Lecture 5&6 Notes
Lecture 5&6 Notes PSY0010 Introduction to Psych
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Alexandra Ruth on Friday January 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY0010 Introduction to Psych at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Cousins in Fall2011. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/09/15
Lectures 5 amp 6 Chapter 5 Learning Outline Why learning how we develop thinking and behaving 1 any relativer brought about by experience or practice 2 and classical conditioning Research on how dogs digestdiscovered classical conditioning Cassical conditioning learning to make a response to a stimulus other than original natural stimulus response US UR CSCR USCkiss UCRracing heart NSsigni cant other UCSkiss UCRracing heart CS signi cant otherCRracing heart Conditioned stimulus comes before US have to be close together in time no more than 5 seconds apart Alsoneutral stimulus has to presented with conditioned stimulus several times this repeated pairingACQUlSlTlONcritical learning time CS has to be new metronome is a novel sounddog not used to it stimuus generalization nger snapping and bell tie two together tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to original conditioned stimulus w conditioned response ex snapping ngers instead of metronome dog might salivate to both stimuus discrimination after a while ability to tell the difference between the bell and nger snapping if you don t condition dog to salivate to both ngers and metronome it will only salivate to one Over time he will discriminate bw metronome and ngers extinctiondisappearance of a learned response following removal or absence of UCSljFigure 53 utimate pattern CSbell CRsalivating UCSfoodreinforcer Spontaneous recovery reappearance of learned response after extinction Pavlov brought metronome back few weeks laterCS presented a weak response less saliva but measurable response 3 and classical conditioning of emotions Li Albert conditioned emotional response CER emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli UCSloud noise UCRfear CSwhite rat USCloud noise CRfear of white ratphobia conditioned taste aversiondevelopment of nausea or grossed out to a particular taste bc taste was followed by nausea reaction occurred after only one occurrence ex medicine that makes patients nauseous 4 5 6 bioogica preparedness tendency of animals to learn certain associations such as tastenausea with only one or few pairings due to survival value of learning biological mechanism why does classical conditioning happen stimuus substitution subject substitutes UCS with CS from being paired closely together cognitive perspective theory that bc CS provides info or an expectancy about the coming of the US dog expects food to come from bell why the dog salivates prior to food being shown and operant conditioninginvolves voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant amp unpleasant consequences to responses Hungry cats in quotpuzzle boxesquotcats gured out how to press a lever to be let out of box takes a few trials for it to realize effect of rubbing lever Thorndike s Law of Effect if response results in pleasant response will be repeated if response is unpleasant stimulus will not be repeated and operant conditioning Claimed term operant conditioning reinforcement any event or stimulus that when followed by a response increases probability that response will occur again peasurabe consequence ice cream for good grades positive reinforce OR avoiding something unpleasant no chores for good grades neg reinforce skinner boxrats press bar get food pellet Reinforcers and operant conditioning primary reinforcers any reinforcer that naturally reinforces basic biological needhunger thirst touch ex rat getting food pellet secondary becomes reinforcing after being paired with primary reinforcer such as praise tokens gold stars 7positive reinforcement reinforcement of a response by the 7 addition of a pleasurable experience negative reinforcement of a response by removal of an unpleasant stimulus doing homework in order to not have to do chores removal of chores taking aspirin to avoid headache removal of headache extinction occurs if the response is not reinforced exignoring a child s temper tantrum results in less tantrums operanty conditioned responses also can be generalized to stimuli that are similar to original stimulus ex different sizeshape pellets for rat spontaneous recovery also occurs in operant conditioning Schedules of reinforcement Fig 58 Continuous reinforcement reinforcement of each and every correct response Partial reinforcement reinforcement of some responses Types of partial reinforcement 1Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement in which number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same every set number of triesevery 4th timeevery 10 ice creams you buy get 1 free 2Fixed interval every so many minuteshoursseconds febreze spray thing 3Variable ratioset number is different every time lottery tickets 4Variable intervalno set amount of time rats get pellets at random times 8 Punishment Any event or object that makes a response less likely to happen again 1By application addition or experiencing an unpleasant stimulus ex yelled at 2By removal punishment by removing a pleasurable stimulus exgroundedno tv for a week problems with punishment 0 may cause avoidance of the punisher instead of the behavior being punished may encourage lying to avoid more punishment 0 creates fear amp anxiety 0 can cause aggression effective use of punishment should be immediately used following behavior meant to be punEhed should be consistent should be paired whenever possible with reinforcement of the right behavior STUDYYYdif bw reinforcement and punishment FIG 52 9 Shaping 10 Reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that leads to a desired more complex behavior Successive approximation small steps in behavior one after the other that lead to a particular good behavior ex dog sit gt lay gt roll over Applications of operant conditioning behavior modification the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior token economy type of behavior modi cation in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens gold starts in school etc o timeout punishment by removal in which the subject is placed in a special area away from attention of others 0 applied behavior analysis ABA uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response behavior modi cation biofeedback using feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses like blood pressure amp relaxation under voluntary control ex relaxing breathing shows people how their blood pressure will decrease they learn how to act to promote health neurofeedback form of biofeedback using brain scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity to modify behavior 11 Tolman 1930 s Gestalt psychologist rats in mazes Group 1 rewarded everytime they nd end of maze Group 2 rats awarded treat every 10 days demonstrated latent learning 0 demonstrated learning of the maze almost immediately after receiving reward had a mentalcognitive map about maze s design group 3 no reward received 0 no learning of the maze latent learning learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful group 2 FIG 510 12 Kohler monkey studies Early 1900 s Gestalt Stranded on island studying sultan the chimp Problemget the banana laying outside the cage reaching for it FAIL o reach for it with a stick SUCCESS tria amp error learning Banana too far for one stick sultan shows insight and puts two sticks together insightperception of relationships among various parts of a problem allowing solution to the problem to come quickly aha moment 13 Seligman1960 s dogs in shock boxes Learned helplessness tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past EXPERIMENT with dogs in box with shock grid oor over time dogs learn that both sides of box give them shocks Symptoms of dogs depression don t eat don t sleep don t play LEARNED HELPLESSNESS AND DEPRESSION apathy instead of action stay in tough situations powerlessness and hopelessness criteria LEARNED HELPLESSNESS amp DOMESTIC VIOLENCE learn that there s no way out 14 Bandura Observational learning learning new behavior by watching a model behave a certain way ex bobo dolls kids beat them up bc they saw adults do it shows learningperformance distinction referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior 15 Four key elements of observational learning 1A39lTENTONto learn through observation pay attention to model 2MEMORY the leaner must be able to remember what was done 3lMlTATlON learner must be capable of reproducing actions of the model 4MOTVATON learner must have desire to perform action Lecture 6 Chapter 6 Outline Memory active system that receives info from the senses organizes and alters it as it s stored then retrieved from storage 1 3 processes of memory 1 Encoding people perform on sensory info to cnvert that info into form that it is usable in brain 2 Storage holding on to info in organized manner in brain 3 Retrieval ability to access info from storage in brain Parallel distributed processing modelin which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over 3 Levels of processing modelwe assume that info that is according to meaning it will be remembered more efficiently and for longer period of time 4 Informationprocessing model g 61 info enters brain through senses registers in sensory memory selective attention then transferred to STM a Sensory memorythe very rst stage of memory the point at which info enters nervous system through senses i lconic visua visual sensory memory lasting only fraction of a second short duration info pushed out of brain quickly o Allows enough time for brain to decide if info is important enough to be brought into consciousness ii Echoichearing brief memory of something you just heard Capacity is limited to what can be heard at any one moment Duration 24 seconds a little longer than iconic o Allows just enough time for brain to decide if info is important enough to be brought into consciousness b Short term memory Type of memory where info is held for brief periods of time while being used listening to teacher retaining info then writing it in notes Primarily encoded in form of sound we talk to ourselves to keep things in short term memory maintenance rehearsal Capacity not too great only contain about 59 items 0 We info to accommodate for lack of capacity ex phone numbers social security numbers 0 Duration about 1230 seconds able to be extended w rehearsal o lnterference if rehearsing something to try to remember and it gets interrupted that can be lost counting numbersexceeding the limits of short term memory chunking over 9 items you will lose memory c Long term memory system if memory in which all the info is placed to be kept relatively permanently d Maintenance and elaborative rehearsal method of transferring info from STM to LTM by making info meaningful in some way attach details like Cheryl woman who helped me do my homeworkmarried to bob can lose info if not meaningful o Declarative explicit memoryaware of putting info in our brains o Episodic memory remembering graduation rst sports game 0 Semantic memory of facts general knowledge 0 Procedural implicit memory memory for speci c procedures riding a bike knowing how to cook things procedures involving motor skills 0 Semantic network model info is stored in brain in a connected fashion with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not related toppings are closely related and closely kept to the idea of pizza in brain Salad would not be as close to pizza as the toppings would be 5 Retrieval cues stimulus for remembering drawing a blank on what you had for dinner two days ago until you overhear someone talking about Chinese food then you remember eating Chinese the more details you associate with something the easier it is to retrieve info 6 Encoding speci city tendency for memory of info to be improved if related info available when the memory is rst formed is also available when the memory is retrieved Ex study in a classroom so better on test in a classroom because physiological state is similar focusing hard 7 Recallmemory retrieval in which info to be retrieved must be pulled from memory with few external cues ex who is lvan Pavlov Ex ll in blanks on an application Essay test a Serial position effects tendency of info at beginning primacy effect or end recency effect of whole body of info to be remembered more easily than info in middle trying to remember a series of numbers 8 Recognitionability to match piece of info or stimulus l mult Choice test ex word search puzzle where words just need to be found and circled a False positiveerror of recognition in which people think they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory b Eyewitness testimony Eizabeth Loftus prone to false positives memory changes without us being aware of it 9 Constructive processingretrieval of memories in which they are altered revised or in uenced by newer info 10 Hindsight biastendency to falsely believe through revision of old memories to include newer info we could ve correctly predicted the outcome of an event 11 Misinformation effecttendency of misleading info presented after an event why police don t want witnesses to talk to each other 12 False memory syndrome creation of inaccurate memories through suggestion of others often while people are under hypnosis fase memory must be somewhat plausible 13 Forgetting curve Ebbinghouse immediate recall 100 recognition after 20 minutes it goes down to about 60 after 30 days its gone Reasons we forget 14 Encoding falilurefailure to process info into memory we re often not paying attention 15 Memory tracephysical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed a Decayloss of memory due to passage of time that memories aren t usedSTM b Disuseanother name for decayLTM c Limitationpresence of memories after many years is not explained by memory trace theory 16 Proactive interferencememory retrieval problem that occurs when older info prevents or interferes with retrieval of newer info old info gets in the way getting a new phone new gets in way of old when people get a new cell phone numberoften remember old 17 Retroactive interferencememory retrieval problem that occurs when prevents or newy learned mac asked to remember PC driving car in England then coming back to US old gets in way of new mac the switch back to PC 18 Brain areas in which memories are stored Procedura memory motor skills riding bike cooking cerebellum STM peripheral frontal cortex temporal lobe fear amygdalaunpleasant stimuli semantic amp episodic LTM memories of life and memorizing facts and general knowledge frontal and temporal lobes 19 Types of brain changes that help store memories change in of receptor sites change in sensitivity of synapse through repeated stimulation LTM potentiation more we elaborate on a memory the more the neurons in its path are ring neurons are more efficient changes in dendrites shape number sensitivity changes in neuron s proteins consoidation changes that take place in structure amp function 20 HMfamous case study anterograde amnesia 27 year old who had medial temporal lobes removed including hippocampus to stop temporal seizures in 1900 s ost ability to consolidate put info into storage new declarative memories semantic and episodic could not be made woud reread magazines ast memory was entering the OR Memory disorders 21 Retrograde amnesialoss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backward the concussions 22 Anterograde amnesia loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward HMlAlzheimer s Difference bw operant and classical Classical learning used to associate one stimulus with another bell with salivating if Operant action has to be done by subject action being in order for learning to occur
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