Popular in People In Places: Understanding and Developing Community
Popular in Sociology
This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Alexandra Lord on Monday October 19, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Soc 240 at Illinois State University taught by Michael Dougherty in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see People In Places: Understanding and Developing Community in Sociology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Sociology 240 People in Places Notes Creative Capital gt What is Flora s argument 0 People are moving to cities I Why 0 Creative Centers I Who 0 Creative People 0 Entrepreneurs o Entertainers 0 Artists gt What does this mean for cities 0 Population and economic increase I Promote activities the creatives like 0 Politically o Tolerant 0 Recreational activity centers 0 Night clubs 0 Cafes 0 Art galleries gt Economic Development Orthodoxy o Attract People I To jobs 0 Benefits and incentives I Smoke stack chasing The Creative Class I gt Economic dynamism is a function of the concentration of quotcreative capita in a place gt Whereas people used to chase jobs now jobs chase people gt People elect to live in certain places gt These places are characterized by diversity tolerance anonymity DudleyThe Problem of Community gt Community is an enduring pattern of relationships gt Community is somehow antimarket or anticapitalist gt gt Farming is a business not a way of life Individualism social meanings of accountability Laguna Chichoj story Political Capital and the Power Elite gt gt Protected Lake Doesn t change or fix the problem of shrinking lake gt Wanted sewerdrainage systems Political Capital the ability to influence the distribution of resources can be exercised through quotnondiscussion Generally held by the quotpower elite and used to maintain status quo o Conforms to social stratification system 0 Power elite tends to share cultural traits Can discourage groups with different ideas and agendas from coming forward Political capital can have a private face Rural Rebound gt VVVVVV People moving back into rural areas Rural economies transforming Growing diversity Rural population less for most of the 20th Century 1970 s saw net population gains 1St rural rebound 1980 s saw net population losses 1990 s return to net population gains a trend that continues 0 Why I Economy got better I Making more money I Built summer homes many log cabins I Don t need as many farming hands with the new technology 1980 s Farm Crisis gt gt gt OPEC cartel 1973 0 Limited fuel High prices High commodity prices Russian grain crash 0 More move to rural for higher paying jobs I Plant and grow more higher production I Buy more property 0 Get a loan or lease property I Hire more people I Buy new equipment gt Prices Plummet gt Dark times for rural gt Fencerow to Fencerow 0 Earl Butts I quotplant fencerow to fencerow and quotgo big or go home I Get as much yield as possible I More profitable big farms gt Debt crisis of 1980 s Transformation of Rural Industry 1 The Globalization of production and markets 2 Shifts in competitive strategies production for niche rather than mass markets a Government subsidizes farmers 3 Expansion of services a Ex Walmart 4 Employment decline in traditional rural industries Rural Economic Transformation gt Farm employment dropping yet surface area farmed increasing 0 Technology gt Loss of manufacturing Rural Demographic Transition gt Ageselective patterns for migration into rural areas 0 Retirees gt Amenityrich and exurban places seeing most of the growth Rural Coping Strategies 1 Selfprovisioning a Growing own food etc i Using environment 2 Maintenance quotinsourcing a Do it yourself 3 Informal economy cashing that social capital a No taxes for payment b Doesn t use money i Ex Pie for Babysitting services c No taxes i Off tax roles ii No IRS involvement Black Farmers Pigford Vs gt gt gt gt 1920 0 926000 black farmers 2000 0 18000 black farmers in the US Causes for decline 0 Mechanization and the dismantling of sharecropping in the south Share cropping dismantled o Moved north o Moved into urban areas for work Systematic discrimination against black farmers Mass migration to northern cities Today 0 Still decline in numbers of farmers but increase in the total land owned and operated by black farmers Glickman Well documented systematic discrimination against black farmers by the USDA o Denied loans disaster payments price support and payments etc Suit filed 1997 settled 1999 90000 petitions 13000 members of the class received 1 billion in settlements Black Farmers Discrimination Litigation Settlement gt gt gt 2008 Farm bill reopened the opportunity to black farmers to pursue legal redress for discrimination up to 100 million 2010 Pigford earmarked another 12 Billion Payments disbursed as of 2013 Latinos in Rural America gt gt gt gt Increasingly settling into rural areas 0 Why I Easier to get jobs I Cheap labor undocumented I Work experience in farming Population doubled from 19902004 Nonmetropolitan population growing faster than metropolitan population 0 Counties with less than 50000 or no urban core Role of networks 0 Create streams of migration Extractive Industries gt Traditional rural industries are extractive industries 0 Agriculture 0 Timber 0 Mining gt Extractive industries have long been associated with persistent poverty 0 Why is this I Uneven development I Unpredictable I Resources can run out I Boom and bust I Prices all over the place Manufacturing V Robust in 1960 s 1970 s Decline in the 1980 s Stabilized in the 1990 s These jobs aren t spread uniformly throughout non metropolitan areas VVVV quotgood jobs although benefits have been eroded 0 Unions raises benefits Service Sector gt Blossomed in the 1990 s 0 Why gt quotBad jobs 0 Why I Fewer benefits gt Little differentiation between urban and renewal gains in service sector across urban city levels gt Maintenance but not sustenance 0 Ex Services follow a kick start they can t kick start an economy themselves McGranahan gt What did he mean by quotthe complexity approach to urbanrural divide 0 Rural economies are less complex organisms 0 Urban economies are much more complex organisms gt What did he mean by quotrecreation is rural America Rural Poverty gt Working poverty Offfarm income female wage labor More social capital less financial capital Lower educational attainment VVVV Rising faster than urban poverty rates since 2000 Sprawl gt Urbanization of the rural suburbs 0 Cities extend outwards gt Unlimited outward real estate development into developed areas gt quotCookie cutter development 0 All houses are alike gt High intensity and low density 0 Few people in the area gt Urban land use not functionally related to adjacent land uses gt The premature or poorly planned conversion of rural land to other uses Types of Sprawl gt Extending the urban boundary 0 Piecemeal extension of infrastructure gt Ribbon Sprawl 0 Based on highways o Generates additional development gt Leapfrog sprawl o Disconnected 0 Most expensive to service Urban Growth Boundaries gt What s an urban growth boundary 0 City makes a boundary line I Stops sprawl in its tracks 0 Still has a problem gt Drives redevelopment of urban core gt Drives maintenance of old infrastructure gt Creates condensed suburbs What s Wrong with Sprawl gt Energy efficient no walking all driving less dense o More expensive for cities 0 Have to travel farther to get place to place VVVV More costly for city government and tax payers Favors large corps over small stores Consumes fragile land and reduces surface area for farming and wildlife Segregation o Wealthy leave the city 0 Zoning I Schools produce segregation I Separates residential land use by residential land use 0 Not just retail from school from residents but different types of subdivisions by socioeconomic Property taxes fund public schools 0 Effect on social capital Advantages of Sprawl VVVV gt Inexpensive convenient goods and services to consumers Opportunities for economic development Connect rural areas to urban areas Cheaper housing Safer neighborhoods 0 Less eyes watching Easier commutes Historical Origins of Sprawl gt V VVVV Euclidean zoning 1926 o Euclid Ohio I Sued by real estate Federal Housing Administration 1936 o Insured mortgages tax deductions for mortgages Federal Highway Act 1956 Urban renewal Expansion of the automobile market Cheapland What does Euclidean zoning control gt gt VVVV Industrial arrangement land users Frontage requirements 0 How far back from the road you can build Height The amount of space structures may occupy The location of a building on the lot setbacks The proportions of the types of space on a lot and how much parking must be provided Zoning variance gt Exception to the rule The costs of Sprawl gt VVVVV gt Larger lots greater water and sewer costs More traffic new roads and more road maintenance Police fire garbage become more expensive Disproportionally small increases in tax revenue Two sets of underused infrastructure Obesity and disease Environmental costs not counted Tenets of smart growth gt gt Promoting sensible development and livable communities Maintaining o A set of policiesgoalsoutcomesa movement that promotes dense development that encourage pedestrian trafficfarms preserved and maintainedlowered taxes etc Upski s Five Myths 1 Suburbs are white middle class enclaves 2 Suburbs aren t cool 3 Suburbs are a product of the free market a People take advantage of living cheaper b Suburbs created by private industry 4 Suburbs are politically conservative 5 Suburbanites don t care about the environment Gentrification gt The process whereby the original residents of the neighborhood get priced out o Rentproperty values etc get more expensive and the original people there are forced to move because they can t afford it White middle class moving into an area and try to reconstruct the neighborhood in their image Generation of the time o Newermodern values instead of traditional Renewal 0 Positive connotation Negative connotation Urban Renewal centrally planned Gentrification gradual process private gt Upski o Gentrification sanitizes neighborhoods thus diminishing creative opportunities for recreation 0 Ghetto is now outer city inner city is all gentrified I Ferguson 0 Fear is instrumental When work Disappears gt What is Wilson arguing gt What are some of the causes of urban segregation according to Wilson 0 Restrictive covenants o Redlining 0 Zoning 0 Panic Peddling gt Significance of title 0 Already had jobs but lost them 0 Not the best education not the best jobs etc 0 When the work itself vanishes The Story gt Disappearance ofjobs 0 Where to I Mexicooverseas gt Diminishment of real wages 0 Real wage is adjusted for inflation gt Diminishment of nonwage benefits gt Leads to Weakening social organization Social Organization social capital as a synonym gt Local friendship ties Social cohesion Participation in voluntary association Density and stability of formal organizations VVVV Informal social controls 0 Get weakened The Culprits gt Supply side factors 0 Industrial and occupational restructuring gt Demand side factors 0 Fewer people enrolled in college increased immigration gt Spatial mismatch hypothesis 0 Costs of the commute gt Social and demographic changes 0 Segregation and concentrated poverty I Cut migration of nonpoor and in migration of the poor
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