Chapters 1-5 Intro to Bio
Chapters 1-5 Intro to Bio BSC1005
Popular in Intro to Biology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Science
This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Giovanna Gonzalez on Friday January 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BSC1005 at Miami Dade College taught by in Fall2013. Since its upload, it has received 185 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Science at Miami Dade College.
Reviews for Chapters 1-5 Intro to Bio
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/09/15
Giovanna Gonzalez BSC 1005 82713 Chapter 13 1 Observe the natural world 2 Form a question 3 Propose several guesses for that question An idea a hunch or guess Scientific Theory Something that has been studied and through evidence is backed up with research and data 4 Test the hypothesis Must be reproducible Someone else can re do it Exactly how you did it and get the same results Must be falsifiable Designed experiment has to have both a result that will support your hypothesis and have a possible result that can be false Must have a control The control is the standard that you re going to measure your experiment against You can do many different experiments each with a different control Variable One step that is changed in a specific way 5 Results from your experiment i CCHHEERR Composed of one or more Highly complex compared to nonliving things Inherit information in DNA that allows them to function Heredity Maintain a relatively constant internal environment Homeostasis Take in and use energy Evolved from other living things Respond to their environment Reproduce themselves 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DNA Information From smallest to biggest 1 Atom Hydrogen Inorganic Not a complex molecule and occurs in nature 2 Molecule Water Can be inorganic or organic Organelle Nucleus Cell Neuron Tissue Nervous tissue Organ Brain Organ System Nervous system Organism Sea Lion Population Colony 9390 0791990 10Community Giant kelp forest 11 Ecosystem Southern California Coast 12Biosphere Earth 8291 3 Has a central part that has protons and neutrons no charge Electrons are around the nucleus in orbit They re packages of energy and just run around the nucleus at the speed of light They run around in a sphere When you move energy you move electrons The number of protons the element Equal number of protons and electrons makes an equal atom A full outer shellHappy atom Variations in the number of neutrons Isotopes Each shell holds a very specific number of electrons The first shell can hold up to 2 electrons Second shell can hold 8 electrons Third shell can hold up to 8 electrons Electrons can come and go H Unique The smallest atom we have the only atom we have that has no neutrons Has the same number of electrons and protons 1 electron and 1 proton He lnertFull shell Valence shell Helium doesn t react C We are carbon based life forms 6 electrons6 protons Agood building block Equal number of empty spaces It can form 4 chemical bonds Interactions between atoms or molecules Ne Second shell is full lnertjust like Helium Na 11 electrons 11 protons 2 in the first shell 8 in the second shell 1 in the third shell Sodium usually gets rid of the extra electron on the third shell H20 2 hydrogenH 1 oxygenO Hydrogen shares their electrons with Oxygen Mickey Mouse molecule Water is essential to life 98 of your body is made up of water Polar molecule Covalent Bond Sharing of electrons Polar or nonpolar Very strong semi permanent Opposite charges attract Like charges pull away Polar Molecule has both a negative amp positive pull Methane Nonpolar moleculesymmetrical Polar molecule makes a bond asymmetrical Proteins work by shape Hydrogen bond 1 Weak 2 Easy to break 3 Hydrogen end always positive 4 Oxygen always negative Ionic bonds Relationship between two ions Weak ons Positive atom or molecule because it lost electrons or can be a negative atom or molecule because its gained electrons ons Don39t create molecules just an electrical charge attraction Sodium Na Chlorine Cl Sodium has but a single electron in its outer shell while chlorine has seven meaning it lacks only one single electron to have a completed outer shell NaCl When these two atoms come together sodium loses its thirdshell electron to chlorine in the process becoming a sodium ion with net positive charge because it now has more protons than electrons Hydrogen lon H Just a proton pH A scale or measurement of how acidic a solution is An acid is any solution that has more hydrogen than hydroxides A base has more hydroxides than hydrogen If the number is equal Water than it is a neutral pH Neutral pH 7 Water More hydrogen ions Acid Less hydrogen ionsBase Low numbers on the scale are acid High numbers on the scale are bases Carbon Chains of carbon Rings of carbon Anything that ends in E is a sugar 1 Ca boxyl OOH Found in Fatty acids amino acids 2 HydroxylOH Found in Alcohols carbohydrates 3 AminoNH2 Found in Amino acids Built on nitrogen 4 PhosphatePO4 Found in DNA ATP Polar molecule Monomers amp Polymers Monosaccharide Polysaccharidestarch glycogen glucosefructose cellulose Single bead Chain of beads An amino acid arginine leucine A polypeptide or protein A and B chains of insulin are polypeptides and insulin is a protein A nucleotide sugar phosphate A nucleic acidDNA RNA base in combination Four different types of organic molecules Made by living things Table 35 in book 1 Chains of glucose molecules Basically have one or two functions They can be energy stores or structural Support something Energy stores in plants Starch Polymer made by plants Energy stores in humans and animals Glycogen Structural in plants Cellulose Fiber Structural in animals and humans Chitin gt Amino Acids gt Nucleotides gt Fats and oils 2 3 4 Four different type of lipids 1 Fatty Acids SaturatedUnsaturated 2 Hydrophilichydrophobic 3 Based on carbon amp cholesterol 4 Saturated fats Straight and flat molecule Maximum amount of hydrogen Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated one double bond Do not have the maximum amount of hydrogen Bend in the molecule Polyunsaturated more than one double bond 4 different carbons Chapter 4 Lipid category Phospho Phosphate group attached to it Molecule has two different basic characteristics lt s hydrophilic and hydrophobic Water attracted to the head of the molecule The fatty acid tails The end of the molecule will repel water Oil Non polar WaterPolar Nonpolar hydrophobic tails exposed to oil Polar hydrophilic heads exposed to water ENE f IL f 91 I F ll wil llll ll Proteins are made from Amino Acids 931 3 Every amino acid is made up of a central carbon one amino group side chain and a carboxyl group We have in our bodies 20 different type of amino acids that go into every protein The primary structure of any protein is simply its sequence of amino acids This sequence determines everything else about the proteins shape Type Role Examples Enzymes Quicken Chemical Reactions SucraseTable sugar Hormones Chemical Messengers Growth Hormones Transport Move other molecules Hemoglobin Transports oxygen through blood Contractile Movement Myosin amp Actin Allow muscles to contract Type Role Examples Protective Healing defense against invader Fibrinogen Stops bleeding Antibodies Combat microbial invaders Structural Mechanical Support Keratin Hair Collagen Cartilage Storage Stores nutrients Ovalbumin Egg white used as nutrient for embryos Toxins Defense predation Bacterial diphtheria toxin Communication Cell Signaling Glycoprotein Receptors on cell surface Nucleotides The building blocks of DNA Each nucleotides is made up of three parts A sugar a phosphate and a base 4 Bases AT amp CG A amp T always pair with each other C amp G always pair with each other Double Helix a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis esp that in the structure of the DNA molecule Bases are joined together by hydrogen bonds You can unzip it down the middle and read the genetic bases Chapter 4 Cells 1 Before the nucleus Lack of nucleus DNA is spread through the cell is an example of such cell Smaller Always a single celled organism 2 Membrane based Much larger more complex Multicellular like us iComponents of Eukaryotic Cellsi Nucleus Contains the cells primary complement of DNA Other organelles Ribosomes golgi etc Cytosol Liquid Solving solution Its a location for countless chemical reactions carried out within the cell Cytoskeleton Plasma Membrane Outside layer Path of protein in Animal Celil Eukaryotic 1 Instructions from DNA are copied onto mRNA mRNA moves to ribosome Ribosome moves to endoplasmic reticulum and reads mRNA instructions Amino acid chains growing from ribosomes is dropped inside ER membrane Chain folds into protein Protein moves to Golgi complex for additional processing and sorting Protein moves to plasma membrane for export Exocytosis Mitochondrion Produces energy ATP Food amp oxygen goes in Water carbon dioxide and energy comes out Mitochondrion takes in food glucose and then uses oxygen to break down the foods and release carbon dioxide and water Then makes energy Cytoskeleton Cell structure Made up of three different parts 1 Microfilaments Changes in cell shape 2 Intermediate filaments Maintenance of cell shape 3 Microtubules Motion movement of organelles cell mobility hCJON 0301 Cell Animal Cell Table 41 amp Table 44 1 Nucleus Control Center 2 Cytosol Liquid 3 Ribosome Work benches 4 ER Assembly line 5 Golgi complex Distribution center 6 Transport vesicle Exocytosis taking out 7 Endocytosis taking in Pinocytosis cell drinking Phagocytosis eating PG104 8 Lysosomes Cleaning crew 9513 One organelle that is in the animal cell but isn t in the plant cell Lysosome Figure 416 Comparison of Animal amp Plant Cell Figure 417 Plant Cell picture Three organelles that are in the plant cell and not in the animal cell Cell wall Structural Central Vacuole Filled with water Takes the place of the lysosome Chloroplast Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Opposite of mitochondrion Takes in carbon dioxide and gives off oxygen 9513 Chapter 5 Animal Cell Plasma Membrane Plasma Membrane is the outer surface of the cell lts job is a barrier It allows certain things in and certain things out Everything else is blocked Made up of 4 basic parts Figure 51 1 Flitigmllllimit twill er A double layer of phospholipid molecules whose hydrophilic heads face outward and whose tails point inward toward each other 2 Molecules that act as a patching substance and that help the cell maintain an optimal level of fluidity 3 Integral Bound to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane or peripheral meaning not bound in this way on the outside 4 Sugar chains that attach to proteins and phospholipids serving as protein binding sites and cell lubrication and adhesion molecules Controls how sticky or slippery the outside of the cell is Sometimes they form a shape that forms a receptor works a little bit in communication Water Oxygen Carbon dioxide can pass through the membrane Functions of the plasma protein Figure 53 A lStructural Supportl Membrane proteins can provide structural support often when attached to parts of the cells scaffolding or cytoskeleton B Recognition Protein fragments held within recognition proteins can serve to identify the cell as normal or infected to immune system cells C Communication Receptor proteins protruding out from the plasma membrane can be the point of contact for signals sent to the cell via traveling molecules such as hormones LOCK AND KEY D Transport Proteins can serve as channels through which materials can pass in and out of the cell Diffusion 54 The natural process of going from high concentration to low concentration DiffusionPassive gradient A slow gradual change from high concentration to low concentration The net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration Figure 55 Osmosis in cells Figure 56 Figure 57 A Passive Transport 1 Simple Diffusion Materials move down their concentration gradient through the phospholipid bilayer 2 Facilitated Diffusion The passage of materials is aided by a concentration gradient and by a protein transport Figure 58 3 B Active transport Molecules again move through a transport protein but now energy must be expanded to more them against their concentration gradient Uses energy Going the opposite direction from passive Low concentration to high concentration SodiumPotassium Pump Figure 59 Active Transport Allows the cell to maintain high concentrations of potassium ions K inside the cell and sodium ions NA outside the cell
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'