EXAM NOTES psych407
Popular in cognitive psychogy
Popular in Psychlogy
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Diamondrich64128 on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to psych407 at University of Missouri - Kansas City taught by fox in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see cognitive psychogy in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Kansas City.
Reviews for EXAM NOTES
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/20/15
1 Chapter Six a Acquisition and Retrieval i Learning Connects new material with existing memory 1 Connections retrieval paths 2 These retrieval paths helps us get back to Material were trying to remember ii Retrieval Paths 1 What determine their success a How do they lead back to the info you are seeking iii Contextdependent Memory 1 Remembering depends on one state at learning 2 Recalling is the most successful when a The person is in the same mental emotional or biographical state as when the material was learned b Study with college students read about 2 page paper about psych immunology Half read in the quiet room did better when tested in the quiet room and while those who studied in noisy room did better when testing in noisy rooms 3 Context reinstatement recreating the context present during learning improves memory performance 4 Fisher and Clark a Participants told to remember the second word of a word pair that is semantically related or rhymed i Dog cat for half the word parts ii Hat cat for half the word parts 1 During testing the prime word were presented as cues or hints a Example i Was there a word associated with dog ii Was there a word that sounded like hat b Memory for information includes context i Demonstrated in pattern of findings called Encoding Specificity ii Probability of remembering of is maximized when context is present as retrieval c Encoding Specificity i Phenomenon of better memory when studytest context matches ii Suggest context becomes part of what is encoded d Spreading activation travels from one node to another i Via the associative links ii Similar to neurons 1 Input sums to reach a threshold causing firing e Networks suggest an explanation for why hints helps us remember f Provides support spreading activation model of memory i Retrieval paths are connections that carry activation from one memory to another 5 How do different forms of memory testing work in this memory a Recalling the information i Requires memory search ii Depends on connections b Recognition i Source memory ii Familiarity c Recall i Generation the item without an external cue 1 Who was the name of the restaurant that we went to 2 Requires search through memory with cues you produce yourself d Recognition i Deciding if an items is the right one usually a yes or no decision 1 What is Blue Koi 2 Was it Saigon 39 ii Cue is provided for you 1 Cue is item itself 2 How hard can that be 6 Word Identification a Word that is perceived faster when presented a second time i Even if the person is not aware of having it the first time ii There is some residue in the processing system 7 Results like these led to the description between two kinds of memory a Explicit memory i Direct memory testing such as recall or recognition ii Conscious b Implicit Memory i Indirect memory testing such as priming task ii Unconscious 8 The False Fame Effect a Study List of Nonfamous Names i Memory Test b 24 hours Later Make Fame Judgements i Famous and Non Famous Names c Previously Studied Nonfamous Names are now judged to be Famous i Becoming Famous Overnight d Explanation i Study Primes Names on Judgement Task 1 Priming Increases Availability a Biases Judgement of Fame b Influence of Priming is Automatic e False fames comes from illusion of truth i Claims that are familiar may seem more plausible 1 The study of illusion of truth a Statements that were heard beforeeven those that have been labeled as false were later judged to be more credible than sentences never heard before ii Source Confusion 1 Eyewitness may select someone from a photo lineup based on familiarity not an actually recall iii People may be influenced by memories that they are not aware of 1 May have familiarity without episodic memory 2 Where does this feeling of familiarity come from f Processing Pathwaythe sequence of detectors and connections between detectors that the activation traveled through a network g lmplicit memory reflects processing fluency and involvement in speed or ease of processing i Recently encountered items are easier to recognize a second time 1 Processing fluency may underline the feeling of familiarity for stimuli h Amnesia is a disruption of memory due to brain damage i Retrograde amnesia loss of memory before disruption ii Anterograde amnesia inability to form new long term memories 1 The moment of brain injury is the period for which retrograde amnesia disrupts memory 2 Period for which anterograde amnesia disrupts memory 3 That evidence of multiple memory begins a Performance following task manipulations b Brain injury iii Amnesia supports the distinctions between explicit and implicit memory iv Anterograde amnesia affects explicit memory while implicit memory is preserved 1 Knowing the answer to trivia questions the second time around 2 Preferring a musical melody that they had been exposed to before v Swiss neurologist Edouard Claparede 1 lnformal experiment with amnestic patient 2 Hid a pin in his hand with pricked the patient 3 Later the patient could not explicitly remember Claparede 4 Refused to shake his hand saying Sometimes pins are hidden in people hands i Whether or not memory is disrupted in amnesia depends on how memories will be used later i If you need to consciously access information on demand amnesia will disrupt that ii If behavior is enough without conscious recollection then amnesia may not be impediment iii The acquisition of the new memories depends on how the memories will be used or retrieved later on j Whether or not recalling the successful depends on how memories are tested i If you need to consciously access information on demand remembering can be difficult ii If behavior is rough without conscious recollection remembering is generally easier k Circumstances of Encoding i Prepare you to recall in certain limited way I Retrieval best when it matches encoding i If the dame pathway used to encoding is used at recall retrieval is likely successful m Experience influences behavior even without awareness i Implicit memory feelings of familiarity n Memory is not a single generation function i There is different types of memory ii Dissociation show performance across types not correlated 2 Chapter Seven a Remembering and Forgetting i Memory errors 1 Overregularization due to schema 2 Inability to remember exact wording 3 lnaccuracy of memory confidence 4 How do errors happen b Nancy arrived at the cocktail party She looked around the room to see who was there She went to talk with her professor She felt she had to talk to him but was a little nervous about just what to say A group of people started to play charades Nancy went over and had some refreshments The hors d oeuvres were good but she was not interested in talking to the rest of the people at the party After a while she decided she had had enough and left the party i A hypothesis regarding memory errors c Intrusion errors i Preview context information 1 Nancy woke up feeling sick again and she wondered if she really were pregnant How would she tell the professor she had been seeing And the money was another problem d Manipulation of existing information i All participants read this story 1 Half were also presented with a preview that provided context for the story a Nancy arrived at the cocktail party She looked around the room to see who was there She went to talk with her professor She felt she had to talk to him but was a little nervous about just what to say A group of people started to play charades Nancy went over and had some refreshments The hors d oeuvres were good but she was not interested in talking to the rest of the people at the party After a while she decided she had had enough and left the party ii Memory Errors 1 Intrusion errors a More Memory Errors i DeeseRoedigerMcDermott DRM procedure 1 Read the list bed rest awake tired dream wake snooze 2 Participants recall sleep even though it was not on the list iii Memory Errors 1 Another line of research has investigated the misinformation effect Loftus and Palmer 1974 i Participants viewed a series of slides depicting a car accident ii Entire events can be implanted into memory 1 Having been hospitalized with a high fever 2 Having been lost at the mall 3 Imagery can be very compelling Memory Errors i Participants 1 First witnessed a crime 2 Then asked to identify the culprit 3 Then either received 4 positive feedback or no feedback ii Then asked to rate confidence in decision Avoiding Memory Errors i What factors determine whether a memory will be accurate or subject to errors ii Retention interval the amount of time that elapsed between initial learning and subsequent retrieval Schematic knowledge fills in older memories making them less reliable 1 Source memory not always good 2 Episodes can be intertwined 3 Confidence may be misplaced Why does delay produce forgetting i Decay memories may fade or erode 1 Neuronal death 2 Infrequent activation leads to connection loss ii Retrieval failure the memory is intact but cannot be accessed 1 Recall vs recognition testing 2 Tip of the tongue phenomenon 3 Interference newer learning may disrupt older memories a lnterferenceactive rather than decay passive leads to forgetting iii Summary of Memory Errors 1 People can confidently remember things that never happened 2 Memories become embedded in schematic knowledge 3 Schemata provide organization and retrieval paths 4 Forgetting may be a consequence of how our general knowledge is formed Specific episodes merge in memory to form schemata Autobiographical Memory i Autobiographical memory refers to memory of episodes and events in a person s own life iii ii Autobiographical Memory 1 The selfreference effect 2 better memory for information relevant to oneself 3 The selfschema a a set of beliefs and memories about oneself b Also subject to errors iii Tend to be a mix of genuine recall and schemabased reconstruction iv Reflect bias to emphasize consistency and positive traits v Autobiographical memory hard to study vi hard to confirm recollections Flashbulb memories i Are they accurate ii Not entirely accurate 1 College students were interviewed one day after the 1986 space shuttle Challenger explosion Neisser amp Harsch 1992 and again five years later 2 Confidence was high of course 3 but many inconsistencies when comparing to earlier recall a Consequentiality matters i whether it matters to a person s life ii Increases rehearsal and thus memory Memory for cognitive psychology class content Conway et al 1991 i Permastore ii Permanent memories immune to forgetting 1 High level of initial learning 2 At least occasional rehearsal Certain principles of autobiographical memory reflect more general memory principles i The importance of rehearsal ii The formation of generalized schemata from individual memory episodes iii The potential for intrusion errors and susceptibility to misinformation iv Other principles of autobiographical memory may be distinct v The role of emotion in shaping autobiographical memory may be less applicable to other kinds of memory m Remembering complex events i From lab to life ii Autobiographical Memory refers to memory of episodes and events in a person s own life iii The selfreference effect better memory for information relevant to oneself iv The selfschema a set of beliefs and memories about oneself Also subject to errors 1 Tend to be a mix of genuine recall and schemabased reconstruction 2 Reflect bias to emphasize consistency and positive traits 3 Autobiographical memory hard to study hard to confirm recollections v Flashbulb memories a Are they accurate b Not entirely accurate 2 College students were interviewed one day after the 1986 space shuttle Challenger explosion Neisser amp Harsch 1992 and again five years later 3 Confidence was high of course but many inconsistencies when comparing to earlier recall 4 Other flashbulb memories are well remembered 5 Consequentiality matters whether it matters to a person s life 6 Increases rehearsal and thus memory vi Memory for cognitive psychology class content Conway et al 1991 Permastore 1 Permanent memories immune to forgetting 2 High level of initial learning 3 At least occasional rehearsal 4 Certain principles of autobiographical memory reflect more general memory principles 5 The importance of rehearsal 6 The formation of generalized schemata from individual memory episodes 7 The potential for intrusion errors and susceptibility to misinformation 8 Other principles of autobiographical memory may be distinct 9 The role of emotion in shaping autobiographical memory may be less applicable to other kinds of memory vii Episodic memory 1 Remembering vs knowing 2 The knowledge you bring to a situation can help or hinder memory a Memory errors that result from prior knowledge tend to reflect expectations over reality b Factors that affect memory i Involvement in an event viii Emotion 1 Passage of time 2 Understanding of situation 3 expectations a Schema b Prior knowledge and expectations about what happens in certain types of events ix Bartlett s study a Applies to settings as well 1 Eg grocery shopping x Brewer amp Treyens 1981 xi What are possible complications of schema for episodic memory 1 Memory Errors a Schemata can help us when remembering an event i What was the first thing that happened ii The last time you went to a restaurant iii The last time you went to your favorite restaurant iv The last time you went to a restaurant on vacation xii Memory Errors xiii a Schemata can also cause us to make errors when remembering an event b Experimental study of schema c Present a series of slides depicting event d 4 schema high 2 Typical of event 4 schema consistent Consistent with event but not typical i Eating at a restaurant schema High schema relevant a Low schema relevant 2 Sentences come from different scenes but they re interwoven 3 Sentences followed by a recognition test 4 Oldnew judgment 5 Confidence O 100 6 7 vv a b Confidence not a good indicator of accuracy If two memories become linked in some way bits of information from one may spill over into another 8 Gist recall vs exact wording 9 Gist is sometimes enough n Although exact wording might be important for instructions facts accurate communication of information 0 Confidence not a good indicator of accuracy 1 If two memories become linked in some way bits of information from one may spill over into another p Gist recall vs exact wording q Gist is sometimes enough r Although exact wording might be important for instructions facts accurate communication of information or filling in the blank on an exam l s Summary of Memory Errors i People can confidently remember things that never happened ii Memories become embedded in schematic knowledge 1 Inability to locate target information even temporarily retrieval failure 2 Schemata provide organization and retrieval paths 3 Forgetting may be a consequence of how our general knowledge is formed Specific episodes merge in memory to form schemata 4 Retention interval the amount of time that elapsed between initial learning and subsequent retrieval 5 Schematic knowledge fills in or reconstructs older memories making them less reliable 6 Source memory not always good 7 Episodes can be intertwined t Confidence may be misplaced u Why does delay produce forgetting i Decay memories may fade or erode a Neuronal death b Infrequent activation leads to connection loss ii Retrieval failure the memory is intact but cannot be accessed a Recall vs recognition testing b Tip of the tongue phenomenon iii Interference newer learning may disrupt older memories
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'