Sociology notes until 11/17/2015
Sociology notes until 11/17/2015 SOCI 1311 - 004
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CHAPTER 3 CULTURE Cultural Antrhopology Looks beyond our world Example Classroom chair attached to Desk Why do we have chairs Why does the classroom chair take the form it does Why don39t we sit down on stools Suggestion Does the setting give meaning to the classroom Does the furniture form the body into a shape preparing it to attend to a teacher and not to others Control Question How do people judge beliefs and behaviors of others Judgement is based on their cultural beliefs Why people differ in beliefs and behaviors All societies experience events like 1 Birth 2 Death 3 Basic needs like water shelter But the meanings of these events differ across cultures Meanings of Death Across Cultures Some may view death as passage from one world to another Others may view death as the end Others may view death as a cycle of birth death and rebirth Varying cultural views of death Southern Europe Widows were required to shave their heads India Widows were cremated at their husbands39 funerals Therefore grief varies across cultures Some cultures will weep over the dead body Others may suppress the grief How do people judge the beliefs and behaviors of others There are so many cultural beliefs How can we understand other cultures without making negative remarks Ethnocentricity EXAM The idea that our beliefs and behaviors are right those of other cultures are wrong Clothing around the world Who is wrongprimitivecivilized Japan Nigeria Middle EAST Traditional dress Baganda King Abdullah Saudi Arabia condolences Based on dress code who is Primitive Civilized Every culture thinks they are rightwrong Is it possible to see the world through the eyes of the others Culture relativism EXAM Understanding culture in its own terms To understand behaviors or beliefs in terms of the Purpose Function Meaning they have for people What does it mean to expose the skin in this part of the world Cultural Transmission Exercise Culture refers to values beliefs material and non material culture etc One way of transmitting culture among americans is throught sports In this movie clip look for Values Beliefs Material and non material culture American Football American football conveys cultural messages about Success Competition etc The Balinese Cockfight Cockfighting is a major sport tied to cultural interpretations of Manhood Competition And status Cultural relativism EXAM Understanding cultural behaviors or beliefs and values in terms of percieved Purpose Function or Meaning they have for people Terminology EXAM Culture shock Disorientation due to inability to make sense out of one39s surroundings Domestic and foreign travel Ideal and Real culture EXAM Ideal culture The way things should be ie monogamy Behavior mandated by values and norms ie Adam and Eve Real culture The way things actually occur in everyday life ie extramarital relationships Cultural Diversity High culture Cultural patterns that distinguish a society39s elite Popular culture Cultural patterns that are widespread among society39s population Subculture Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of society39s population Counterculture Culture patterns that strongly oppose the widely accepted cultures within a society CHAPTER 3 CULTURE Symbols EXAM Anything that carries a particular meaning Recognized by people who share culture What are some examples of symbols Meanings vary from culture to culture Meanings can even vary greatly within the same groups of people The cross fur coats etc Language Non verbal language Use gestures sparingly Beckoning with index finger US Come here May be obscene in others say Middle Far East Portugal Spain Latin America Japan Indonesia Hong Kong or Africa Pointing at anyone with the index finger Middle and Far East It is impolite Making a quotVquot sign Europe Victory Smiling Universally a smile is understood Don39t judge people if they don39t smile or smile at inappropriate times Some cultures smile for different reasons Sitting sole of feet or shoe showing In many cultures this is rude Exposing the lowest and dirtiest part of your body is insulting A circle with fingers indicates quotOKquot Brazil and Germany obscene Japan Indicates money Patting your neighbour on the head In Buddhism it39s extremely upsetting because they treat head as the repository of the soul Noding head updown In Greece it means no Please don39t do this aloud BURP Language is a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another ie sign language English is the most native tongue or official language in several regions Spanish is the second most widely spoken language in the US The largest concentration is Latin America and Spain NORMS EXAM Rules and expectations by which society guides the behavior of its members Types 1 Proscriptive Should nots prohibited ie sex with multiple partners Thou should not spit on the sidewalk 2Prescriptive norms Shoulds prescribed like medicine ie exercise Thou should obey the parents Norms are socially constructed Taken for granted we do not pay much attention to them But they control us Social control The various means by which members of society encourage conformity to norms GUILT as a means of social control A negative judgement we make about ourselves SHAMTNG is a means of social control EXAM Shame is the painful sense that others disapprove of our actions Give one example of how shaming was used as a means of control Freedom vs constraint Culture as constraint We only know our world in terms of our culture ie monogamy Culture as freedom Culture is changing and offers a veriety of opportunities Especially in the US same sex marriage Interdependence and culture EXAM Culture integration The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system Culture lag Ts when some cultural elements change faster than others ie technology which may disrupt a cultural system ie medical procedures advancements have come with social consequences Cultural transmission EXAM The process by which one generation passes culture to the next Culture changes in three ways 1 Invention Creating new cultural elements Telephone or airplane 2 Discovery Recognizing and better understanding of something already in existence Telephones to cell phones 3 Diffusion The spread of cultural traits from one society to another Jazz music or much of the english language Is there a global culture The Basic Thesis 1 The flow of goods Material product trading is global The quotAmericanization of the worldquot Indicates something like a global culture 2 The flow of information There are few places on earth where worldwide communication is not possible Critics to the thesis of global culture Problem with this thesis The flow of goods is uneven Some can39t afford these goods People don39t attach the same meaning to material goods Karl Marx was advocating for the people who were poor Karl Marx and society Highlights the struggle between segments of society over valued resources ie EXAM Capitalists Own and operate businesses for profits Proletariats Sell their labor for wages Karl Marx teminologies EXAM 1 False consciousness Explaining social problems as shortcomings of individuals rather than society 2 Class consciousness When workers recognize themselves as a class united in opposition to the capitalists Marx believed that workers must replace the false consciousness with the class consciousness and rise against and destroy capitalism The history of all existing societies is the history of class struggles or class conflict conflict over the distribution of a society39s wealth and power Capitalism and alienation Alienation Experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlesness Marx and alienation Capitalism alienates workers in 4 ways 1 From the act of working Workers have no say Work is tedious 2 From the products of work Have no ownership in the product of their work 3 From other workers Workers become more competitive 4 From dev their full human potential Only trained in one thing Can39t develop all possible skills Marx in time The working majority would realize they hold the key Change would be revolutionary and perhaps even violent Marx believed a socialist society would bring class conflict to an end Max Weber and society Reason ideas as the mover of society Traditional to the rational society Traditional society is dominated by Sentiments and beliefs passed from one generation to generation Rational society is based on the deliberate calculation human thought of the most efficient means to accomplish a task The protestant ethic how reason or ideas move society The ideas of the Calvinists Christians paved the way to capitalism Calvinist Doctrines How ideas change society The Fall Adam and Eve sinned Hell certain for all all born in sin Predestination salvation for a chosen few None knew if they were chosen The call all men were called to work hard Material possessions sign for Gods salvation Hard work led to surplus Classes evolved the rich and the poor Capitalism was born The religious ethic beccame the work ethic Emile Durkheim Durkheim formulated a theory of anomie A state of lawlessness Durkheim modern society is the root of anomie Gives little moral guidance to individuals Examples of some anomic situations Durkheim and social change The key to society39s change is division of labor Division of laor refers to specialization of economic activity Durkheim and social change From mechanical to organic solidarity 1 Mechanical solidarity is where social bonds are based on common sentiments and shared moral values pre industrial societies ie characterized by kinship homogenous societies 2 Organic solidarity is where social bonds are based on specialization and interdependence ie we need the garbage collector who needs our taxes etc What holds societies together EXAM Gergard Lenski Technology Karl Marx The elites force an uneasy peace conflict Max Weber Rational thought ideas ie Emile Durkheim Specialized division of labor interdependency Gerhard Lenski Advancement in technology hoe to tractors combine harvesters Karl Marx Social conflict revolutions Max Weber Rational thought ideas Emile Durkhei Division of labor from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity Are societies improving Weber Traditional to rational To whose standarts Nuclear bombs GLobal warming Is this improvement Comte Theological to scientific Lennski Simple to hi technological systems Marx Capitalism to socialist No due to social conflict A socialist society would be best Do you agree with him or disagree Assessing Lenski39s theory Technological advancement and progress but it leaves us with new sets of dangers Dangers of technology Pollution Destructiveness nuclear bomb Pesticides toxicity Increased gap between rich and poor Emile Durkheim Modernity give more freedom for individuals Socialization EXAM The lifelong social experience by which people develope human potential and learn patterns of their culture Personality EXAM One39s consistent patterns of Thinking FeeHng Acting Nature v nurture SociobiologistsEXAM Nature creates personality and behavior Human nature is instinctive Behaviorists Nurture creates personality Most of who and what we are is learned The question is is it sociobiology or behaviorism Could be a person39s personality develop without social interaction Answer IT IS BOTH Sociological perspective nurture matters more Freud theory of personality developement The ID We39re born with itunconscious and demands immediate satisfaction The ego Conscious efforts to balance the Id and superego The superego Conscious about right and wrong Culture within Norms explain why one can39t always have what is wanted Sigmund Freud Theory of personality The Id vs ego vs superego The id and superego constant combat the ego balancing id and superego lnternaization of social norms as the superego Childhood experiences Mead and the developement of the self Terminologies The self Dual nature The quotIquot Is the self as the subject The quotmequot The self as the object George Herbert Mead and the self The self is a dimension of personality composed of one39s Selfawareness Selfimage According to Mead EXAM We are not born with the quotselfquot t emerges from social experience Based on exchange of symbols The looking glass self By Charles Cooley selfimage is based on how others respond to us Selfimage is based on how we think others see us Mead taking the role of the other EXAM ie understanding someone39s intentions or feelings requires imagining the situation from that person39s point of view Mead39s self development stages Stage 1 Imitation Stage 2 Play Taking roles of signi cant others Stage 3 Games Learn to take roles of several other people at the same time Stage 4 Acquisition of the generalized other EXAM Acquisition of the generalized other Widespread cutura norms and values we use to evaluate ourselves EXAM Caution do not confuse Mead and Freud Mead and Me Rejected the biological origins of I and me Work together cooperatively Freud Id and superego Id and superego originate in biology Locked in combat Agents of socialization The family The school Prison Gangs Military Government Religion The family The most important agent A loving family produces a happy welladjusted child Parental attention Bonding and encouragement The household environment has an impact on developement Stimulates developement The social position Religion ethnicity and social class Peer groups EXAM Members experience anticipatory socialization Learning that helps a person achieve a desired position Criticisms about programming Race and gender inequality in media representation Violence in mass media Video games and violence 66 percent of TV programming contains violence characters show no remorse and no punishment 24 hour shows Behind mansion walls Fatal vows Family secrets Evil Twins Hard evidence Power privilege and justice Total institutions and socializations EXAM A total institution is a setting where people are isolated from society and manipulated by staff Characteristics of the total institutions 1 Staff supervises all daily activities 2 Environment is standardized 3 Formal rules and daily schedules Resocialization process EXAM Resocialization radically changing a person39s peersonality by carefully controlling the environment Erving Goffman and resocialization Resocialization procedure 1 Staff breaks down existing identity repossess your belongings ie MD uniform dress code 2 Staff rebuilds your personality using rewards and punishments Let39s list some examples of individuals that have been resocialized Resocialized individuals Saddam Hussein Martha Stewart Hollywood stars some Seniors in nursing homes Society Society shapes how we think feel and act If this is so then in what sense are we free CHAPTER 6 Social interaction in everyday life The process by which people act and react in relation to others We approach the process of social interaction from the symbolic interaction paradigm STATUS SET EXAM ROLE SET EXAM Social interaction is affected by people39s socia statuses A social position that an individual occupies Types of statuses 1 Ascribed 2 Achieved Roles A role Behavior expected by someone who holds a particular status Changing to a different topic When people interact they construct reality ie The social construction of reality is the process by which people creatively shapre reality through social interaction Street smarts For example To survive on the street construct a favorable outcome ie if you pass by gangsters construct a situation that gives an impression that no one messes with you If you appear vulnerable the risk of being their hit target may be high If offered a new job say secretary of state You may construct an outcome to convinve your audience The thomas theorem EXAM Situations de ned as real are real in their consequences If you run for president some day or land yourself a prestigious job Goffman39s dramaturgical analysis EXAM Goffman introduced the idea of examining social interaction in terms of theatrical performances Goffman and the presentation of the self EXAM The presentation of the self where one tries to create impressions in the minds of others Presenting self as one wants to be seen The logic behind the presentation of self How do presidents want to be seen How do judges in this culture want to be seen How do american sports teams want to be seen On the job interview how do you want to be seen During police interrogation how do the accused want to be seen The key is impression management or making oneself appear in the best light possible Society as a theatre Roles performance includes 1 A social setting or stage 2 Wearing costumes You dress as expected 3 Play with your voice the tone of the voice 4 Use and control your gestures etc Construction of settings and notions of power The courtroom A huge desk set up high a chair behind it unapproachable Next seats for the lawyers Seats for the spectators Con ned in in the back Far from the judge A cage for the accused The actors come in costumes The policemen in uniform The judge39s gown The lawyers in suits The accused in an orange suit stands out with chains The spectators in anything Example of role performances The doctor39s of ce Examination office The doctor39s costume The nurses costume Patient is undressed Doctors watch their mannerisms etc Role performance The classroom The instructor stands up a lot of spac Students sit down just elbow room Instructor39s desk is large etc Performances have the back stage And the front stage ie we always cry off stage Shakespeare once said All the world is a stage And all men and women merely players They have their exits and their entrances And one in his time plays many parts Irving Goffman Behavior is also partially socially constructed by Genden Age Social status Society constructs behavior Other examples In some culture women are to be seen not heard so they are quiet Men as the bread winners Men are encouraged to be aggressive seen in sports The social construction of nehavior based on age Children may kneel down while greeting adults a sign of respect Children are to be in school Everywhere individual nehave according to society39s expectations Non verbal communication Interaction involves body language 1 Gestures 2 Facial expressions 3 Voice 4 Demeanor 5 Personal space All nonverbal communication is culturespeci c ie eye contact SHence Meaning varies by culture It may mean Wisdom Naive lgno ng Disobedient Body language can contradict verbal communication because nonverbal communication is hard to control ie while interviewing for a job during questioning by police if you are a soldier you may fail to control your emotions etc Emotions There is a biological side to emotions ie everyone anywhere Cries Laughs Gets angry Anxious and so forth However we39re socialized to suppress these emotions The cultural side of emotions which is socially constructed that sociologists are interested in In the army you may be expected to put on a serious face without a smile In many culture men are discouraged to cry it is a sign of weakness At funerals some cultures require the loved ones to wail out as loud as possible in the american culture the loved ones may blot out small discussions The social construction of language in reference to gender conveys notions of power Feminine terms are more likely to change to negative meanings than their masculine counterparts ie master vs mistress host vs hostess Choosing the quotmanquotword to represent quotallquot persons Like in Torah Bible and Qoran CHAPTER 7 GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS 2 Types of groups Primary groups 1 Primary groups 2 Secondary groups Primary groups Relationships in primary groups First group experienced in life Irreplacable for life Offer some sense of security Relates to who you are to the group The family Close friendships Secondary groups Weak emotional ties Short term Examples of secondary groups Coworkers Political organizations Class mates Group leadership Groups operate through leadership Types of leadership 1 Instrumental leadership 2 Expressive leadership 1 Instrumental leaders Focus on completion of tasks Members look to the leader for direction Leaders give orders with rewardspunishments Uninterested in personal ties 2 Expressive leaders 1 Raises group morale 2 People oriented 3 Focuses on group39s well being 4 Minimizes con ict 5 Builds more personal primary ties 6 Sympathetic to members Examples of Expressive leaders Spiritual leaders ie the priests of pastors Parents Counselors Exam Utilitarian organizations Normative organizations Coercive organizations There are three decision making styles 1 Authoritarian leadership style 2 Democratic leadership style 3 LaiseezFaire leadership style Authoritarian Leadership style The leader makes the decisions Demands the compliance Dont care for affection Appreciated in times of crisis Democratic leadershup style All have input in decision making Less successful in times of crisis LaissezFaire leadership style Lets group function on its own Least effective in promoting goals Can these leadership styles be characterized by gender Group size EXAM Simmel39s book quotCon ict and the web of group af liationsquot The dyad A two member group Very intimate But very unstable Examples of Dyads A marriage Twopeople Business partnership Group size The triad EXAM A three member group More stable than a dyad More types of interaction between members Examples of triads The grandparents and daughter and son in law 3 person business partners The administrators the workers and the union Moving to a new topic Organizations Bureaucratic Organizations EXAM Bureaucracy is an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks ef ciently 6 characteristics of hureaucracies 1 Specialization of labor 2 Hierarchy of offices 3 Rules and regulations 4 Hiring is based on competency 5 They are impersonal 6 They are formal Downside of bureaucracies Alienate and dehumanize people No room for creativity Just to follow orders and rules Problems of bureaucracies EXAM Ritualism Rules and regulations to the point of affecting an organization39s goals Work become monotonous same thing everyday Characterized by oligarchy the rule of the many by a few The problem with oligarchy is that Those at the top may not really know the concerns of those at the bottom of strata Those at the top are detached from and impersonal to those at the bottom Deviance Violation of cultural norms What is deviance Crime is one category of deviance The violation of a society39s formally enacted criminal law Social Control Deviance calls for social control Attempts by society to regulate people39s thoughts and behavior Social thoeries of deviance 1 Structural functionalists 2 Con ict theorists 3 Symbolic interactionists Structural functional analysis These theorists talk about the functions of deviance The Major Structural Functionalist theorists are Emile Durkheim Emile Durkheim EXAM Durkheim highlights 4 functions of deviance 1 It af rms cultural values and norms goodbad for society ie incest 2 Clari es mora boundaries 3 Response promotes social unity ie 911 4 Encouragess social change Let us list a few examples where deviance has caused social change Examination 2 Retrospective labeling Hate crime Deterrence Retribution Punishment Deviance as a medical or moral issue Rehabilitation Role set Status set Examples of change overtime French revolution Labor unions Women39s movement 196039s racial riots Hippie39s movement South African freedom ghters Mahatma Gandhi Contemporary riots Because of the functions of deviance Durkheim concluded that deviance is necessary for society Emile Durkneim EXAM Deviance is universal and it varies across cultures De ne Bigamy The offense of willfully and knowingly having more than one wife or husband at the same time Merton39s theory EXAM Deviance results from strain ie caused by society39s push to success Dream without providing all members the means Merton39s strain theory For example The american culture values material success the american dream It is a cultural goa Success to be acquired through institutional means Everyone is pushed towards the american dream but not a segments have equal access to the means necessary to achieve the goal According to merton crime results from society pushing everyone towards success and yet barring a certain segment of the pouation from acquiring the same goal What drives people into crime is strain from trying to achieve the cultural goal and lack of access to sufficient means to acquire the same goal Merton39s 4 types of deviance EXAM Merton indicated that people respond to this strain differently creating different kinds of deviants 1 Innovators 2 Ritualists 3 Retreatists 4 Rebels Labeling theory EXAM Deviance results from how others respond to deviant actions First people get engaged in primary deviance Most people take part in Primary leads to secondary deviance People may repeat action if others quotmake somethingquot of that deviant behavior Sutherland39s differential association theory Deviant behavior is learned Associates punishment or reward Hirschi39s control theory EXAM What controls us is the imagination of consequences for our behavior Hirshi conformity arises from 4 types of social controls 1 Strong attachments 2 Strong belief in morality and respect for authority 3 Strong commitment to others 4 Involvement in extra curricular activities Social con ict theory on deviaance Deviance and power 1 The norms re ect the interests of the rich and powerful 2 The powerful resist deviant labeling 3 Laws may be unfair DevianceLanguagePower Who is a quotrobberquot A thief What is embezzlement To take for personal use money or property that has been given on trust by others without their knowledge or permission Deviance and capitalism White collar crime is controlled by civil rather than criminal law Criminals are treated leniently Gender and deviance EXAM The world applies more normative controls to females as opposed to men What is your opinion SOCIAL STRATIFICATION How society ranks people Elite MidUpper MidLower Lowest class Caste systems Based on ascription Birth Caste system Social mmobility is impossible Caste systems shape people39s lives in 4 ways 1 Endogamy no out group marriage 2 No out group contact Typical of agrarian societies Coz routines of agriculture depend on a rigid sense of duty and discipline Class system society EXAM Strati cation based on 1 Birth 2 Achievement Class systems move towards meritocracy EXAM Strati cation is based on personal merit Terminology EXAM Status consistency ls consistency across dimensions of social inequality In class systems status consistency is lower than in caste systems United kingdom Feudal era The 3estate system EXAM Nobility lst Estate Ascribed Professionals clergy warriors 2nd Estate Achieved Commoners Peasants 3rd estate ascribed UK today is a class society But it has elements of a caste system Japanese caste system History EXAM Nobility Ascribed Warriors samurai Achieved Commoners Ascribed Burakumin Ascribed Japanese system today Today Japan has a class system Free movement across classes Upward mobility Moving up the social system Downward mobility Moving down the social system Marx talked about a classless society Is it possible to have a classless sociey with no strati cation Former soviet union Classless Occupation strati cation The second russian revolution EXAM Today Social mobility is common Especially structural social mobility ie Shift of large numbers of people Social theories on social strati cation Structural functionalists Social con ict theorists Structuralfunctional theorists Davis and Moore39s thesis Gives incentive to hard work to achieve a desired positions Egalitarian societies offer little incentives Wages are based on the importance of position You have to invest to achieve them Which of the following jobs is the most functional for society Sports Medical doctor House wife Talk show host Sergeant US President Bill Gates39 expertise The Google boys College professor Can39t specify importance of positions some are over or under rewarded Ignore how social strati cation may hinder the developement of individual talents Social con ict theorists and strati cation Karl Marx Class and con ict Con ict between groups Karl Marx Terminologies Capitalists bourgeoisie Factory and business owners The proletarians Se labor for wages Applying Marx39s theory today The laws still protect the private property of the rich Marx39s critics Marx predicted that revolutions were inevitable in capitalist societies Why do you think over 100 years since Marx the proletariats did not over turned some capitalist systems Why no revolution yet Workers are better organized Unions ght for reform Capitalist nations have elements of Marx39s theory or communism Why western capitalism hasn39t experienced a revolution as per Marx39s prediction The capitalist class has grown more stake in the system Decent standard of living Extended legal protections to workers Max Weber39s 3 dimensions of strati cation Class Status and power NOT only class but also status and power are strati ed Strati cation ideology Cultural beliefs that justify strati cation Plato Every culture considers some type of inequality quotfairquot Cultural beliefs that justify strati cation Spencer Used the term quotsurvival of the ttestquot to justify the wealth of the few Cultural beliefs that justify strati cation Karl Marx Capitalists keep wealth and power for a few encouraging strati cation And then they want everyone to believe the poor are lazy False consciousness What are the similarities and differenes between Marx and Weber39s social con ict views of strati cation EXAM Intergenerational social mobility Up or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents Mobility varies by gender and ethnicity Social mobility varies by income level Earnings have stalled Multiple jobholding The Change from manufacturing jobs to service work Jobs changed from manufacturing to service work creates upward mobility but just for educated people Who are the poor Age 219 percent of children under 18 years Poverty in the United States EXAM Feminization of Poverty is the trend by which women represent an increasing proportion of the poor 60 percent of the poor are women Due to a rise in household by women as head of family Global poverty and poorest nations Social strati cation is very pronounced Gender inequalities dramatic The severity of poverty EXAM Relative poverty Exists in all societiesm rich vs poor But it is more common in developed nations Absolute poverty 13 of the poeple in poor nations experience poverty at this level 40000 persons a day 15 million persons a year starve to death Let us give a few examples about what causes famine Global strati cation theories EXAM 1 Dependency theory 2 Modernization theory Dependency Poor countries are poor because they are dependent on the rich nations Immanuel Wallerstein39s Capitalist world economy dependency theory Low income nations margins of world economy High income nations core of world economy According to the dependency theory Colonialism back stage for poverty Almost all poor nations share a history of being colonized by the West ie Europeans annexed land from colonies worldwide with a saying that quotThe sun never sets on the british empirequot Berlin conference 18841885 According to the dependency theory Most of the colonies were annexed through bood shed cooborate or consequences of war According to the dependency theory Colonialism economic exploitation Based on the dependency theory Colonies set up colonies as producers of raw materials These materials were to be sold to the rich countries at low costs Colonialists were to manufacture the raw materials into nished products then sell them back to the colonies at higher prices Colonists had no intention of building insustries in the low income countries Resut chronic dependence of excoonies on the high income countries Because the payments for imports were higher than the income from exports Excolonies accumulated a lot of debt to the rich nations and could not pay back This trend continues today Due to a lack of industries poor countries continue to sell raw materials to rich nations and to buy nished products from them at higher prices So the debt continues to grow Estimated to be 1 trillion dollars including hundreds of billions owed to the US So the gap between high and low income countries continues to grow Correlates of global poverty About 50 years after the colonialists pulled out of these countries neo colonialism continues to hamper development in the poor nations Neocolonialism A quotnewquot form of global power relationships lnvolves no direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations Modernization theory According to this theory tradition is the greatest barrier to economic developement Rostow39s stages of modernization Stages of developement 1 Traditional stage 2 Take off stage 3 Drive to technology maturity 4 High mass consumption Traditional stage People are comfortable with tradition and don39t care about material things Take off stage Beginning of talent use imagination ie wheel Sparks off economic growth Drive to technological maturity People begin to accept technology High mass consumption Industrial consumption increases Reasons for global poverty 1 Poor technology 14 of the people in lowincome countries use human or animal power to farm the land 2 Population growth That people resist innovations and accept slavery as a way of life 4 Social strati cation Distribute wealth very unequally Chapter 01 The Sociological Perspective Learning Pyramid Lecture 5 Reading 10 Audio visual 20 Demonstration i a examples pics 30 Discussion and class participation 50 Practice by doing ie exams etc 75 Teach others immediate use of materials 90 The origins of sociology Sociology is one of the youngest of academic disciplines Founded in powerful social forces Industrialization Urbanization Migrations The French revolution 1789 Storming the Bastille US immigrants on ships 1800s US children working in bottle factory Indiana 1908 US Boys in a cigar factory 1800s Earlier Greek philosophers study of society Focusing on a utopian society August Comte father of sociology Viewed the study of society as a science Auguste Comte 1798 1857 Comte39s theory of social development Comte believed that society develops in three stages 1 Theological stage The divine 2 Metaphysical stage Transition stage 3 Positivism stage Science What is sociology The systematic study of human society It is a scientific discipline At the heart of sociology is the sociological perspective Benefits of the sociological perspective Assess the truth out of common sense ie who are the homeless It empowers us to be active participants in our society to create change If we see the homeless as victims sympathetic to their state If the homeless are a problem inkind to them calling them names like beggars tramps hobos drifters stigmatizing them as outcasts Sociology promotes public awareness of social issues analyzes inequality ie who is in need Why and how can we correct the problem Sociology assess both opportunities and constraints in our lives Can you think of opportunities you have that others don39t Your opportunities are other people39s constraints Sociology also helps us to get a global perspective so connected to foreign societies technologically and economically From a global perspective what we face in the US is more serious elsewhere Helps us to see the strange in the familiar Sociology helps us to see the social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals and how society shapes it Where we live determines our behavior life choices and who we become in society shapes our lives ie why do some people commit crime Theoretical paradigms 1 Structural functional paradigm 2 Social conflict paradigm 3 Symbolic interactionism paradigm Structural functionalist paradigm Take a Macro approach Society as an organism All parts working together All parts are functional Like the body with its organisms Who39s who in structural functionalist theory Herbert Spencerl820 l903 Society as the human body Auguste Comte Emile Durkheiml858 l9l7 Helped establish society as a university discipline Robert Merton 1920 2003 Theories why people commit crime Functions Robert K Merton Important 1 Manifest functions Recognized and intended consequences 2 Latent functions Unrecognized and unintended consequences 3 Social dysfunctions Undesirable consequences Social conflict paradigm Macro approach View society as an arena of inequality generates conflict and social change Conflict theorists Always look for conflict in society The rich vs the poor Males vs females Majority vs minorities The young vs the old Karl Marx 1818 1883 Social class inequality Major source of social conflict WEB Du Bois Important Significance of race in the US Race a major problem in the US Symbolic interaction paradigm Micro approach View society as the product of everyday interaction of individuals Trving Goffman 1922 1982 Important Dramaturgical analysis Presentation of the self We are all actors Max Weber 1864 1920 German Talked about bureaucracies George Herbert Mead 1863 1931 Personality development from social experience Sigmund Freud 1856 1939 Jean Pieget 1896 1980 Erick Erickson Travis Hirshi Female sociologists Harriet Martineau 1802 1876 Jane Addams 1860 1935 CHAPTER 2 THE SOCIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION Social research A logical system that derives knowledge from direct systematic observations Variables Concepts whose values change from case to case ie age Examples of other variables 1 Race 2 Gender 3 Height 4 Weight 5 Color of eyes Types of variable Important Independent Variable that causes the change ie income and education Dependent The variable that changes Operationalizing a variable Specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable ie how do you measure social class Age Gender Operationalizing a variable Age how old are you Income annual salary Satisfaction Please rate your satisfaction level for education at UTA Measurement Determining the value of a variable in a specific case Terminology Correlation A relationship by which two or more variables change together ie age and poor health Increase in age and height Could be a negative correlationdecreaseincrease Correlation does not mean causation Spurious correlation Important An apparent but false relationship between two or more variables caused by a different variable Reliability Important Consistency in measurement ie a bathroom weight scale How about the measure of age and reliability Validity Precision in measuring exactly what one intends to measure ie if measureing competency in English do not ask a mathematical question Objectivity Being neutral don39t be biased or twist the facts Replication Repetition of research by other investigators Limits distortion caused by bias Qualitative and Quantitative research methods Qualitative Does not use statistical methods More interpretive reveals meaning Quantitative Uses statistical methods Provides data to calculate averages and percent Hypothesis An unverified statement of a relationship between variables an educated guess ie Males are more likely to eat more pizza than females Gynocentricity Approaching a topic from a female only perspective less common Overgeneralizing ie Using data collected from one population group and applying the findings to everyone Gender blindnessImportant failure to consider the impact of gender at all ie education and income if you consider differences by gender educated males make more money as compared to females Ethical guidelines for research Researchers must strive to be technically competent and fair minded Must disclose all findings No omitting significant data No omitting significant data and be willing to share their data Ethical guidelines Must obtain informed consent Subjects must know the risks and responsibilities they39re against and must agree Ethical guidelines Must protect the safety rights and privacy of subjects Must disclose all sources of funding and avoid conflicts of interest Must demonstrate cultural sensitivity Survey research Participants respond to questions from a questionnaire or interview Other research methods Interviews A series of questions a researcher administers in person to respondents Participation observation Investigator observe people while participating in their routine activities Secondary analysis Using data collected by others Content analysis Analyzing the content of various cultural artifacts Research process General theory the poor are lazy Hypothesis Poor will be proven lazy Specific observations Collect data Generalization Poor work more than rich New theory Poor are therefore not lazy Inductive logic Reasoning beginning with observations ending with a theory 1 Say you see an STD epidemic 2 Gather info on who contracts STD 3 Analyze the data 4 Theory Deductive logic Begins with theory then observation and testing theory ie In your mind prostitutes are more likely to have STDs Collect data Test your hypothesis Analyze data and see if hypothesis is supported by findings in your study RELIGION A social institution with beliefs and practices based on conception of the sacred Durkheim Sacred extraordinary inspires reverence and fear cross Profane ordinary elements of everyday life Rituals formal ceremonial behavior Sociology he social consequences of religion cant aeeess the validity ef its THEM symbolscruci x Language our father sistersbrothers etc A cult EXAM A religious organization substantially outside the cultural traditions of a society 5000 cults in the US Initially seen as evil Initially viewed as brainwashing Origin of manv religions Examples of cults in US Jim Jones Massacre Examples of cults in US David Koresh Davidian Compound Religion in History EXAM Preindustrial societies embrace animism belief in elements of the natural world Religion in industrial societies Industrialized societies Science for comfort and solutions World religions EXAM Christianity Worlds mest widespread Feliaienrlearew eut ef Iudaismr Muslims believe in S pillars of Islam That Allah is the true god The ritual of praver Giving to the poor alms Fasting during Ramadan Pilgrimage Meeca udaism Smallest of the 5 15 million worldwide Majority in Israel lews believe in a covenant between God and his chosen Torah the holy book emphasizes moral behavior Hinduism Oldest of the 5 Mostlv in India and Pakistan Includes polytheistic elements 800 million believers No sacred writings Buddhism Buddhism arose in India Mostly in Asia 350 million believers Believes in the life of one person Buddha Siddhartha Gautama EXAM Achieved bodhi or enlightenment Became Buddha No god ofjudgement daily actions have consequences Religious diversity in the US US is mostly Christian 7 million Muslims 15 million Hindu 6 million lews but not all are ludaists And others ie atheists etc Church and state in US No formal ties between Church and State Increasing number of people pursuing spiritual outside established religious organizations United States EXAM At the same time there is a revival good olmmimm aae H Hmkatm CHAPTER 16 Health and medicine Strangeness in the eyes of the beholder Meaning or interpretation is based on Which is not a good measure of social economic status 1 Income Signature assignment Race Occupation Signature assignment Education Signature assignment 9593 Gender What theoretical perspective uses a micro analysis What explains behavior most nature or nurture Read the article on blackboard ahead of time What causes drug resistant TB Why do people fail to take their medication What are the social psychological implications of having TB Social epidemiology EXAM Distribution of health and disease in society Who is health Age Gender Social class Race LowHigh income nations Gender socialization The cultural meaning of masculinity in uences male behavior Nick Wallendas Walked over Chicago sky scraper Cancen Major causes of death in the US Cancer types vary by causation Smoking Sun rays Pollution New medication Eating disorders lntense dieting Weight control to become very thin Overeating Body mass index Weight by Height BMI Weight status Below 185 Underweight 185249 Normal 25299 Overweight 30 and above Obese Death and ethical issues When does death occur When is a person dead Before advanced medical treatment 1 Irreversible state 2 No response to stimuli 3 No movement 4 No breathing 5 No re exes 6 No indication of brain activity Ethical issue 1 Assisted suicide 2 Euthanasia 3 Mercy killing 4 Hastened death Social institute of medicine Treat to Improve Soothe Cure Holistic medicine EXAM Emphasizes prevention The entire physical and social environment body spirit and soul 0 Le mental SES life style etc Sexually transmitted diseases or infections STDs or STls 19605 A Fise in 3FD Fates FAMILY Family is a social institution You nd it in all societies Unites people into cooperative groups Bearing and raising children Families Structured around kinship blood bond or marriage or adoption Family of orientation Born into Early socialization The family of procreation Adopt children Marriage In most societies families are formed by marriage A legally sanctioned relationship 0 Involves economic cooperation o Normative sexual activity 0 Childbearing o Endurance Changing de nition of family Families of af nity Bonded with or without legal or blood ties quotKinship of spiritquot Members feel they belong together Extended family Parents children and other kin Also called the consanguine family Industrialized societies Promote decline of extended family Promote the nuclear family which includes one or two parents and their children Marriage patterns EXAM Endogamy n same social category caste system Exogamy Across socia categories Preindustrial cultures Encourage polygamy or 2 or more spouses Marriage patterns EXAM Monogamy 1 person Serial monogamy s monogamy divorce and remarry Polygyny 1 male to 2 or more mates Polyandry 1 female with 2 or more males Residential patterns Patrilocality Couple lives with or near the husband39s family Matrilocality Couple lives with or near the wife s family Neolocality Couple lives away from inlaws Descent Trace kinship over generations Patrilineal Tracks through males Matrilineal Tracks through females Bilateral descent Gender equality display Track kinship through both men and women Global marriage patterns Why Polygamy why Reasons for polygamy Cultural beliefs values Religion Social theories of family Structural functionalists Social con ict Symbolicinteractionists What are the structural functionalist views on family Structuralfunctionalists Family roles Socialization Regulates sexual activity Social positioning by income class gender etc Support Critics Other institutions can provide family functions Overlooks issues of gender inequality ie patriarchy and family violence What would the social con ict theorists say about the family institution Socialcon ict theorists Promotes inequality Social class Family property inheritance Gender inequality Patriarchy Promotes gender inequality Stages of family life Courtship Arranged marriages preindustrial cultures Industrialized romantic love Our society promotes homogamy marriage between people with the same social characteristics Stages of family life Later life Empty nest Sandwich generation cares for children and aging parents Ethnicity and race The number or racially mixed marriages risen steadily since 1967 Transition and problems in family life US Highest divorce rate 12 of all couples are expected to divorce What are some of the most common causes for divorce Causes of divorce in US Individualism Women independent Romance subsides Stress Divorce more acceptable Legally divorce is easier Violence Alternative family forms Gay and lesbian couples Often face opposition In the US marriage is illegal for the most part New reproductive technology in the family EXAM In vitro fertilization o A woman39s egg a man39s sperm quotin a dishquot Today we do have test tube babies cloning etc Reproductive technologies In 1978 1St quottesttubequot baby First octuplets Houston 1998 Nadya Suleman Octuplets 2009 Dolly cloned in Scotland back in 1996 Religious reasons are against cloning Moral values against cloning Future Importance of the new reproductive technology will increase Looking ahead Family in the 21St century Increase in ethical concerns What can or can39t be done Increased divorce rate Family life will be highly variable All kinds of family units Most children will probably continue to grow up with only weak ties to their fathers
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