weeks 5-8 notes
weeks 5-8 notes SWK 320-003
Popular in Human Behavior and the Social Enviornment
Popular in Social Work
Miss Damien Crooks
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Jerread on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to SWK 320-003 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Mrs. Jacquelyn Lee in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Human Behavior and the Social Enviornment in Social Work at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
SWK 320 WEEKS 5 6 7 amp 8 92315 93015 Familv amp Theorv amp Television How we de ne family shapes our view of family membership and ou r approach to working with different types of families Diversity in family structure amp customs Familv Structure How we de ne family shapes our view of family membership and our approach to working with different types of families From the earliest days of the US as a nation there has been a diversity in family structures and customs Nuclear This is the quotnormalquot stereotypical family Single parent Only mom or dad raising parent Extended family A lot of outside family help Cohabituating Several different families live in the same house together Childless Couples without children Step family Step parents or step children Grandparent Children being raised by their grandparents Adoptive Families that adopted children Biracial Each parent has a different race Cocustody Where parents are separated but both have custody of their child Military Families in which the parents are in the military Foster Families that foster children Samesex Two moms or two dads lmmigrant Families where the parents came from different countries Keyldeas There39s a general agreement that the most change has occurred in the US within the past 50 years these changes have been speci cally in gender roles Social workers must be sensitive to families economic and cultural in uences Contemporary families face many challenges that social workers may have to deal with 0 Family violence 0 Divorce 0 Substance abuse The families need help learning how to cope with these issues Theoretical Lenses and Family A number of theoretical quotlensesquot have been proposed to understand families o Psychoanalytic Current personal and interpersonal problems are the result unresolved problems in the family of origin Problems can stem from past generational issues intergenerational issues relationship issues etc Emphasis on need for individuals to cultivate individuality Central role that early family relationships play in the formation of personality and the manifestation of psychological disorder 0 Family systems Family as a social system Focus on relationships within the family Family members are seen as a part of an overall pattern of interactions Subsystems changing patterns of interaction between family communication between subsystems Multilevel family practice model sees family system embedded in larger system such as neighborhood community state nation global economic system Creating a family ecomap Focal systems Subsystems Suprasystems Relationship dynamics Age Key issues mental amp physical health Question patterns between family members and other systems 0 Family life cycle Family systems are multigenerational systems of people moving through time with a shared history and a shared future Relationships go through transitions rules changed roles are rede ned Family is in uenced by cultural factors and historical era Transition points family faces a transition in family life stage or in family composition can be very stressful Transitions offer opportunities for adaptation and growth Identifying transition 0 What is an example of a relationship going through transition 0 What transition points exist for the family 0 Feminist perspective Families shouldn39t be studied as whole systems because such attention results in a failure to attend to patterns of dominance subjugation and oppression in families Proposes that gender is primary characteristic on which power is distributed and misused Distinction between sex and gender Emphasis on power and control Where do you notice powercontrol Who has what power And in what ways What is the role of womenmen What is expected of womenmen 0 Family stress and coping Considers entire family unit39s ability to cope with stress ABCX model of family stress and coping to understand whether an event in the family system A becomes a crisis X we also need to understand both the family39s resources B and the family39s de nitions C about the event Following a stressful event a family experiences disequilibrium followed by one of three outcomes kt Recovery kt Maladaptation kt Bonadaptation Double ABCX model incorporates notion of stress pileup oz A series of crises occurring over time may deplete family39s resources putting them at a higher risk for additional negative outcomes oz Two types of stressors delineated in ABCX model Normative stressors typical family life cycle transitions Nonnormative stressors potentially catastrophic events 0 Have potential to quickly drain family39s resources andor encourage overwhelmingexhaustive feelings Identify an event experienced by your family Identify family resources What was your family39s perception Crisis what did lower functioning of the family look like Reorganization how did the family adapt Identify normative stressors Identify nonnormative stressors 0 Family resilience Resilience rebounding from adversity strengthened and more resourceful Seeks to identify and strengthen processes that allow families to rebound from distressing life experiences Families are seen as challenged not damaged have potential for repair and growth Three dimensions of framework kt Family belief systems how families view problems and possibilities is crucial to how they cope with chaHenges Resilient families make meaning of adversity as a shared challenge 60 Organizational patterns resilient families have organizational patterns that serve as shock absorbers Maintain exibility in family structure make changes in roles and rules to respond to demands 60 Communication patterns resilient families send clear consistent and genuine messages 0 Wide range of feelings empathy tolerance for differences Family belief systems what does the family think about adversity impacts how they will cope Organizational patterns what organizational patterns exist in response to adversity Are these resilience patterns Communication processes how does the family communicate Are these resilience patterns What strengths does your family possess 10515 101415 Behaviorism amp Social Learning Coonitive Theorv Major Theories of Development in the 20th century 0 Psychoanalytical Sigmund Freud contributed the idea of psychosexual Erik Erikson contributed the idea of psychosocial o Behavioral Learning John Watson contributed the idea of classical conditioning B F Skinner contributed the idea of operant conditioning 0 Social Learning Albert Bandera contributed the idea of social learning social cognitive 0 Biological Theories G Stanley Hall amp Arnold Gesell contributed the idea of maturationism Konrad Lorenz contributed the idea of ethology John BowlbyAinsworth contributed the idea of attachment 0 Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget contributed the idea of cognitive development Lev Vygotsky contributed the idea of social development theory sociocultural o Moral Development Kohlbuerg contributed the idea of the theory of moral development 0 Systems Theories Urie Bronfenbrenner contributed the idea of ecological systems Behaviorism amp Social Learning Focused on observable behavior Analyze external factors 0 Factors that are external to the individual such as environment 0 How cognition and emotion mediate an individuals39 behavior 0 Explain human interactions in terms of rewardsbene ts positive reinforcement Formulating assessment and treatment plans for individuals and groups Behaviorism ClassicalRespondent Conditioning Watson 0 Unconditioned stimulus UCS Stimulus that can produce a response without any learning EX meat 0 Conditioned stimulus CS Acquired the ability to produce the response because it was paired associated with the unconditioned stimulus EX bell o Unconditioned response UCR Unlearned of inborn reaction to the conditioned stimulus EXsaHvann o Conditioned response CR A response is produced by the conditioned stimulus EXsaHvann Classical Pavlov o Involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus o A neutral signal before a re ex o Focuses on involuntary automatic behaviors Operant Conditioning Skinner o Reinforcement punishment Both positive and negative reinforcement used here 0 Both types of reinforcement are used to increase the likelihood that a preceding behavior will be repeated 0 Positive reinforcement receiving something pleasant will increase behavior occurrences Negative reinforcement removing something unpleasant will increase behavior occurrences Both positive and negative punishment used here 0 Both types of punishment are used to decrease the likelihood that a preceding behavior will be repeated 0 Positive punishment receiving something unpleasant will decrease behavior occurrences Negative punishment removing something pleasant will decrease behavior occurrences o Reinforcement schedules Continuous reinforcement after every desired response Intermittent reinforcement based on intervals or ratios 0 Can be xed occurring after a set of intervals 0 Can be variable which varies Interval time ratio number of responses 0 Fixed interval a set interval of time is identi ed 0 EX high ve every 1 minute of successfully sitting quietly Fixed ratio set interval of number of responses 0 EX high ve every ve math problems correct 0 Variable interval varies time between rewards o EX rewarded after a few seconds then rewarded after 1 minute 0 Variable ratio varies frequency of rewards o EX rewarded after the 3 4 5 times and not again until 8 time Operant Skinner 0 Making an association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence 0 Applying reinforcement or punishment after a speci c behavior 0 Strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors Social Learnino Theorv Social Coonitive Learnino Theorv People learn through their own experiences People learn by observing the actions of others and the results of those ac ons Extends behaviorism Both behaviorism and social learning theory agree that experience is an important cause of learning lncludes the concepts of reinforcement and punishment discussed above Feedback is important The theorist Albert Bandura TVpes of Models Bandura39s studies Live model direct imitation Verbal instruction following instructions Symbolic model imitation of characters in books lm Synthesized modeling develop behaviors by combining portions of observed ac ons Social Coonitive Theorv Tenants Learning not purely behavioral it is a cognitive process in a social context Learning can occur by observing a behavior and by observing the consequences vicarious reinforcement 0 Learning involves observations extraction of information from the observations and making decisions about the performance observational learning or modeling Reinforcement plays a role in learning 0 The learner isn39t a passive recipient of information Cognition environment and behavior all mutually in uence each other reciprocal determinism Social Coonitive Theorv Language Observational learning or modeling 0 Attention o Retention 0 Production 0 Motivation Reciprocaldeterminism Selfef cacy Observational Learning Steps 0 Step 1 Attentional Processes 0 Develop cognitive processes to pay attention to a model 0 Must observe model accurately to imitate behavior 0 Attention is impacted by Characteristics of the observer perceptual abilities cognitive abilities arousal past performance Characteristics of the behavior or event relevance novelty and functional value 0 Step 2 Retention Processes 0 To later imitate behavior must remember the aspects of that behavior 0 Retain information in 2 ways Imaginal internal representation such as a visual image Verbal system verbal description of a behavior 0 Step 3 Production Processes 0 Taking imaginal and verbal representation and translating into overt behavior practice behaviors 0 Receive feedback on accuracy of behavior 0 Important in mastering dif cult skills 0 Step 4 Incentive and Motivational Processes 0 Decision to reproduce or refrain from an observed behavior is dependent on the motivations and expectations of the observer looks at the anticipated consequence and internal standards 0 With incentives observation more quickly becomes action pay more attention retain more information o Incentive to learn is in uenced by anticipated reinforcements Reciprocal Determinism All three of the following items are connected in reciprocal determinism Must look at factors from each category in order to understand completely Behavior individual choices and actions 0 Environmental factors resources others consequences of actions physical setting 0 Personal factors expectations believes attitudes thinking intelligence 0 Factors Impacting Imitation of Behavior People we perceive as warm and nurturing People who receive rewards for their behavior Being rewarded for imitating the behavior in the past When we lack con dence in our own knowledge or abilities People in a position of authority People similar to us in age sex and interests identi cation People we admire or are of a higher social status When the situation is confusing ambiguous or unfamiliar SelfEf cacy Belief in one s capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to manage prospective situations Impacts o How goals tasks and challenges are approached 0 Individuals play a central role in behavior performance High selfef cacy equals 0 More likely to believe they can master challenging problems 0 Likely to adopt observational learning behaviors 0 Can recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments Low selfef cacy equals 0 Tend to be less con dent o Avoidance of challenging tasks 0 Observers who have high level of selfef cacy are more Develop by 0 Mastery experience achievement of simple tasks initially that lead to more complex objectives 0 Social modeling identi able model showing the processes in which to accomplish a behavior 0 Improving physical and emotional states ensuring a person is rested and relaxed prior to attempting a new behavior less relaxed then the less patient 0 Verbal persuasion providing encouragement for a person to complete a task or achieve a certain behavior Process of Observational Learnino Types of modeling stimuli 0 Live model Verbal instruction Symbolic Synthesized OOO o All of these are explained above
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