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Date Created: 10/19/15
Sending and Receiving Messages Spontaneous Communication a Involuntary b display of inner emotion c hide things for a while Symbolic Communication a Use of arbitrary symbols b Socially de ned and intended to convey speci c messages I We are more likely to believe nonverbal the verbal communication IV Functions a Express meaning i How people feel towards each other ii How we touch iii 3 dimensions liking status responsiveness iv Haptics nonverbal communication b Modify verbal meaning i Complementing ii Accenting Hi Repea ng iv Substituting v Contradicting c Regulate ow of interactions taking turns voice changes V Message Systems a Visual i Proxemics spatial environments ii Kinesics facial expressions movements b Artifacts i Physical features things we bring with us clothes c Auditory Communication i Paralanguage Characteristics of voice Pitch Resonance Tempo Volume Rhythm Articulation IOWU39lbUJNH d Invisible i Chronemics interpreting messages with time ie lateness ii Olfactics messages attached to smell iii Proxemics see above VI 5 Axioms a We cannot NOT communicate b Communication has content and relationship levels i Content what is said ii Relationship how it39s said de nes the relationship c The nature of a relationship is dependent on the punctuation of the partners communication procedures i Punctuation organizing groups of messages into meanings d Digital and analogic i Digital discrete de ned elements of communication ie words very speci c gestures ii Analogic refers to a correspondence between things which are otherwise different ie shaking a st violence e Symmetric or complementary i Symmetric both parties in the relationship act as equals from a power perspective ii Complementary unequal power parentchild bossemployee Metadiscourse l De nition a Discourse practical use of language b Metadiscourse discourse about discourse c Ex Don t tease your brother I promise to be a better listener ll Metacommunication communication about communication lll Two Layers a Basic info being communication by a series of words b Speaker39s emotions lV lt39s permanent can apologize but can never take it back V Assertiveness and Validation a Assertive empathy b Aggressive state how you feel at expense of other people attacking people c Passive don39t directly express thoughts no con dence doesn39t get you what you want d Making assertive statements i Perspective ii FeeHngs Hi Needs Assertive listening skills Validation i Diffuses the situation ii Moves conversation from problem to solution iii Moves feelings from discon rming to con rming iv Understand others experiences v Not agreeing but seeing vi Can be verbal and nonverbal vii Why it works 1 Disarms the other person 2 Opens communication 3 Soothes negative arousal 4 Builds trust 5 Enhances selfrespect and reduces regret Vl Communication Climate a Affect how other people feel and interact b Create constructive climates good relationships c Defensive behavior anticipating a threat quot D Prejudgment l De nition take in and interpret information ll Mindfulness tendency to interpret social interaction in a habitual manner rely on prior categorization important to stay alert lll Perception Aware of the information around us Perceptions can vary Process Stimulation exposed to information sensory Organized selected cues Interpret i Give a name to understand what it is ii Generalization stereotyping attributions In uenced by i Previous communication ii Surroundings iii Sociocultural iv Relations h Factors affecting i Emotion bad mood bad attitude ii Motivation primed in one situation prepares you for the next iii Cognitive structures 1 Schemata make sense of the world 2 Principle of least effort rely on preexisting conditions iv Social cognition interpret meanings and sayings IV Schemata to classify people a Personal construct characteristics we use to describe people in detail b Person prototype mental category used to classifylabel others c Stereotype cluster of expectation about probable behaviors of a group member V Schemata that De nes Roles and Relationships a Role represent rules norms and behaviors in various roles b Relational represent interaction patterns in certain types of relationships Vl Schemata for Social Situations a Event represent expectations about social situations b Scripts guides to sequential actions c Social episodes represent expectations for common recurring interaction routines within a culture Vll Attribution Theory see rst set of note I sent to you a Errors i Fundamental attribute behaviors to their personality instead of the situation ii Actionobserver attribute behavior of other to selves and our own environment iii Selfserving take credit for successes and blame failures on other factors extends to people we like b Biases i Anchoring effect nal judgement is almost always biased to initial impression ii Cultural individualistic or collective fDQ O39QJ 921 Review Dialectical Theory Announcements Update on D2L Word version of the slides where the powerpoint slides are posted I Review of Dialectical Theory a b Assumptions con ict is not bad natural consequences of relationship open doors for better communication Philosophical Baxter and Montgomery draw heavily on Bakhtin no ultimate resolution opportunity for dialogue Relational Contradictions con ict between two minds 3 dialectics that affect relationships i Internal between the two people in the relationship 1 Closeness v Autonomy 2 Certainty v Novelty 3 Openness v Privacy ii External between the couple and the outside forces 1 Inclusion v Seclusion 2 Conventionality v Uniqueness 3 Revelation v Concealment NOTE if one sides prevails the relationship loses Tension back and forth between two ends of the continuum New Dialectic Gender Role Dialectic i Tension between enacting gender roles in our relationships and developing new ones ii Traditional Roles v New Roles Clicker Question Which of the following statements related Relational Dialectics theory is NOT TRUE i Answer The goal of true dialogue is always resolution ii Counted for extra credit ll PreReading Strategies we are going off on a tangent today and will return to class content on Wednesday a b c Look at the origin of the reading Who is the audience Who is the author i You could google the author can help understand the position the reading was write from What is this quotaboutquot i Look at the title ii Look at the rst few paragraphs Annotating Texts i Interacting with the texts and nding meaning as you read it ii Personally I like to nd the de nitions of key terms and big ideas While you read i Ask questions take note of things you don39t understand ii React to what you read iii Give an opinion iv Locate important passages v Make connections vi De ne new words vii Track themes g After you read i Title chapters or article sections ii Summarize what you39ve read iii Respond to what you39ve read iv Make a prediction lll Upcoming assignments Cameron Reading on D2L 923 Part 3 Communication and Shared Social Space l Readings a Messages problems are skillsrelated b Cameron the problem is that meaning does not reside solely within the individuals interacting ll Shared social space a Physical or virtual space ie online forum social media bars clubs shops parks etc where people gather All space is social b Think about how people behave in these spaces We construct the meaning based on what happens there contexts c These contexts are constitutive our interaction communication that creates the context itself d Rulebound interaction abide by certain rules within shared social spaces lll Communication and Reality a Traditional view use communication to describe the world facts are independent of us we are observers b Constitutive view make sense of the world together we are building reality i Apply language ii Communication itself creates meaning building block of all social entities lV Cameron Reading a Western popular ideas of communication have evolved normative right v wrong can be used to sanctioncontrol conduct of other people call people out for not using language properly b Communication Culture culture obsessed with communication and the skills that it supposedly demands c Rise i Normative ideas about communicationgt experts ii Expertsgt communication as a set of skills we can buy communication expertise d Origins of communication culture i Economic change rise in service jobs selling things to consumers Zappos buying the shoes and all the things behind them customer service ii Dissolution of traditional societiesgt personal growth constantly have to reinvent ourselves quotselfre exivityquot e Clicker Question According to Cameron most communication training psychiatric or behavioral therapy i Answer is modeled on f Basic tenants of communication culture i Important solution to social problems ii Can only be done right with help of expert skills iii Must be evaluated iv Regulatedstandardized in institutional settings g Cameron is acknowledging the communication culture but she is not saying it is the best way i Problematic 1 Little to do with actual communication 2 Can serve hide power imbalances silence individual concerns problems are dif cult to resolve if you feel powerless 3 Leaves the meaning of effective communication and related skills vaguegt assessment can be meaningless h Within the shared social space i Reading draws attention to how the dynamics of interaction determines appropriateness ii What determines quotappropriatenessquot iii Environmental contextsgt power differences V Next time how people use language to interact and do things together 928 Announcements October 7th Midterm don39t come to class on D2L Clip from quotBulliesquot documentary depicts bullying in school age children Tracy Reading I New Terms a Metaphor a gure of speech where a word or phrase is applied to an object that it does not directly relate to compare unlike things to better understand experiences b Denotative Hesitancy discourse analysis a reluctance to name something for what it is the idea we are giving something quotlegitimacy therefore quotnamingquot it c Framing selecting and highlighting some facets or issues and making connections among them to show a particular point of view quotbullyingquot vs quotteasingquot d Sensemaking and lntersubjectivity i Meaning depends on experiences ii Sensemaking depends on our interpretation of that experience iii Meaning is given to our experiences subjective tied to the information we have access to is in the eye of the beholder but also in uenced by larger social systems and contexts H iv Intersubjectivity when my interpretation matches your interpretation of something I am not surprised by your behavior ll What is the communication problem a Bullying at work is experienced by 2530 of employees 1 in 10 b Tracy et al wants to explain how communication is used to make sense of the feelings experienced during bullying lll Research Question a Original What does workplace bullying feel like b Revised What types of metaphorical language do participants use to describe the emotional experience of bullying i Taking an inductive approach IV Expectations a What work is like b What happens here c How we talk about it d How we behave i Productive ii Teamwork Hi Respect iv What happens when situations occur that fall out of what we expect What words and symbols do we use And why Why reluctance to tell these stories V Bullying a Bullying creates a new kind of social interaction b Reminiscent of schoolyard antics childish unfair no rules or help c Bully people who don39t play by the rules Vl Understanding Communication as Social a Social interaction strategic openended contextbound use of locally available communication resources b Trying to accomplish a goal Vll Society as Communicational a Building social worlds b When we are in a relationship we are building what that communication is c There can be harmful interpersonal relations in workplaces d How do people build social worlds using metaphors Vlll Clicker Question What is your experience with work place bullying a l have experienced it b Know someone who has c Me and someone else d l have not nor someone I know IX Two Connections a Complaints about bullying often dismissed and described as weak or sensitive b Employees use metaphors to describe the employee39s perspective is recognized X Clicker Question According to Tracy et al quotnightmarequot is a metaphor for a Correct answer the bullying process Xl Clicker Question According to Tracy et al quotchildquot is a metaphor for a Correct answer the target XII Clicker Question According to Tracy et a quotdictatorquot is a metaphor for a Correct answer the bully 930 Guest Lecturer Rebecca TA Communication as Constitutive a Communication previously thought of as transmission b New Models i Making a thing what it is ii Having the power to establish something iii Establishes the world around us Communication Constitutes Organizations a Like the senderreceiver model we often view organizations as quotcontainersquot b Organizations are made of communication organizations only exist through communication c Things only have meaning because we have talked about it in a certain way I Why does this view matter a Organizations are not neutra structures they are communicately created b Organizations include power resources and strategies IV Video by Matt Koshman discusses organizational communication getting the right information to the right people is critical more technology people are more confused about communication makes up our social world V Clicker Questions According to Tracy et a metaphors are a useful way to communicate about workplace bullying because metaphors a Answer Translate the feeling of workplace bullying to people who are not experiencing it because it relates them to wellknown emotions VI Workplace Bullying a Metaphors matter because they constitutes the situation they can be used to help b Bullying as a battle i Target must ght for what is right ii Gives target some control but also promotes retaliation c Bullying as a nightmare i Things are unrea and don39t make sense ii Target has no control d Bullying as torture i Targets should go numb to cope with trauma ii Undesirable effects on work performance V Why study organizational metaphors a People should consider how metaphors constrain andor enable them b Understand the metaphors organizations understand how victims fee c Abuse harms emotional productivity i High rate of turnover hard to get people to stay at a place of work when they are being bullied ii Less productive communication at work 105 Announcements Clicker points gt They are your attendance make sure it39s working for each question you get 3 points 1 for clicking and 2 for right answer if we get through everything today we WILL NOT have class on Wednesday 107 Midterm study guide will be posted on D2L on Wednesday Study Review will be next Monday during class Extended of ce Hours on Wednesday when we would be having class in Hellems 76 Midterm 50 qs TF Multiple choice ll in the blank on D2L next Wednesday Engstrom Reading I Clip from Animal House a Depicted how people thought college was b Campus Life in the Movies 2008 i Conklin how Hollywood has shown us what college is like ii Often overdramatized iii Communication view How we talk about experiences and that affects us ll Sex vs Gender a Sex biological and physiological features b Gender what is masculine vs feminine gender is socially constructed c Julia Wood attempted to answer the question What does it mean to us as individuals to grow up masculine or feminine i Feminine Appearance counts Be sensitive and caring Negative treatment by others Be superwoman There is no single meaning of feminine anymore Some will applaud you and others will criticize you ii Masculine Don39t be female 2 Be successful 3 Be aggressive 4 Be sexual 5 Be selfreliant iii These are the messages men and women get for their gender d Gender as Performative i Ways we speak dress look language nonverbal etc ii How men and women tend to reappropriate traditional gender values as part of doing gender in contemporary college life iii Men get the excuse quotI was drunkquot to excuse inappropriate behaviors lll Speech Codes U39lIgtLJMJII I a Rules for producing culturally recognizable appropriate speech b How do students talk about binge drinking on college classes lV Binge Drinking a Our perceptions of college drinking is the problem itself Use alcohol as an excuse for bad choices can39t be held accountable for decisions b Men will exaggerate the behaviors aggressive sexual etc they should participate in when they are drinking c Limitations of previous studies i Focus on drinking not the behavior that drinking normalizes ii Term quotbinge drinkingquot V 4 Rules a Accept references to alcohol quotas isquot Don39t ask for specifics i Normalizes any infraction that occurred ii Useful for nondrinkers young woman playing cards wants to go to bed and uses the excuse of getting quotso wastedquot the night before b Validations of references to alcohol i Students may follow up with their own story ii Laugh nervously c Refer to alcohol positively i Downplay alcohol as a cause for problematic andor dangerous behavior d Referencing alcohol should point to normalcy i Alcohol is used to rationalize out of the ordinary behavior of others ii quotLumberjacks like to drink A LOT point 1 And they like to drink whiskey 2 Somebody generally drinks so much the get mild alcohol poisoning 3 It happens every year 4 VI Communicative Competence a If you know the rules you can participate without incident in the communicative event i Engstrom did not understand the rule about not asking for speci c details ii Marked him as communicatively incompetent Vll Practices that reinforce hegemonic masculinity a Men engage in more aggressive violent risktaking behavior when drinking b Students feel you should drink more than you actually do so they will often exaggerate Vlll Dominant View Students drink too much and misconduct ensues IX Engstrom quotquotquot misrepresentation Students say quotyes I did that but I was drunkquot X Clicker Question In reality the type of masculinity Engstrom discusses a Answer Describes how some men behave XI Clicker Question Cameron and Engstrom criticize quotjust say noquot rape prevention programs designed to prevent dangerous drinking What is the root of their problems a Answer They neglect the ways people use language 1012 Test Review Today we are going over the Midterm Tips a Start the test on time b Exam is open 12am Wed to 12am Thursday c 75 minutes for 50 questions 2 points a question d If something goes wrong you must document it a Read b Understand c Think d Answer CLICKER QUESTIONS N VI VII VIII XI X X XIV The six elements of paralanguage are a Pitch resonance articulation tempo volume and rhythm An assertive statement is made up of 3 parts 1 your perspective of the situation 2 your feelings about the situation and 3 a Your needs regarding the situation Validation is letting someone know you completely agree with hisher words and actions a False Which of the following is a form of academic dishonesty a All of the above clicker fraud lying bribery Within the Johari Window your Blind Self represents a Things that others can nd out about you that you are unaware of Metamessages rather than messages themselves are often the source of interpersonal con icts or perceived problems a True Validation can be communicated both verbally and nonverbally a True Which of the following is a true statement a Superiority is a defensive behavior and equality is a supportive behavior One of the things that attribution theory suggests is that people tend to see cause and effect relationships where none exist a True Which of the following statements about relational dialectics is NOT TRUE a All of the above are true partners in a healthy relationship continue to navigate throughout the relationship navigating tensions strengthens the relationship and one dialectic winning out is a sign of an unhealthy relationship One way to think of shared social space is as a kind of context where certain types of interactions might take place a True Metaphorical language appears in everyday talk and provides linguistic shorthand to describe difficulttoarticulate and painful feelings a True XV A kind of heartbreak is one of the metaphors Tracy s subjects used to describe a Being bullied XVI Male performances of hegemonic masculinity include empathic listening backing down from arguments asking for help in dif cult situations a False XVII Engstrom believes that if we can change the way students talk about alcohol they will a Be less likely to engage in or support drunken misconduct 1019 No Reading Quizes this week moved to next week Re ection Paper 3 moved to 116 Re ection Paper 4 removed from assignments Bailey Reading I Facetoface interactions between AfricanAm and Koreans left both parties feeling like the other had been rude to them II There were expectations of how the groups were to act III People can have the same interaction but different perceptions IV Making attributions about the other person can lead to negative feelings V Different encounters are a result from a Cultural and linguistic differences b Social inequality in America VI What Happened Many AfricanAm lost their jobs There were not many jobs at all in Korea so many came to America Koreans started setting up shops and taking the jobs from AfricanAms A lot of tension developed and there were race riots Rodney King 1991 showed racial pro ling and police brutality in the LA Police Dept Latasha Harlins 1991 went into a liquor store to buy some orange juice but was accused of stealing she leaves the store but gets shot in the back of the store Woman who shot her got no jail time and given a 500 ne VII What is the link between microsocial communicative patterns and larger scale social relations between and among different speech communities a Communicative patterns regular ways of speaking b Interaction patterns communicative patterns typical for a speech community VIII Clicker question Based on the discussion so far what is an example of the quotmicroquot a Answer AfricanAm interacting with a Korean store owner Duncm h
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