHY Aeschylus is capable of including in his plays passages which are interesting but not strictly relevant there is thus a very considerable amount of material in the Agamemnon which bears the stamp of contemporary realism what effect might Aeschylus expect it to have on his audience it appears that Aeschylus has deliberately used it to convey a mood of gloom the cumulative effect of the contemporary realism in the play is thus to present the War in an antiheroic disillusioned tone which robs even victory of its glamour even the chorus describes the funerals of those who died at Troy it is noteworthy that references to the Trojan War are not incidental to the plot but directly related to Agamemnon39s own moral responsibility in the light of this evidence it therefore appears probable that Aeschylus was not uttering commonplaces but actually going against current ideas in presenting the Trojan War in terms of ungamorous realism Zeus39 thunder bolt the persuader the cosmos is embued with tension in the beginning there is tension constantly This can be broke down into disorder we are dynamic systems and we will not be stopped by accepting the power of someone else what is the power balance in the story 092314 CLYTEMNESTRA KAREN RABER Cytemnestra exempli es the competing claims between family and state the origin of her murder plot lies in her grief over her daughter phigenia sacri ced to the masculine pursuit of war in a way Agamemnon39s death restores the interrupted cycle of birth death and fertility ceary Aeschylus associate bloodfamily with a bodily connection established though the mother aso implies the primacy of male decisionmaking women as murdering demons page 78 silent kiss you can just feel the palpable anger page 77 if I was treacherous Painting the walls by killing his own daughter shes got a motive to kill him She has been waiting this long for him to come back so she can get her revenge PAULA DEBNAR in addition to a female character39s age ethnos and social status or genealogy a fthcentury Athenian audience was likely to have been alert to her sexual status some scholars assume that she is virginal others that she has been raped the murder of phigenia was back story SCHOLARSHIP CONT yet this is a trilogy in which virgins both divine and human gure prominently Their actions or suffering as the case may be re ect the con ict between male and female forces on both human and cosmic levels that the trilogy must resolve preknowedge of the audience during the sack of Troy Ajax quotseizedquot raped Cassandra or quotdragged her awayquot from Athena s sanctuary or statue tearing a supplicant away from a sanctuary or altar was in itself a sacrilege Cytemnestra39s use of the word quotlustquot may hint at sexual crimes Page 1617 there39s a signi cant amount lines that support idea or theory of sexuality and violence These two are tied together CASSANDRA had she Cassandra already lost her virginity to Apollo after almost three hundred lines of silence Cassandra39s rst articulate cry is quotApollo Apolloquot a fthcentury Athenian audience was likely to have assumed that a young bride was virginal and the exchange between Clytemnestra and the chorus strengthens the impression of Cassandra39s virginity when the old men compare Cassandra to a newly captured wild creature 1063 Clytemnestra responds quotShe does not know how to bear the bit before foaming away her bloodstained strengthquot the comparison of virgins to animals to be tamed Cassandra39s quotblood stained strengthquot hints at the blood to be drawn when she is quottamedquot that is sexually initiated What place does virginity have in the play there is an idea of innocence The innocence is lost An untouched woman is the highest prize or treasure for a man in this society Men dominate the society Cassandra does not succumb to the queen39s seductive powers as did Agamemnon when he walked along the delicate red cloth Nor is Cassandra subdued or carried to her sacri ce like lphigenia but she goes into the palace of her own will quotI will lead the way I will have the courage to diequot she has full knowledge of what is happening and shows some power She walks to her own death with her head held high DOOM OF THE HOUSE OF ATREUS AGAMEMNON S CRIMES the storm Cachas the seer passes word to Artemis about the fate of Greek eet Agamemnon is instructed by Artemis to sacri ce his daughter lphigenia to shift the winds of war engages in a serious battle within himself to decide page 14 paints himself with the blood of his daughter SEXUAL REPRESENTATION AND WORD CHOICE Iphigenia is compared to a struggling calf con rming her innocence quothands are cramming a gag into her mouthquot akin to a group rape she is then described as having quotlovely lipsquot and quotheaving breastsquot a masterpiece of perfect skin recognizes that her killers are men family ties don39t matter too much to them ETHICAL BEHAVIOR AND ITS CONSEQUENCES James Helm pessimistic Greek belief that human success brings unhappiness the chorus rejects success alone doesn39t lead to misery but more clearly IMPIOUS ACTS not obeying gods commands do the chorus also introduces the idea of divine retribution for the violation of guest friendship acts of impiety against Zeus arrogance hubris leads to ruin cari es that hubris includes not only arrogance but rash behavior and violent acts when human are impious by ignoring the positions of the gods they come to feel selfimportant which angers the gods greatly mortas insult the gods through arrogance and pride superiority leads one to believe they are entitled to harm others REALLY HE39S NO ANGEL Agamemnon becomes the agent of Zeus and on the divine level his actions may be justi ed but in the process of carrying out Zeus will he becomes guilty of arrogance puts his personal reputation above the life of his daughter sacri ce her to carry out an adventure of personal grandeur chidmurder as a solution to a human of problem PART 2 LlBATIONBEARERS THE CHARACTER OF ORESTES scholarship by Hendry Scribner Aeschylus pondered deeply on the great ideas of sin and punishment on the certainty that sooner or later proud and guilty transgressors would be destroyed even unto the third and the fourth generation no sinner can escape but wisdom may come through suffering and one39s character may be re ned in the res of bitter trials Protagonist in rst part is Clytemnestra and in the second part Orestes PART 2 OF THE TRILOGY at the opening of the libationbearers Clytemnestra and Aegistheus have been ruling for osme seven years as triumphant usurpers in Argos quotFATE USED HER SLEEPING MOUTH TO TELL EVERY LISTENERquot divine in uence working throughout the play Eectra as a slave in the palace Cytemnestra39s dream of the serpent who drew blood from her breast symbolism sympathy for Orestes is increased by the laments of his old nurse who believes him to be dead the madness of remorse as he feels the approach of the Furies begins to creep over him who is sympathetic for Orestes at this point Basically everyone beside Clytemnestra THE COMPLEXITY OF CLYTEMNESTRA Cytemnestra faces death at the hands of a son whom she not only fears but also loves MARY BENNETI39 ANDERSON the only characters that are carried over from the rst to the second play of the trilogy are Aegisthus and Clyemnestra no major interest is directed to Aegisthus in the development of the trilogy Cytemnestra only appears 2 times inthis part of the trilogy first when she greets her son disguised as a stranger at the door 2nCI as actual victim of her son39s murderous plot Cytemnestra repeats her plea made in the Agamemnon the Fate was responsibility for her crime the audience is meant to suspect that Clytemnestra is as false in her motherhood as she was in her wifehood when she welcomed Agamemnon with soft words 09125114 MARY BENNETI39 ANDERSON CONT Aeschylus is also concerned with swinging sympathy toward Orestes so that deliberate matricide will be a believable crime Another thing that contributes effectively to the dark portrait of his mother is the sustained hatred expressed by the chorus Part 2 of trilogy Slave women then changes to furies part 1 they were the chorus the drama is quite literally concerned with the awful effects of offering an impious libation offering wine and oil for Agamemnon39s grave Eectra is instructed in the ritual words of libation forgotten sister page 113 also quotyour richestquot WHAT ABOUT ELECTRA she is the true libation bearer Cytemnestra orders her and the chorus to mourn Agamemnon aigns herself with the women of the chorus and asks for advice doubts mortal and divine trust 95 aigns her grief and suffering with her father39s page 113 ELECTRA CONT Eectra calls upon Persephone interesting and complex because Persephone was kidnapped and raped and brought to the underworld but her mother Demeter mourned for her and looked all over the world for her quotFather save me from Aegisthusquot page 115 BACK TO ANDERSON it is odd that Electra is not even mentioned in the Agamemnon Is this omission deliberately intended by Aeschylus to cast doubt on Clytemnestra s maternal feelings for lphigenia and Orestes three children of the union of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra lphigenia Electra Orestes She Electra the neglected and despised daughter by Clytemnestra is here a major indictment against Clytemnestra why was Electra despised A daddy39s girl She is an agent of con ict it is of religious signi cance important to the poet s whole plan for his trilogy that Electra is literally the only person in the palace who being of Agamemnon s blood pure of fault toward him and ritually clean can pour libation at his tomb her quandary is to choose words which can conceivably speed up such a Hbann she prays that she may be more chaste and more pious of hand than her mother in the passionate excitement of her recognition of Orestes her hate for Clytemnestra is openly expressed in the midst of that yearning cry to the brother who must for her ll the place of all kindred dead father dead sister impious mother she declares the awful truth page 124 Orestes comes to the house as a merchant pretending to be a traveler He knew that they were obligated to take him in our of respect for visitors quotME MURDER YOU MOTHER YOU HAVE ALREADY MURDERED YOURSELFquot pg 136 significant meaning she sealed her own fate when she killed Agamemnon THE EUMENIDES AND HOME COME THE FURIES third play THE END OF THE TRILOGY HELEN BACON the Oresteia culminates not so much in the resolution of Orestes but in the establishment of FURIES39 new home in Athens The Furies and Zeus act in parallel as the enforcers of unwritten laws furies are the daughters of hell The awful tormenting spirits COMING HOME TO ATHENS Athena offers the furies a home and a cult in Athens Pretrial Orestes has outcast status in Delphi Apolo rids him of polluted status but he is still quotstatelessquot after his acquittal he is restored to his quotoldquot home institutionaizing homecomings In performing this play they wanted to show that outcasts can have a home too FROM ANGRY WOMEN TO ACCEPTANCE we see the transformation from angry bloodthirsty women to guardians of the court marks a progression from darkness to light utimatey reveals themselves as nurturers and fosterers exchange their black robes for red robes of the court shows the power of blessing is rooted in the power of the curse SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS The furies function in the play as The chorus The savagery of nature Those whose cult is nally accepted into society Merciless avengers All of the above F909 In terms of ethical behavior scholarJames Helm points out that A Ethical behavior leads to hubris B Hubris Includes not only arrogance but rash behavior and violent acts C All the characters in the Oresteia act ethically D Mortals never insult the gods through arrogance and pride Who says this quote quotShe does not know how to bear the bit before foaming away her bloodstained strengthquot A lphigenia B Clytemnestra C Cassandra REVIEW know about comparing gang violence to the Iliad What is the underlying message of the third play Ralph Williams is viewed with tension cosmos According ralph how does violence differ between men and women men most violent during war women most violent when children are threatened Two individuals that fought in the duel of third part of Iliad Paris and Menalaus
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