History 1312 Lecture notes until 12/4/2015
History 1312 Lecture notes until 12/4/2015 HIST 1312 - 001
Popular in HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, 1865 TO PRESENT
Popular in History
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Theodore Roosevelt A social Darwinist The winning of the West 18691896 Viewed blacks as quota perfectly stupid racequot The new imperialism Rivalry with new employees like Japan and Germany Social Darwinism views of nonwhites End of the western frontier 1893 Economic depression begins in the US 1890 Growing US commercial interests in Latin America and the Paci c Premature Imperialism Hawaii Rebellion of 1857 Revolution of 1893 Queen overthrown by american missionaries and planters Sanford Dale President of Hawaii 18941898 The Spanish American war 1898 Causes Cubaan war for independence began in 1895 US business had 30 to 50 million invested in Cuba USS Maine sunk in Havana harbor Feb 15 1898 The battle of San Juan Hill Defeat of the Spanish navy Territorial Expansion The American Empire in 1898 PhiilippineAmerican War 18991902 McKinley Filipinos quotun t for selfgovernmentquot 1899 Filipino revolt against US occupation 4200 US casualties 3700 more than in SpanishAmerican war 1600020000 Filipino rebels killed 14 million 1 million Filipino civilians dead The American Anti Imperialist League Formed 1898 Members included Andrew Carnegie Grover Cleveland Samuel Gampers Mark Twain A war of liberation Cuba Phiipines Puerto Rico Guam WHEN WERE THEY GRANTED INDEPENDENCE 1902 Independence but Platt Amendment 1946 Independence 1952 US Commonwealth Guam quotUnincorporated territoryquot quotBig Stickquot Diplomacy Theodore Roosevelt US president 19011909 US military occupations in Latin America 18981917 The Panama Canal French tried to build it 18801893 21900 workers died US backed 1903 Panamanian uprising in exchange for right to build canal Finished construction in 1914 5600 workers died Canal zone 19041979 US territory extending for 5 miles on both sides Key terms Spanish American war quotBuffalo Soldierquot PhilippineAmerican War The Triangle re Great Boston Molasses Flood January 15 1919 More than 2 million gallons of molasses 21 dead 150 injured several buildings destroyed quotSocial Problemsquot Industrial con ict Poverty and economic inequality Cthlabon Workplace safety Progressivism Based among educated middleclass reformers But extended to all sections of society Many women involved Social worker nurses etc Fix social and economic problems through educations and government regulation The Progressive presidents Theodore Roosevelt 19011909 Republican quotTrust Busterquot 40 antitrust suits Regulation Meat Inspection Act Pure food and drug act The progressive presidents Willian Howard Taft 19091913 Republican Introduced income tax and corporate income tax 71 antitrust suits Nut friendlier to business than Roosevelt The Progressive Presidents Woodrow Wilson 19131921 Democrat Reduced tariff The rst progressive democrat The rst progressive democrat Federal reserve act 1913 Central banking system Purpose Avoid banking crises Maximise employment Stabilize prices Moderate interest income The rst progressive democrat Federal trade commision act 1914 Curbed unfair and deceptive practices Clayton act 1914 Replaced Sherman Antutrust act Banned Exempted labor unions Keating Owen Child Labor Act 1916 Prohibited interstate sale of good produced by child workers 1918 overturned by Supreme Court Federal Farm Loan Act 1916 Loans to small farms Up to 50 percent the value of their land The quotSciencequot of eugenics The biological quotimprovementquot of the population Promote reproduction of the quot tquot Restrict reproduction of the quotun tquot The quotSciencequot of Eugenics Almost 2 million soldiers were given intelligence tests designed by eugenisists during WWI The results in luenced state and federal legislation According to the results 47 percent of recruits were quotfeeblemindedquot The alleged average quotmental agequot of all white recruits 13 years old uaHans 1101 Poles 1074 African Americans 1041 Labor Union growth The colorado coal eld war 191314 United Mine Workers Union Strike at Ludlow Colorado Strikers evicted from quotcompany townsquot and set up a tent colony The Ludlaw massacre 1914 19 people killed Including 11 children and 2 women Violence continued 75199 people killed in entire con ict Industrial workers of the world Founded 1905 Open to all workers including unskilled blacks Asians women 100000 members by 1917 Synicalism Revolutionary unionism Opposed to capitalism and centralized government Collective ownershup and organization through democratic quotOne Big Unionquot The General Strike Race in the progressive era Birth of a nation 1915 First mahor blockbuster Most pro table lm made until 193739s Snow White Based on a 1905 novel caed The Clansmen Inspired rebirth of the KKK A new era for women Birth control 1918 New York state allowed doctors to prescrobe contraception 18th amendment 1919 Prohibition 19th amentment 1920 Women39s suffrage Remember Key terms Industrial workers of the world Ludlow massacre the 19th amendment The Outbreak of war 1914 The participants The Allied powers French empire British empire Russian empire until 1917 Italy joined 1915 Romania 19161917 United States jooined 1917 And a few others The Central power AustroHungarian empire German Empire Ottoman empire Bulgaria joined 1915 The rst modern war Airplanes Machine guns Tanks Chemical weapons Submarines Flamethrowers The Push to war Lusitania May 7 1915 124 Americans killed Wood row Wilson Reelected 1916 quotHe kept us out of warquot Preparedness movement 19151917 The Zimmerman Telegram Sent from Germany to Mexico January 1917 Intercepted by British intelligence Essay preperation Lecture notes Break up into groups of 56 people Compare notes and nd out what you missed The Great Migration 19161918 Half a million blacks moved from rural South to urban North World War I Propoganda quotThe conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an importantquot World War I propoganda More than 75000 quotFour minute menquot Key Terms War Industries board The great migration Committe on public information Opposition to the war Socialist party of america IWW 1916 antiwar resolution 1917 Left up to individual members Anti Conscription league quotSlackersquot 337000 12 of draftness failed to report for duty 2000 conscientious objectors imprisoned The Russian Revolution Tsar of Russia overthrown February 1917 Bolshevik Communist party seized power October 1917 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR Founded 1922 Called for international revotution Communist party dictatorshup of the proletariat Centralized state power to Suppress counterrevolution Reorganize the economy Dictatorship should then quotwither awayquot Wartime Repression 1917 Alexander Berkmman and Emma Goldman convicted for espionage 1918 100 IWW leaders convicted for espionage Eugene V Debs convicted for sedition Recieved 920000 votes for president in 1920 while in prison Aftermath Wilson39s Fourteen Points Recommendations for postwar settlement included National selfdetermination for colonized countries Creation of a quotgeneral association of nationsquot to arbitrate international con icts and prevent future wars The Treaty of Versailles 1918 Most of Wilson39s points ignored Britain and France split Germany39s colonies between themselves Germany forced to pay 33 billion in reparations 785 billion in today39s dollars League of Nations formed The treaty of Versailles 1918 Most of Wilson39s points ignored 1918 Flu Pandemic quotSpanish Fluquot spread worldwide Killed 50100 million people in two years 36 of the world population 500000675000 deaths in the in US The quotRed Summerquot of 1919 Antiblack riots in 24 US cities including Chicago Omaha Washington DC Philadelphia Hundreds of African Americans killed 1919 Strike Wave Postwar in ation wage cuts job losses 4 million workers Strike Strike Seattle General Strike Boston Police Strike The First Red Scare 19191920 Massive federal antiradical campaign Widespread violations of due process and civil liberties Thousands of suspected radicals arrested Almost 1000 immigrants deported for political beliefs Hundreds of US citizens imprisoned Immigration Exclusion 1917 immigration act Literacy test Created quotAsiatic barred zonequot 1924 immigration act Quotas cops on European immigrants Favored quotOld Immigrantsquot over quotNew Immigrantsquot Remember Espionage Act and Sedition Act Treaty of Versailles The Red Scare Welfare capitalism Voluntary employerprovided bene ts Higher wages Accident and death bene ts Workplace events Why Avoid strikes Employee loyalty Turn workers into consumers A consumer culture US became lead manufacturer of Electronics Automobiles Chemicals National chain stores Catalog shopping Consumer credit American learns to drive 1908 Model T Ford introduced 1929 Half of US families owned a car Mass Entertainment Record players Radio 5 million in US homes by 1929 Motion Pictures 1929 More than 75 percent of Americans attended movies each week In 2010 less than 4 percent did Mass entertainment Movie theaters Dance halls Beaches Amusement parks quotSpeakeasiesquot illegal bars All places where young men and women of different ethnic backgrounds intermingled Flappers Young unmarried working women New fashions New freedoms Women a new consumer group Cigarettes quotTorches of Libertyquot Washing machines vacuum cleaners and electric ranges quotNew Immigrantsquot become Americans End of mass immigration Rise in naturalization Decline of foreignlanguage use USborn children soon a majority Shared mass American culture The Harlem Renaissance Jazz people Black literature Black pride Political activism Let the good times roll quotWe in America today are nearer to the nal triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any landWe shall soon with the help of God be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this nationquot Key Terms Welfare Capitalism Flappers Harlem Renaissance The Crash Value of stocks plummets Causes of the crash Lack of regulation Overvalued stocks Stock speculation and manipulation Buying on margin 10 percent down From crash to depression Overproduction and stagnating consumer spending Market saturation Bank failures 9000 in 19305 Less money in circulation Loss of consumer con dence Less economic activity SmootHawley Tariff 1930 Less international trade Key terms Buying on margin SmootHawley Tariff President Herbert Hoover Actually somewhat progressive Believed in governmentbusiness partnership But not direct intervention in economy 1932 Created federal loan and public works projects Hoover blamed for not doing enough Unemployed councils Organized demonstrations to demand government aid Provided mutual aid Food housing etc Prevented evictions The Bonus Marchers 43000 WWI veterans Marched to Washington DC Congress of Industrial Organizations CIO 1934 strike wave Growing con ict within AFL 1935 CIO formed by former AFL unions An inclusive militant union The Sit Down strike Steel Workers Organizing Committee SWOC Formed 1936 1937 Memorial day massacre 10 killed 60 injured 1937 US Steel signs union contract 1941 Most of steel industry unionized Labor on the Rise 19331940 43 million new union members 1940 9 million total Keynes vs Hayek John Maynard Keynes Keynesianism Government spending is necessary to stimulate economy Some economic activity motivated by irrational urges quotanimal spiritsquot not rational calculations Free market doesn39t lead to fulll employment Fredrich Hayek The Austrian School of economics Laissezfaire Private investment better than government spending Government should protect free markets Key Terms Bonus Marchers Congress of Industrial Organizations Keynes SLAVES 15 percent of all southern wealth Ordinance of Secession South Carolina hostility of non slave holding states to the slave holding community has led to a disregard of theor obligation to enforce the Fugitive slave law Virginia the federal government having perverted powers Mississippi Our possesion is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery Alabama It is the desire of the people of Alabama to support the slaveholding states of the south Slavery was the most important cause for the civil war The Emancipation Proclamation1863 Only freed slaves in Confederate states Abraham Lincoln Secession sparked Lincoln39s idea to ban slavery A moderate Republican Emancipation Self emancipation Runaways to Union Army 1 in 4 southern slaves The 13th Amendment1865 Codified what had already happened Abolition the largest quotconfiscationquot or quotdestructionquot of property in US history Key terms Ordinances of secession Emancipation Proclamation Out of manychap 171172 Complete intext reading quizzes for each section THE POLITICS AND ECONOMICS OF RECONSTRUCTION Key terms Andrew Johnson quot40 acres and a mule The Fifteenth Amendment The civil war was the deadliest war considering the number of american casualties The number of soldiers killed was more than the combined number of those killed in the rest of the war 260000 dead 20 percent of men of military age 190000 injured Widespread destruction Collapse of cotton market The quotFreedmenquot 4 million former slaves no land or property of their own American politics in the 1860s Democratic party Republican party Supporters Supporters Farmers North industry Southern whites Protestants Catholic immigrants Abolitionists Issues Issues Proslavery Anti slavery Smaller federal government Strong fed gov Antitariff pro tariff Silver currency Gold currency Motto White men rule Lincoln assassinated April 14 1865 Five days after Robert E Lee surrenders Four days after publicly promoting black suffrage for the first time 8 months before 13th amendment was ratified President Andrew Johnson Vice president under Lincoln 186465 A Southern Democrat Opposed secession Openly racist and vocally opposed to suffrage for freed slaves Presidential reconstruction 186566 Restored all property to former slave owners Radical Rconstruction 186677 The Radical Republicans Left wing of republican party Controlled Congress Suppoerted equal rights and suffrage for Freedmen WHAT IS FREEDOM What is Freedom Is it the bare privilege of not being chained If this is all then freedomm is a bitter mockery a cruel delusion Congressman James Garfield 1876 According to Former Slaves Political social and economic equality Control of one39s own Labor Time Family life Land quotForty acres and a mule According to Former slave owners Political social and economic white supremacy Control over Laborers Laborers39 time Landless laborers What is Freedom According to the Freedmen39s Bureau Legal Equality But possibly segregated institutions Suffrage for Freedmen quotFree Laborquot Based on ideal of northern industrial wage labor The Mixed Results of Rconstruction Former Slaves Temporary political enfranchisement No land or property as compensation Emergence of sharecropping system Former slave owners Temporary political disenfranchisement Restoration of land and property Emergence of sharecropping system Political Freedom The 15th amendment to the constitution of the US 1870 quotThe right of citizens of the US to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any State on account of race color or previous condition of servitudequot Political Freedom More than 2000 black candidates elected to political office in the south 187077 Economic Piverty 1850s70s Southern white income declined 35 percent After 1865 Southern blacks denied most access to land credit higher education professional occupations No economic mobility 1900 Southern per capita income 50 percent that of national average For Friday Out of many 173174 Summary Complete intext quizzes for each section that has one quotREDEMPTIONquot AND JIM CROW Key terms Chinese Exclusion Act Bargain of 1877 Jim Crow Plessy v Ferguson The North during War and Reconstruction No democratic opposition Passed A new tariff 1861 Homestead Act 1862 Pacific Railroad Act 1863 Republicans and railroads Pacific railroad act Land grants 10 sq miles for each mmile of track 30year government bonds 1600048000 per mile Ensured western support for union Transcontinental line completed May 10 1869 Widespread political corruption Credit Mobilier Scandal 1872 Union Pacific Railroad Embezzled about 40000000 of government funds Bribed congressmen Northern Racism New York Draft Riots 1863 120 deaths 2000 injuries Northern employers used black strikebreakers against white strikers The quotYellow Peril 1870 64199 Chinese immigrants 1880 105465 Chinese immigrants 1890 107499 Chinese immigrants Chinese Exclusion Organized movement to ban Chinese immigrants 0n West Coast Led by white labor unions 1859 San Francisco segregated Chinese in public schools 1906 Japanese schools also segregated 1880 CA law banned marriage between a white person and a quotNegro Mulatto or Mongolian AntiChinese riots Los Angeles 1871 At least 18 Chinese killed San Francisco 1877 21 Chinese businesses destroyed Squak Valley WA 1885 3 Chinese killed Seattle 1886 350 Chinese forced out of city Rock Springs WY 1886 At least 28 Chinese killed Naturalization Act of 1870 Only quotwhitesquot and people quotof African descent able to become US citizens Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 Chinese laborers banned First major US immigration law 1913 California Alien Land Law quotThe Woman Question quotCult of Domesticityquot In many states women unable to Own property Earn a salary Enter into a contract Obtain education Enter professional careers Maleonly suffrage Southern Resistance to Reconstruction Ku Klux Klan founded 1865 186568 1000 black killed by whites in Texas Memphis riots of 1866 6 black men killed 5 black women raped Colfax Massacre of 1873 80150 black men killed after surrendering to a white militia Northern Resistance to Reconstruction They think that it is an agency to keep the blacks idle at the expense of the white man The Fall of reconstruction Depression of 1873 quotLiberalquot Republicans Opposed continued federal intervention in South Democrats The quotRedeemers Regained power in Southern state governments in 1870s Took control of House of Representatives in 1874 The Bargain of 1877 Rutherford B Hayes vs Samuel Tilden Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from South Democrats agreed to accept Hayes as President Jim Crow Emerged in the 1890s Laws segregated public spaces and services Disenfranchised black voters Enforced through both legal system and lynchings Moses Fleetwood Walker first professional black baseball player Professional baseball Several black players in the major leagues in the 1880s 1887 informal ban on blacks imposed The Supreme Court The Civil Rights Cases 1883 Ruling It is unconstitutional to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations Plessy v Ferguson 1896 Ruling quotSeperate but equal segregated public facilities Why Segregation Economics Social status Deep fear of quotrace mixing and quotmiscegenationquot Antimiscegenation laws in 30 states by 1913 Lychings used to prevent and punish interracial sex But only between black men and white women Key Terms Chinese Exclusion Act Bargain oof 1877 Jim Crow Plessy v Ferguson For Wednesday 182185 constitutional EXPANSION AND THE END OF THE Key Terms Homestead Act quotBuffalo Bill Cody quotRobber Barons quotFRONTIERquot Homestead Act 1862 Up to 160 acres of free land from federal government Had to work and live on land for five years Less than half succeeded The quotWild West Ranching quotCowboysquot Mining quotBoomtownsquot Connected to Eastern markets by railroads Only lasted about two decades Barbed wire Invented in the US in the 18705 First technology capable of keeping in cattle End of quotopen range 1890 End of quotfrontierquot Railroads and quotRobber Barons JP Morgan Hired substitute for civil war Purchased old rifles for 1150 each sold backk to Army Also speculated on commodities during war Investment banker John D Rockfeller Hired a substitute for civil war Founded Standard oill in 1870 Oil primarily used for lubrication on trains Jay Gould 1869 1870 Attempts to corner gold market to drive up Railroad controlled four major railroads Cornelius Vanderbuilt Moved from owning steamboats and railroads Richest man in 1877 Andrew Carnegie Began career as a railroad telegrapher 1870 Began producing iron for railroads One of the richest men in railroads quotBuffalo Billquot Cody Union soldier and quotIndian fighter Hired by Kansas Pacific Railroad Killed 4282 bison in 18 months 186768 1872 began quotWild West shows Ecological Change American Bison quotbuffaloquot 1840 355 million for 22 profits 1900 500 California grizzly bear Hunted to extinction by 19205 Grey wolves Almost extinct by 19305 From Agriculture to Industry 1880 First time most americans worked in nonfarming jobs 1890 23 of adults worked for wages Remember For Friday Chap 181 186 and summary And reading quizzes for 181 and 186 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE WEST Tens of thousands of Native Americans served on both sides 10000 dies 13 of Cherokee wives widowed Confederate Army tried to seize New Mexico Territory Sand Creek Massacre 1864 US Cavalry killed 150 peaceful Cheyenne and Arpaho civilians Mistaken for hostile groups Total war Native American soldiers not treated as military prisoners Targeted communities food supplies and civilians No clear line dividing quotbattlesquot from quotmassacresquot Manifest Destiny US quotdestinedquot to expand West Based on idea of a superior quotcivilizationquot Christianity Private property White supremacy Land and Sovereignty 1862 Homestead Act major violation of treaties with Native American nations 1871 US ceased recognizing Native Americans as independent nations quotDomestic dependent nations No more treaties Become US subjects but not US citizens The quotIndian Wars Modoc War187273 90 killed Black Hills War187677 Around 1000 killed 268 US cavalrymen killed at the battle Nez Perez War 1877 Promised land Headed toward Canada instead Around 125 killed in Skirmished Defeated in Montana but resettled in Washington quotBuffalo Soldiers US Army39s first black cavalry regiments Fought in Civil War then quotIndian wars Wounded Knee Massacre 18900 Ghost Dance Nonviolent religious Lakota movement US cavalry attempting to disarm Lakota camp killed many people The Dawes Act1887 Broke up tribal lands into private plots quotExcessquot sold off Native Americans lost 23 of land End of sovereign territory Accepting an allotment granted citzenship quotThe real aim of The Dawes Act is to get at the Indians39 land and open it up for resettlementquot Indian Boarding Schools 1891 Mandatory school attendance Taught American dress food and manners English only Christianity Genocide Genocide any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy in whole or in part a national ethica racial or religious group as such Killing members of the group Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part Scientific Management quotTaylorismquot Division of Labor Worker efficiency Increased production Led to developement of assembly line at Ford Motor Company 19081913 Scientific Management quotTaylorismquot BUT Made work repetitive and boring Decreased the skill and therefore wages of workers Rise of the corporation Owners stockholders of corporation do not run it Limited liability quotShareholder primacy Railroads first large corporations with stock sold publicly on Wall Street Corporate personhood 1886 Supreme court ruling Corporations are legally quotpersonsquot protected by 14th Amendment Government cannot deprive any person of life liberty or property without due process of law nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of laws quotTrustsquot and Monopolies Monopoly Trusts Who deserves credit Enterpreneurs quotGospel of Wealth Horatio Aiger novels Social darwinism Groups and individuals biologically unequal quotSurvival of the fittest 90 of business executives from middle or upperclass families Contradictions of industrialization Created unprecedented wealth Also created unprecedented inequality 1890 Richest 1 percent Poorest 44 percent Key terms Gilded Age Scientific management Social darwinism Workingclass life Railroads 1300 workers killed on job 42 injured Coal mining 6 of workforce killed each year 6 seriously but temporarily injured 6 percent permanently crippled Automobiles 1922 punchpress operators at Ford Motor Company quotlost an average of sixteen fingers a month Working class life 1415 of workers unemployed for a portion of each year Average of 3 months Who deserved credit Workers Labor theory of value quotWealth creators quotWage slavery Employer violence Pinkertinns Labor Unions The Knights of Labor Founded 1869 800000 by 1886 Skilled and unskilled workers women and African Americans but not Asians Sought quotindustrial democracyquot and a quotcooperative commonwealth The American Federation of Labor AFL Founnded 1881 Mostly restricted to skilled white male workers quotPure and simple unionism 1877 quotThe Other Civil War Railroad strike spread to 100000 workers across the country At least 100 people killed hundreds injured quotThe Great Upheaval of 1886 National Movement for an 8 hour workday 350000 workers nationwide struck on May lsr in favor of it The first May Day The haymarket affair Someone threw a bomb at the police during riot The police opened fire on the public Many people were killed Eight labor leaders and radicals arrested No evidence actually linking them to the bombing 5 sentenced to death The Homestead Act 1892 Carnegie Steel Company Manager Henry Clay Frick locked out workers Hired 300 Pinkertons Three pinkertons and nine strikers killed in fighting The Homestead strike 1892 Afterward anarchist Alexander Berkman shot and stabbed Frick Frick survived Berkman served 14 years in prison The Western quotMine Wars Coeur of Alene Strike 1892 Five strikers killed Martial law declared The Pullman Strike of 1894 250000 members of american railway union 27 states Union leaders arrested 12000 federal groups 13 strikers killed and 57 wounded Grover Cleveland made the labor day Key terms Knights of labor AFL Pinkertons Pullman strike Most workers include immigrants Myths of american immigration Most immigrants came for greater freedom Return migration Most new immigrants did not intend to stay in permanently Come to save money and return home Myths of american immigration Most immigrants come for greater freedom Most immigrants wanted to come to and settle in the US There is more immigration today than ever before Immigrants were welcomed with open arms America was a quotmelting pot Hard work led to economic mobility The quotImmigrant invasionquot An immigrant working class 1890 31 percent of US workers are immigrants Majority of US workers are children of immigrants 1907 58 percent of workers in mining and manufacturing immigrants The quotHuddled Masses An inscription welcoming any desperate people in the world It39s an open door policy except for the Chinese quotUndesirable aliens Popular stereotypes of quotNew Immigrants Unintelligent Criminals Dangerous radicals Impoverished Deceased Social construction of race In 1888 some experts counted 66 races of humans including A JewishHebrew race A Southern Italian race A Northern Italian race A Slavic race An IrishCeltic race etc Several quotwhite races which were not racially equal The family economy quotWomen39s Work Boarders Domestic labor In own household In rich household for wages Textiles and garment making 1900 17 million children under the age of 15 were employed 1910 Over 2 million Sweatshop Small garmentmaking shops 1112 hour work per day Unsanitary and dangerous conditions Andrew Carnegie Immigrated 1848 from Scotland Part of the quotOld Immigration 90 percent of business executives from middle or upper class families Economic mobility very rare among immigrants and the children of immigrants Democrats and republlicans in the Gilded Age Democratic party Republic Party Smaller Federal Government government Anti tariff Silver currency Populism 18771896 Former alliance The populist party aka the Peoples party Stronger federal Pro ta riff Gold currency Government ownershup of railroads telegraphs and books Silver currency By 1892 Two million members 28 congressmen Two governors Georgia and Texas Henry George The Single Tax Progress and poverty 1879 3 million copies sold Land ownership cause of inequality The quotSingle taxquot A tax on the full value of all revenue from land Edward Belly quotNationalismquot Looking backward Published 1888 Bestseller quotNationalismquot Authoritarian form of Christian socialism State ownershup of all industry Compulsary labor All need met by state 162 Nationalist clubs formed in the US Socialist party of america Founded in 1901 by Eugene v Debs Democratic Socialism Government ownership of all industry transportation and land Democratic form of government 1912 118000 members 600 socialist elected to city and state of ces Two congressmen One million votes for Debs for president 6 percent of popular vote Anarchism Opposed to capitalism and centralized government No rulers Some believed in violence as a means to achieve goals Paths to racial equality Booker T Washington Accomodation with segregation Training to improve economic condition of African Americans Eventually prove equality ot whites WEB Du Bois Fight segregation in the courts Cofounded the NAACP in 1909 Educate the quotTalented tenthquot of block population on leaders Demand immediate legal equality Paths to racial equality Universal Negro Improvement AssociationUNlA Foundedd 1914 Relieved equal rights impossible t o achieve Black pride Pro africanism Representation of all Blacks in Amereica 1919 2 million members Women39s movements Women39s suffrage movement Petitioned every congress from 1869 to 1874 Women39s christian temperance Union WCTU Formed 1874 The Birth Control Movement Key Terms The populist party Eugene v Debs United Negro improvement association Womens Christian temperance union Remember Key Terms Fascism Abraham Lincoln Brigade Joe Louis The Rise of totalitarianisms Fascism Intense nationalism Traditional values Racism xenophobia and imperialism Individual subordination to the fatherlands Preserves capitalism and private pr0pertv But with strong government intervention in the economy Soviet Communism Internationalism Proletarian values Individual subordination to the workers state Con scation of private property and creation of a staterun socialist economy Fascism in the United States Fascist league of north America 20000 members GermanAmerican o 25000 members Khaki Shirts 0 2000 members Silver shirts o 1500025000 members The Business Plot 1933 General Stanley Butler Recruited to lead overthrow of FDR Backed bv executives from JP Morgan General Electric US Steel Du Pont Condressional investigation There is no question that these attempts were discussed planned The 1936 Berlin Olympics Hosted by Nazi Germany lesse Owns Four gold medals in Track and Field Matthew Max Robinson Silver medal in 200 meter dash Soviet Communism 1929 Josef Stalin comes to power USSR mostlv unaffected bv depression But Stalin created economic undertaking Massive industrialization Forced collectivization of agriculture Mass political purges and repression Communism and the popular front Communist party Founded in 1919 1929 9000 members 1938 100000 members The popular front NonCommunist groups organized by communists Unemploved and labor drouos Civil rights groups Antifascist groups Hundreds of thousands of noncommunists US US Spanish civil war 19361939 Fascistbacked military coup against leftist Spanish government The Abraham Lincoln Brigade 3000 US volunteers illegally fought against fascism in the Spanish Civil m o 800 killed ltalian Invasion of Ethiopia 19351936 The last independent African Republic 275000 Ethiopian soldiers killed 10000 ltalian soldiers killed Protests in Harlem oe Louis 1935 Louis defeated Italian champion Primo Carnera 1936 Louis defeated by German champion Max Schmeling US Isolation 1935 Italy invades Ethiopia US passes neutralitv act February 1940 23 of Americans favored going to war with Germany April 1941 9 percent of Americans favored entering the war in Europe lewish Refuoees US did not allow Fewish refugees in excess of immigration quotas State Department officials refuse to issue visas 1939 HMS St Louis carrying lews is barred entry into America Captain America Published a year before Pearl Harbor Created by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby published by Martin Goodman All Jewish Received death threats The Great Dictator Charlie Chaplins fiFst talleing fier PaFGdVGf IlHel The Second New Deal 19351941 Works Progress Administration WPA Employed 23 million people per year National Labor Relations Act aka Wagner Act 1935 Guaranteed workers39 right to unionize Banned quotunfair labor practicesquot by both employers and employees Established National Labor Relatons Board NLRB Fair Labor Standards Act 1938 Established minimum wage Social Security Act 1935 Aid to families with Dependent Children quotWelfarequot Unemployment insurance Aid to the aged and disabled Retirement bene ts quotSocial Securityquot A New Deal for What Women Most jobs programs open only to quotheads of householdquot CCC open only to men Domestic servants exccluded from Social Security Act Wagner Act Small farmers and sharecroppers Driven under by AAA subsidies to large farms MexicanAmericans and mexican immigrants quotOakiesquot from Dust Bowl competed forjobs Widespread Mexican unemployment 1935 average Mexican family in the US made jobless Agricultural workers excluded from the Wagner Act Social Security Act and Fair Labor standards act African Americans Hardesthit by depression Part of New Deal coalition Excluded from many New Deal programs Most worked in agriculture or as domestic servants Excluded from jobs programs and recieved less aid in the south 1937 Black players barred by NFL Federal antilynching bill blocked by Southern Democrats What does the New Deal Do Shortterm help to millions Created larger role for federal government in economy quotWelfarequot Temporary Assistance for Needy families TANF 14 percent of the population Less than 05 percent of the federal budget Supplemental security income Poor seniors and the disabled 25 percent of the population The Social Security System Todya Retirement Insurance Bene ts quotSocial Securityquot 165 percent of the population 6455 billion Average monthly bene ts 1177 20 percent of federal spending But funded through payroll deductions not taxes Current annual de cit The other Twenties Key terms Prohibition Amos 39n39 Andy The Second Ku Klux Klan President Herbert Hoover 1928 Consumer credit Same as debt 0 More than doubles during the 19205 40 percent Americans still in poverty A majority of Americans had no savings Farmers 32 million farmers and farm workers in 1920 125 million by 1930 African Americans Most still living in rural poverty In the North most lost wartime jobs after 1918 Mexican Americans 34 of California agricultural workers Segregation 0 Mexican schools barred from public facilities 0 Mexicans paid less than white workers New Era for Women The Equal Rights Amendment ERA 0 Men and women shall have equal rights 0 Congress have power to enforce this Opposed by social and religious conservatives Opposed by Women39s Labor Unions 0 Had fought for rights of women 0 ERA would erase those granted rights American AntiSemitism 1915 0 Leo Frank lynched 19205 0 Jews barred from certain neighborhoods Social clubs and universities Roaring for whom The Retreat of Organized Labor 1920 0 National Association of Manufacturers launched quotAmerican Planquot 0 Agreement amongst employers to refuse to deal with unions 0 Caused decline in union membership during 19205 Mining remained violent 1 Battle of Blair Mountain 1921 US military dropped bombs on miners 100 dead Prohibition Went into effect 1920 Bootlegging 0 Rise of organized crime rings 0 Mob wars On the Radio Amos 39n39 Andy Most popular radio show in 19205 and 1930s Blacks who don39t understand anything At the Car Dealership Henry Ford Virulent antiSematic The Second Ku Klux Klan Founded 1915 Inspired by Birth of a Nation and Leo Frank lynching 34 million members Largest organization Targeted quotnew immigrantsquot especially Catholics and Jews Along with blacks Key Terms The Axis Powers The Eastern Front DDay Hiroshima The German Offensive 1939 HitlerStalin Non aggressive pact Germany and Soviet Union each invade and divide Poland 1941 Germany invades Soviet Union Virtually the entire continent of Europe conquered by Germany in 1943 The Holocaust 1933 First restrictions placed on the Jews First eugenics laws 1942 quotThe Final Solutionquot begins Other groups targeted for extermination Slavs Romans Gypsies Communists and Socialists Homosexuals 30000 slave labor camps 980 concentration camps 1000 POW camps 500 brothels of sex slaves Six extermination camps The Nazis murder 0 56 million Jews 0 35 million Soviet POWs o 2 million Poles 0 05 to 15 million Romani 0 250000 disabled persons 0 Hundreds of thousands of soldiers The Allies 1939 China Poland conquered France invaded Great Britain 1941 The Soviet Union The Eastern Front Soviet losses Military over 10 million dead Civilian over 135 million dead German losses on Eastern Front More than 45 million dead 74 percent of all German losses in WWII The Eastern Front The Battle of Stalingrad 194243 199 days 2 million casualties Deadliest battle in history The End of US Neutrality 1940 US embargo againstJapan 1941 Lendlease Act Provided arms to Britain China and Soviet Union of credit America Enters the War More than 16 million Americans mobilized in armed forces Including 1 million African Americans June 1942 US and Allies begin offensive in North Africa The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki The Deadliest War in Human History Total Deaths Military 225255 million Civilian 379553 million Total 6080 million 0 355 the deaths of WWI o More than 25 percent of the world population killed US Military deaths 416000 US civilian deaths 1700 Total US deaths 418500 0006 percent of world population Wartime Work 2nCI Great Migration More women in workforce 20 million more than double National War Labor Board Reestablished in 1942 Arbitrated abor disputes Controlled wages in essential industries 0 Real per capita income reached its alltime high Defense jobs union jobs Wartime cooperation between government employees and unions 0 quotLaborManagement Accordquot 15 million workers unionized by 1945 all time high Bracero Program Emergency farm labor program 19421964 200000 temporary Mexican laborers during war Barred from settling permanently or becoming citizens Ending the Great depression 15 million men in armed forces GNP rose from 91 billion to 214 billion Unemployment fell to 12 percent War in Black and White Black migrants in North encountered 0 Housing discrimination 0 quotWhite ightquot quothate strikesquot DoubleV campaign Launched 1942 by AA Pittsburgh Courier Victory over freedom in Europe and racism in US Zoot suit riots Los Angeles MayJune 1943 US servicemen attacked Latino boys and men Japanese American internment February 19 1942 Executive Order 9066 110000 Japanese Americans sent to internment camps Asian Allies Chinese Exclusion repealed 1943 China given quota of only 105 immigrants Philippines granted independence The G Bill 1944 Massive federal funding for veterans Education job training small business and home loans Not administered equitably along racial lines Key Terms Containment Mutual Assured Destruction MilitaryIndustrial Complex Korean war High Hopes The United Nations UN Founded 1945 US composed of main Allied powers US Britain France China Soviet Union 1947 The origins of Communism George F Keenam Advocated quotlongtermquot patient but rm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies Central Intelligence Agency CIA founded 1947 The Origins of Containment The Marshall Plan 13 billion to Europe between 1948 and 1952 The Truman Doctrine US aid to any government threatened by Communist takeover The Arms Race 1949 Soviet Union detonated its rst atomic bomb 1952 US developed hydrogen bomb 1953 Soviet Union tested its own hydrogen bomb 1957 Sputnik Mutual Assured Destruction MAD The MilitaryIndustrial Complex US military budget 1950 12 billion 1955 40 billion 1960 458 billion New technologies Nuclear energy Satellites Computers The internet Chinese Revolution 1949 Chinese nationalist party Aided by US Communist party of China Aided by Soviet Union Mao Zedong victorious October 1949 The Korean War 195053 1948 North Korea becomes Communist 1950 North Korea invade USoccupied South Korea USled UN counteroffensive Chinese intervention Ended in stalemate The CIA in action 1951 Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadeq nationalized Iranian oil industry 1953 CIA engineered coup detat Put Mohammad Reza Shah PahIavi The Shah of Iran into power Joseph McCarthy and the second red scare Key Terms HUAC Lavender Scare The Rosenbergs Cold Civil War Liberties 1947 Federal employee loyalty program Over 3 million government employees investigated 0 378 red due to quotreasonable doubtquot 0 5000 resigned o No spies uncovered Cold War Civil Liberties The Lavender Scare Purge of homosexual federal employees 0 Viewed as immoral and easily blackmailed by communists 0 Thousands red or forced to resign many more than aeged Communists Communist Party aso expelled homosexuals Internal Security Act of 1950 Required members of quotsubversivequot organizations to register with government quotEmergency detentionquot Registration can be the greatest danger to freedom of speech press and assembly since the Alien and Sedition Laws of 1798 Any governmental sti ing of the free expression of opinion is a long step toward totalitarianism Truman Fighting quotGodless Communismquot 1954 quotUnder Godquot added to Pledge of Allegiance 1956 quotIn God We Trustquot adopted as new US motto Previously quotE pluribus unumquot House UnAmerican Activities Committee HUAC Congressional hearings 19381975 The Hollywood Ten The blacklist Charlie Chaplin Dashiell Hammett Lena Horne Langston Hughes Arthur Miller Dorothy Parker Edward G Robinson Artie Shaw Pete Seeger Dalton Trumbo Orson Welles Jane Wyatt The Blacklist The FBI suspected IT39S A WONDERFUL LIFE 1946 was Communist propaganda SenatorJoseph McCarthy 1950 began antiCommunist campaign Claimed falsely to have list of Communists in the federal government R Launched congressional investigation SenatorJoseph McCarthy 1954 The ArmyMcCarthy Hearings McCarthy accused military of knowingly harboring Communists Live televised hearings Soviet spies Fact and Fiction Few actual quotspiesquot But many informants on both sides Alger Hiss 0 State department official 0 Former member of communist group 0 May have passed intelligenc to USSR Klaus Fuchs o Physicist who worked on US hydrogen bomb 0 Passed information on to USSR 0 1950 caught by British intelligence The Rosenbergs o Accused of passing information on US nuclear program to Soviets During WWII when ally 0 Julius Rosenberg s guilt debated by historians o Ethel Rosenberg39s guilt very doubtful Both executed 1953 for espionage It was never going to happen here Soviet Union was not attempting to overthrow US government Communist Party USA 19505 30005000 members 0 Including 1500 FBI informants Remember Key Terms HUAC Lavender scare The rosenbergs Key Terns CORE Emmet Till The Kissing Case The FBI vs Civil rights All civil rights activity and dissent of any kind suspected to be a plot by Communist quotoutside agitatorsquot 1956 FBI launched CounterIntelligence program COINTELPRO against civil rights and radical groups Congress of Racial Equality 1942 Founded in Chicago by black and white activists 53 chapters by 1961 Nonviolent direct action quotDon39t shop where you can39t workquot Sitins quotJourney of reconciliationquot 1947 Brown v Board of Education NAACP class action lawsuit 1954 Supreme Court ruled segregation in education unconstitutional Desegregation quotwith all deliberate speedquot Emmett Till Murdered August 28 1955 in Money Mississippi 14 years old Killers never convicted Montgomery Bus Boycott December 1 1955 Rosa Parks arrested Boycott of buses immediately organized by local black women Martin Luther King Jr become spokesman The Specter of quotSocial Equalityquot 1948 31 states had antimiscegenation laws 1958 96 percent of whites opposed interracial marriage Garth Williams The Rabbits39 Wedding 1958 Banned in the state of Alabama as quotintegrationist propaganda Copies con scated and burned The Specter of quotSocial Equalityquot The quotKissing Casequot 1958 Two black boys sent to jail for kissing a white girl The Baby boom Higher birth rate 1946 Republicans retake congress Taft Hartley act 1947 Banned certain kinds of strikes Allowed states to ban quotclosed shopsquot Forced union of cials to swear they are not Communists o 1948 CIO expelled 12 quotleftledquot unions Unions under TaftHartley 1955 AFLCIO merger Rise of quotbusiness unionismquot Legal wrangling productivity In return for bene ts Increasing member alienation and of cial corruption Diminishing political returns from democrats Democratic fragmentation takes place in 1948 Republican victory in 1952 A conservative welfare state Should any political party attempt to abolish social security unemployment insurance and eliminate labor laws and farm programs you would not hear of that party again in our political history Dwight A conservative welfare state The Gl Bill 19441971 95 billion dispensed 0 194647 40 percent of new homes mortgages 0 19441956 22 million veterans attended college 0 66 million attended job training programs Spreading the wealth 1950705 lncome distribution at its most equal level in US history The New Middle Class 19505 Factory wages increased by 50 percent Largely due to unionization For the rst time in American history most workers obtained whitecollar jobs The suburban ideal By 1960 more Americans lived in suburban areas than urban or rural ones 0 80 percent if families owned a car 0 90 percent owned a TV Watched 5 hours a day GENDER YOUTH AND RACE IN THE SUBURBS Key terms Mother39s little helper Redlining Out of the factory and into the home 2 million women left the workforce after 1945 Mother39s little helper Drug Miltown A tranquilizer meprobramate 195557 36 million prescriptions lled o Marketed and prescribed to suburban housewives Discontented youth Elvis Presley Chuck Berry The Monkees The color of the suburbs 19505 12 of all African Americans lived in poverty Keeping the suburbs segregated White ight Violence Real estate discrimination quotBlockbustingquot Restrictive covenants Redlining THE FREEDOM MOVEMENT 196067 Key terms SNCC Freedom riders Voting rights act Loving v Virginia quotFreedomquot vs quotCivil rightsquot The sitin movement 1960 Black college students in North Carolina hold sitin at Movement spread throughout South involving 50000 black and white students Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC Founded April 1960 In uenced by CORE The freedom riders 1961 Activists tested desegregation of interstate highways Inspired by 1947 Journey of reconciliation Repeatedly attacked in Alabama John F Kennedy and Civil rights 1960 Kennedy elected president Democrat Hardline anticommunist Endorsed by Martin Luther King Jr 0 But civil rights not a priority for him Lyndon B Johnson and civil rights Civil Rights Act 1964 Outlawed discrimination based on race and gender 0 Banned segregation in schools the work place and the quotpublic accommodationsquot o Racebased voter registration banned Selma 1965 SNCC and SCLC organized voter registration drive in Selma Alabama The Voting rights Act 1965 quotThe Voting Rights Act signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson 190873 on August 6 1965 aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment 1870 to the Constitution of the United Statesquot Loving v Virginia 1967 Married couple arrested in Virginia in 1959 Supreme court unanimously ruled that antimiscegenation laws are unconstitutional Marriage is one of the basic civil rights of man Race in popular culture Star Trek 19661969 Interracial cast George Takei as Lt Sulu Nichell Nichols as Lt Uhura 0 TVs rst strong black supporting character 0 1968 First blackwhite interracial kiss on TV Key Terms Cuban missile crisis Geneva accords Domino theory The Cuban Revolution 1959 Fidel Castro s forces overthrow US backed dictator Batista Began receiving aid from Soviet Union 0 1961 Declared Cuba a communist country The Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961 Invasion of CIA trained antiCastro Cuban missiles 118 killed and the rest captured Cuban Missile Crisis 1961 US installed nuclear missiles in Italy and Turkey 1962 Soviet ballistic missiles spotted in Cuba US naval blockade Both sides prepared for nuclear war Meanwhile in Vietnam Japanese occupation of French Indochina 1945 French Indochina War 194654 Geneva Accords 1954 Temporarily divided Vietnam Set date for national elections and reuni cation 0 Ho Chi Minh would have won Who s who in the Vietnam war North VietnamNational liberation front Communists led by Ho Chi Minh South Vietnam NonCommunist US ally 0 Led by Ngo Dinh Diem until 1963 Viet Cong South Vietnamese communist guerillas Ngo Dinh Diem 1955 Became president in fraudulent election Catholic corrupt and oppressive Massive protest by Buddhist majority 1963 Killed in US approved coup Origins of US Involvement The Domino theory 0 Belief that if one country in Southeast Asia fell to Communism it would quickly spread across the region Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1963 Thousands of US military advisors in South Vietnam 1964 Reports of attacks on US ships Partially false Congress authorizes Johnson quotto take all necessary stepsquot to protect US and South Vietnamese troops America s war 1965 US airstrikes and ground troop deployments 1968 500000 troops in Vietnam 19651973 US dropped 7 million tons of bombs on North Vietnam An Unwinnable ght Johnson refused to be rst president to lose a war 1966 CIA analysts declared the war unwinnable o ButJohnson continued to escalate US involvement 19631975 58307 US dead 12 million Vietnamese dead GREAT SOCIETY VS NEW LEFT The War on poverty Goal Eliminate poverty in US Rejected 0 Increasing cash assistance 0 Federal jobs programs 0 Guaranteed annual income Of ce of Economic Opportunity Educann Job training programs 0 Community action groups Problems Vastly underfunded Con ict with local governments Decreasing public support Vietnam War in the top political and funding priority Largely abandoned after 1968 The Counterculture Rejection of 19505 suburban values 0 Sex 0 Drugs 0 Rock and roll Hippies 0 quotTune in turn on drop outquot Student radicals Northern college students protesting for Civil rights Free speech on campus Nuclear disarmament End to Vietnam War Students for a democratic society SDS Founded 1962 100000 members by 1968 quotParticipatory democracyquot Antiwar Growth of the antiwar movement Began 1965 with small groups of college radicals and the counterculture Spread among African American communities affected by the draft 1967 o Muhammad Ali drafted but refused to serve Largest antiwar movement in US history Millions of protesters 0 19691970 1785 recorded antiwar demonstrations Just on college campuses 0 Opposition in popular culture 0 500000 draftees refused to serve 1968 Johnson refused Gen Westmoreland39s request for 200000 additional draftees FBI had advised that it would risk quotprovoking a domestic crisis of unprecedented proportionsquot The G AntiWar Movement Underground antiwar newspapers on Army bases 20000 troops joined antiwar American Servicemen39s Union 2030000 vets joined Vietnam Veterans against the war THE REAGAN REVOLUTION Key terms lran hostage crisis Reaganomics IranContra Affair The troubled presidency ofJimmy Carter President 19771980 Democrat o Ran as political quotoutsiderquot in aftermath of Watergate 0 Did not carry most southern states Oil crisis 197374 OPEC embargo on oil sales to US o Retaliation for US military aid to Israel The Iranian Revolution 1953 CIA installed Shah of Iran in power 1979 The Shah overthrown by popular revolt lslamist regime under Ayatollah Khomeini took power lran Hostage 54 US hostages Held for 444 days Botched rescue attempt Oil crisis 2 1979 Carter banned oil imports from Iran Oil prices skyrocketed Ronald Reagan Former actor and New Deal Democrat Became conservative in 19505 1980 presidential campaign 39Small governmentquot and tax cuts Stronger military to ght Cold War 39White backlash39 Reaganomics Supplyside quottrickledownquot economics Largest tax cuts in US history 0 Cut income taxes on wealthy from 70 percent to 28 percent GDP and average income grew Did it trickle down No Did not reduce poverty Minimum wage not raised Real wages declined o Attacked unions Nearly all growth went to the wealthy Balancing the books 19811985 Reagan cut 140 billion from social programs Largest federal de cit in history up to that point National debt tripled US went from largest creditor to largest debtor nation in the world Reagan subsequently raised taxes 11 times IranIraq war 19801988 September 22 1980 Iraq invaded Iran US supported Iraq with funds intelligence training equipment and weapons 0 Including chemical weapons Reagan39s cold war Increased military spending quotStar Warsquot missile defense program Escalated US support for antiCommunist regimes SovietAfghan War 19791989 1979 Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to protect Communist Afghan Government US funded anticommunist Islamist rebels the mujahideen 0 Including groups that would later become the Taliban and AIQueda quotRussia39s Vietnamquot 0 Soviet Union withdrew 1989 The Cold War in Latin America Under Reagan CIA helped establish new anticommunist dictatorships Guatemala Panama 0 Manuel Noriega On CIA payroII since 19505 0 Established major drug empire Nicaraguan Revolution 1979 US backed Somoza family overthrown by socialist Sandinistas Sandinista government opposed by gueriIIa quotcontraquot movement 1984 Congress banned aid to contras Lebanon Hostage crisis 1982 Israel invades Lebanon Hezbollah founded The Irancontra affair Reagan denied knowledge of conspiracy Congressional hearings Nobody served prison time Barry Goldwater Lyndon Johnson portrayed Goldwater as a dangerous fanatic The 1968 Richard of Nixon Moderate elements of campaign quotPeace with Honorquot in Vietnam Did not attack social programs New rights elements of campaigns quotLaw and Orderquot quotThe Southern Strategyquot The Southern Strategy quotFrom now on the republicans are never going to get more than 10 to 20 percent of the Negro vote and they don39t need any more than that but Republicans would be shortsighted if they weakened enforcement of the Voting Rights Actquot Nixon The last moderate republican Nixon hated liberals but he passed quotliberalquot legislation Popularity of New Deal and Great society programs To embarrass liberal critics Expanded social security Including food stamps Environmental protections Occupational Safety and Health administration Environmental protection agency Clean air act water pollution control act Passed Title IX Banned gender discrimination in federallyfunded education programs Did not oppose Roe v Wade Supported the Equal rights amendment Proposed a universal healthcare program Proposed a guaranteed annual income D tente A thaw in Cold War tensions o Nixon visited China and USSR 0 Signed rst nuclear arms reduction treaty with USSR Decreased defense spending quotVietnamizationquot Cambodia 1969 secret and illegal bombing of Cambodia 1970 announced ground invasion 1972 Ordered a new massive bombing campaign against North Vietnam Vietnam Why did the US lose The Viet Minh and Viet Cong kept on ghting The collapse of troop morale The impact of the antiwar movement The collapse of armed forces quotThe morale discipline and battleworthiness of the US Armed Forces areower and worse than at any time in this century and possibly in the history of the United Statesquot Collapse of the US Armed Forces Growing frustration and desperation Drug use 0 A majority of US soldiers in Vietnam regularly smoking marijuana o More than 14 had used narcotics in previous year Violence 0 My Lai Massacre 1968 0 At least 347 civilians killed Collapse of the US Armed forces Desertion and refusal of duty Desertion rate of 68 percent in 1971 354112 soldiers reported AWOL by the end of 1972 Fragging 1969 96 instances 1970 209 At least 600 total End of the War 1973 Nixon withdrew US troops 1975 South Vietnam becomes part of Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1986 Vietnam reformed economic system to a quotsocialistoriented market economyquot Aftermath The Khmer rouge US attacks on Cambodia destabilized government Led to the Communist Khmer Rouge seizing power in 1975 Khmer Rouge killed 12 million people 20 percent of the Cambodian population 1979 Socialist Vietnam invaded the Cambodia and overthrew the Khmer Rouge US them directly funded the Khmer Rouge gueria forces The other side of Nixon Watergate Nixon reelected 1972 Watergate hotel breakin Investigation uncovered Obstruction ofJustice Illegal campaign contributions ega breakins targeting critics and opponents Secret bombing of Cambodia 1974 Only president to resign A balanced federal budget quotRonald Reagan proved that de cits don39t matterquot Dick Cheney 2002 The antiglobalization movement Criticized neoliberal globalization for Outsourcing ofjobs from US Elimination of labor and environmental protections Undermining national sovereignty Privatization of public services NAFTA Did not decrease poverty in Mexico Subsidized US crops devastated Mexican farmers 0 Spike in illegal immigration to US Corporate Consolidation Of the 150 largest economic entities in the world 74 are countries 76 are corporation Exxon Mobile Walmart Shell and BP each make more revenue The 2008 nancial crisis Elimination of separation between investment banks and commercial banks Led to speculation unbacked credit and rislq investments that caused crash Increasing inequality 2010 Gap between the richest and poorest Americans the largest in history Global inequality also increasing Occupy wall street September 2011 Occupation of Zuccotti Park NY Other occupations in dozens of cities 0 Protesting rising inequality THE REAGAN REVOLUTION Key terms lran hostage crisis Reaganomics IranContra Affair The troubled presidency ofJimmy Carter President 19771980 Democrat o Ran as political quotoutsiderquot in aftermath of Watergate 0 Did not carry most southern states Oil crisis 197374 OPEC embargo on oil sales to US o Retaliation for US military aid to Israel The Iranian Revolution 1953 CIA installed Shah of Iran in power 1979 The Shah overthrown by popular revolt lslamist regime under Ayatollah Khomeini took power lran Hostage 54 US hostages Held for 444 days Botched rescue attempt Oil crisis 2 1979 Carter banned oil imports from Iran Oil prices skyrocketed Ronald Reagan Former actor and New Deal Democrat Became conservative in 19505 1980 presidential campaign 39Small governmentquot and tax cuts Stronger military to ght Cold War 39White backlash39 Reaganomics Supplyside quottrickledownquot economics Largest tax cuts in US history 0 Cut income taxes on wealthy from 70 percent to 28 percent GDP and average income grew Did it trickle down No Did not reduce poverty Minimum wage not raised Real wages declined o Attacked unions Nearly all growth went to the wealthy Balancing the books 19811985 Reagan cut 140 billion from social programs Largest federal de cit in history up to that point National debt tripled US went from largest creditor to largest debtor nation in the world Reagan subsequently raised taxes 11 times IranIraq war 19801988 September 22 1980 Iraq invaded Iran US supported Iraq with funds intelligence training equipment and weapons 0 Including chemical weapons Reagan39s cold war Increased military spending quotStar Warsquot missile defense program Escalated US support for antiCommunist regimes SovietAfghan War 19791989 1979 Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to protect Communist Afghan Government US funded anticommunist Islamist rebels the mujahideen 0 Including groups that would later become the Taliban and AIQueda quotRussia39s Vietnamquot 0 Soviet Union withdrew 1989 The Cold War in Latin America Under Reagan CIA helped establish new anticommunist dictatorships Guatemala Panama 0 Manuel Noriega On CIA payroII since 19505 0 Established major drug empire Nicaraguan Revolution 1979 US backed Somoza family overthrown by socialist Sandinistas Sandinista government opposed by gueriIIa quotcontraquot movement 1984 Congress banned aid to contras Lebanon Hostage crisis 1982 Israel invades Lebanon Hezbollah founded The Irancontra affair Reagan denied knowledge of conspiracy Congressional hearings Nobody served prison time
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