Popular in Course
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
This 23 page Bundle was uploaded by Ember Woolwine on Tuesday January 13, 2015. The Bundle belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.
Reviews for Women_St 320
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/13/15
Notes for exam 2 09119114 QHAPTER FIVE VALUES ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS VALUES vaue measurement of exchange at that price this item is a real value vaue guiding principles of thought and behavior fairness and equity are values we hold dearly universa values assumed to be important principles across nations and ethnicities but dif cult to agree upon cultural values a group39s formal or informal set of beliefs about what is appropriate PERSONAL VALUES vaues framed in terms of what is right and wrong are often referred to as morals Kohberg theorized that human morals evolve as they mature sense ofjustice not all humans are expected to move to highest level multigenerational families will have members operating of different levels moras held strongly enough may become law 09122114 FAMILY VALUES the probability that family members39 values will clash upon occasion is quite high Gender impacts dm F seek out multiple sources of info research does support similar value orientations of individuals within a family homogamy similarity is a visible expression of family value sets racia socioeconomic educannal reigious food preferences and selection re ect personal and cultural values of family members FAMILY VALUES AND POLITICS the phrase quotfamily valuesquot is used to discuss social and economic concepts pertaining to the family as a social institution Fobre39s de nition ove obligation and reciprocity case about welfare and happiness devote resources to maintain group and members expect that others will do the same poitica platforms and family values no clear de nitions aude to a loss or break down of the family system need to quotget backquot to structures and behaviors in quotbetter timesquot Exercise in class 10 yrs from now 5 years back parents Gp family friends animals car U39lIgtLJMJII I school 6phone 7computer 8 home 9 food 10 health THE VALUE OF FAMILY an external concept how the larger social system feels about the family tax systems favoring isngle adults would impoly that society does not encourage or quotvaluequot family and children do different societies value family units more than others or is their value merely interpreted differently based on one s cultural framework of reference 09126114 TYPES OF VALUES 1 Absolute vs relative absoute quotblack and whitequot reative interpreted based on context shades of gray seek more info about an event or situation before acting 2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic intrinsic ends in themselves no quotoutside rewardquot extrinsic get meaning from someone or something else 3 Traditional person professional traditional ones commonly held by the predominant society personal values individuals hold for themselves professional related jobs and careers a value can be all three these values can also be in con ict 4 Instrumental and terminal Termina preferences for end states of existence equality freedom instrumenta preferences for general modes of conduct VALUES ACROSS THE LIFESPAN vaes develop slowly and are resistant to change instigators of change expe ences cognitive development mora maturity generations shared experiences within generations ex JFK price of gas view security differently VALUE CONGRUENCE ACROSS GENERATIONS generation gap chidren look up to adult value expression for personal value formation research on decisionmaking across generations support existing congruence A39ITITUDES earned dispositions to respond a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner to any given objects vaves couched within social situations states of readiness that will in uence an individual39s response to any situation created and maintained through interactions BEHAVIORS choices made and actions taken by individuals and families attitudes and behaviors not always congruent or consistent Beliefs about the behavior D Attitude about the behavior Evaluation of the behavior D Attitude about behavior both go to Opinions of referent others l subjective norm intention l behavior Motivation to comply D subjective norm both go to PREDICTING BEHAVIOR attitudes should predict behavior but are not always method Fishbien and Ajzen add intention to the mix our behaviors are in uenced by what we think others think we should do and how they will judge our behavior Dupont believed that actions are motivated by needs Kurtines and Gewirtz added situation to the mix of factors that impact the connection btw attitude and behavior social psychology looks at the impact of behavior on attitude BEM39s Self Perception Theory individuas bring their attitudes into alignment with their behaviors to save face The Dissonance Theory when someone acts in a way that is inconsistent with hisher selfconcept feelings of discomfort or internal dissonance result heshe will need to bring the behavior into alignment with attitudes that reduce discomfort GROUP MEMBERSHIP ATI39ITUDES AND BEHAVIORS when an individual aligns himherself with a group it is expected that values and attitudes held by that group will be incorporated into the members life Ethics set of moral principles embraced by an existing group VALUES ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS IN THE DECISION MAKING FRAMEWORK to value verb ranked order of what is important to individual andor family resource expenditure is dependent on this value system famiies from diff socioeconomic levels develop diff rankings vaues guide Families in the decision making process beiefs so central to family functioning may operate at the subconscious VALUES AND BEHAVIORS IN FAMILY PURCHASING DECISION product buying motives why consumers choose one product over another brand preference quaity preference price preference design preference QUALITY PREFERENCE rising in importance to family purchasers when product and service competition is high quality is a differentiating factor inherent belief of consumers that higher prices ensure higher quality not always true quotarge ticket itemsquot expectation of longer lasting performance cost of production of appliances automobiles and other expensive products keeps competition lower than less expensive products price preferences price differences are visually dealt with in the decision making process many items begin at more expensive prices and then gradually lower technoogy is initially expensive due to research and design costs then quantity design preference conspicuous consumption and arti cial obsolescence encourage consumers to replace useable goods with newer goods producers and marketers focus heavily creating a demand for new purchasing among consumers design changes include aesthetic andor functional changes 09129114 BRAND PREFERENCE consumers are less brand loyal today than in the past brand names are promoted as having a history of satisfaction an added value intangibe bene ts of buying known brand names enables producers to charge more money purchasing brand names is also part of the conspicuous consumption concept QUALITY PREFERENCE rising in importance to family purchasers when product and service competition is high quality is a differentiating factor inherent belief of consumers that higher prices ensure higher quality not always true quotarge ticket itemsquot expectation of longer lasting performance cost of production of appliances automobiles and other expensive products keeps competition lower than less expensive products more brand recognition and loyalty PRICE PREFERENCE price differences are usually dealt with in the decisionmaking process many items begin at more expensive prices and then gradually lower technoogy is initially expensive due to research and design costs then quantity of production lowers cost generic products when truly the same as branded products purchasing generics makes rannalsense DESIGN PREFERENCE conspicuous consumption and arti cial obsolescence encourage consumers to replace useable goods with newer goods producers are marketers focus heavily on creating a demand for new purchasing among consumers design changes include aesthetic andor functional changes 100114 Categories for budgeting housing 485 food groceries and eating out 200 transportation includes gas bus car mainrepairs insurance 50 entertainment 50 personal care toiletries shower stuff etc 25 househod expenses cleaning supplies toilet paper paper towels laundry 15 internetcabe 25 eectricitygarbagewatersewer 20 phone bill and insurance 45 education 5 cothes 25 misc 25 gifts credit cards 50 medica aundry 10 savings income don39t need to know balances started with or balances ending with LABEL EVERYTHING AND KEEP IS SEPARATE WITH SUBSECTIONS 10103114 IMPACT OF CULTURE ON VALUESL ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS cultural groups must create a set of values that provides structure for members members who do not adhere to those values and resulting behaviors will be ostracized or will lose membership individuals have multiple group memberships and must create their own set of values and behaviors to function in multiple settings within the US there are many different professional and religious groups with clearly communicated value sets cultura group membership will in uence individual and family values attitudes and behavior IMPACT OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS contemporary studies suggest that nancial resources greatly impact values attitudes and behaviors of individuals and families old money family money new money accumulation of wealth in the current generation wealth and responsibility af uenza the increasing value placed on money and material goods on American society CONSISTENCY OVER TIME AND SITUATION capitaism dynamic nancial environment surviva needs will always rise in priority in times of strained nancial situations existing value systems will change slowly but only if they are challenged suf ciently CHAPTER 6 lENTIFIZATIN 9F FAMIIY RESOURCES RESOURCES anything people use or might use to achieve an end any item concrete or symbolic which can become the object of exchange among people FOA RESOURCE AVAILABILITY people use resources to meet physical and psychological needs nothing becomes a resource unless there is a use for it or someone determines that it has value Utiity a resource must have a purpose to be useful Acce55ibiity a resource must be available for use Tra nsfera biity a resource must be available where it is needed lnterchangeabe resources musts be exchangeable for other things Manageabe a resource must be capable of all of the above and useful in the planning process RESOURCE THEORY FOA researcher people try to meet needs in the context of social interaction reationships 6 types of resources exchanged in relationships ove status information big one money goods services resources are particularistic concrete HUMAN RESOURCES unique to people cognitive mind physica human capital ability behavior effort time energy to accomplish tasks individuas invest resources because of commitment to group engagement or care about group performance or desire for excellence return on investment or rewards ECONOMIC RESOURCES acquired earned through laborwage exchange iving wage wages vs salary bene ts important for employee to understand valueadded economic increases of bene t packages cafeteria plans traditional plans gender differences inherited distribution equity tax implications 10106114 gender differences wage differences have generally favored men types ofjobs longevity commitment to the job etc 2006 US department of Labor women39s earnings equaled 807 of men s earnings Avelar and Smock 2003 women pay a penalty for being mothers place more emphasis on how their job will affect their family life benefits packages important for employees to understand valueadded economic increases of bene t packages cafeteria plans employee can pick and choose traditional plans everyone gets the same bene ts ECONOMIC RESOURCES CONT inherited the other way that family economic resources are gained two factors that complicate inheritance distribution equity how are resources distributed family heirlooms disputed value of assets tax implications inheritance tax imposed on those who receive property estate taxes imposed on the deceased39s estate even in death those with the most resources have the advantage ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES resources available from the physical environment provided by nature renewabe trees nonrenewabe water SOCIAL RESOURCES social capital connections among individuals networks reciprocity coectivey owned inside family communication archiva family functions outside of family within the community oca state and federal programs goods and services vounteerism MEASUREMENT OF RESOURCES equitable exchange receive something equal to what is given fair pricing dependent on nature of the interaction and relationship of those involved theory of relative resources the balance of power in a relationship will be on the side of the partner who has the most resources balance is found in the way resource management improves the lives of people while minimizing the negative effects on culture environment and equity RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND USE resources are used in a variety of ways exchange of one for another production and consumption saving or investing protection or exploitation resourcefuness the ability to identify and use resources to meet need effectively reationship power and resource allocation orchestration power responsibility for major decisions that often determine the lifestyle of the family careers etc impementation power responsibility for day to day decisions impact of certainty risk and uncertainty RESOURCEALLOCATION BEHAVIOR strategies used in the decisionmaking process multilayered decisions those with less certainty and fewer resources plan for loss more frequently than those with plentiful resources people tend to use more resources early in a time period and less towards the end paychecksH adjustments might be made along the way 10108114 CHAPTER 7 BEGINNINGS OF CONSUMERISM rich and long history of exchange of goods and services american exonomic system rooted in European economic history consumerism evoution of economy based on sustainability to one of mass production marketing and distribution CAPITOLISTIC INDUSTRIALIZATION 18005 enhanced transportation production and distribution opened new markets for goods and services shift from family sustainability as economic activity to participation in economy wage earner consumer goods and services produced by others facilitated by money earned The Great Depression and WWII programs and policies emerged to protect citizens and to prevent recurrence of economic plunge empoyment act of 1946 social security ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES making choices imited resources unimited needs wants economics as a eld of study now resources are expended feued by money exchange of intangible human resources time energy talent promise of future exchange credit inheritance chance lottery supply and demand suppy producing selling whoever has the supplies Walmart controlabe demand uctuates surpus suppe exceeds demand and Pdown inventory builds shortage demand exceeds supply and lag time before more inventory can be produced creates consumer and buyer stress PRICING in an open market goods and services can be priced as the provider determines price must cover production and overhead increases in price generally result in decrease of demand as consumers accommodate substitute decrease in price is assumed to stimulate consumption 10110114 PRICING SHORTAGES AND SURPLUSES when consumer demand is underestimated and a shortage occurs consumers may be willing to pay more than usual to possess that good or service when consumer demand is overestimated and a surplus results consumer may be convinced to buy more if the price is reduced INCOME FLUCTUATIONS American economy allows for gain and loss of purchasing power through effort and or luck consumers adjust spending aligning with available nancial resources food amount spent is relatively stable through income uctuations housing steady percentage across income levels gambing and tobacco use show change across income levels ower income families spend more on gambling middle income groups spend more on tobacco than lower and higher income groups CHANGES IN PREFERENCE consumers are human and dif cult to predict taste fashion Jnnovann EMPLOYMENT impacted by supply and demand family members demand products and services and work in the production and delivery of products and services a circular relationship abor force all people over age 16 seeking work or already employed unempoyment rate percentage of people seeking employment but without work at current time UNEMPLOYMENT frictional workers leave one job to look for another one vountary and short term cyclical workers are without jobs because demand has dropped the economy is negative or business is restructuring empoyee layoffs structural changes in the economy bring about a loss demand for certain types ofjobs unemployment creates hardship psychoogica physical and relational probems in terms of scarcity of resources for a family unemployment insurance if you get a paycheck you are paying into unemployment insurance WOMEN IN THE LABOR FORCE US expectation of choice historicaly women have always participated in the economic system women cite the same reasons why they work outside of the home as men do personal satisfaction financial resources to support their families decision to work or to stay out of the workforce opportunity cost what you give up in order to do what you are doing any surge into or out of the employment pool will bring about economic stress ADOLESCENTS ON THE JOB nearly 12 of American adolescents are employed teens consume goods and services also ower paying lower skill jobs first to be red detrimental to teens experts disagree teaches responsibility promote important employable skills shifts focus from educational and emotional development MONEY anything that can be used for exchange currency bills and coins economists de ne money in terms of its function medium of exchange store of value money put into a bank unit of account you can use it for accounting purposes barter doesn39t always include money exchanging one service for another exchange of one good for another MONEY CONT to function as a medium of exchange currency must hold value over time liquid easiy converted money provides a common measure of value within an exchange US unit is dollar famiies must understand the banking system to participate fully in the national economy 10113114 BANKING money circulates though the banking system banks provide storage and distribution functions individuas families and businesses put money into banks receive interest payments banks keep some of those deposits and loan the rest to other participants in the economy individuas families and businesses INFLATION when prices increase over time an economy with an in ation rate 23 per year is not viewed as problematic when prices jump by 710 economic crisis may occur in ation impacts some groups more than others xed income contracted wages and salaries when interest paid on savings is lower than in ation consumers are enticed to spend more and save less EXCHANGING NONMONETARY RESOURCES time energy talent ideas chidcare carpooing mea cooperatives impossible to calculate quantitatively because there is no common unit for comparison of value FAMIILIES IN THE ECONOMY households constitute the largest spending group in the economy data is gathered about household income to analyze the impact of household nancial management on the national economy a growing reliance on transfer payments Old age survivors39 and disability bene ts social security pubic employee retirements bene ts veteran39s bene ts pubic assistance MEASURING THE IMPACT OF HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES durable goods 12 expectation of long term use automobies homes furniture appliances nondurabe goods 29 shorter useful life gasoine food hygiene products services 59 dramatic increase noted 2001 data SUMMARY individuals and families interact with the national and global economies daily the economy relies on family members as both consumers and workers buying selling working and exchanging resources are integral actions within the economic system an understanding of basic economic theory and models enables individuals and families to make better resource decisions Types of unemployment and social security stuff VERY IMPORTANT FOR EXAM 10117114 SOCIAL SECURITY CONT age of retirement also impacts bene t amount Retire before age 62 reduced bene ts if you work after full retirement age you can receive higher bene ts due to additional earnings and special credits for delayed retirement ongevity has become an issue 1935 average life expectancy of working men was about 65 years of age few women were included today39s life expectancy for men and women is close to 80 years of age may take more out of the system than you paid in social security administration predicts that the social security trust fund be depleted by 2042 not enough younger people working to support those drawing bene ts SS legislation was passed when not many wives were working outside the home a provision was created for women who had not earned credits on their own a spouse will receive 50 of the retired worker39s bene ts if she has earned her own credits she is eligible to receive the full amount calculated on her salary if this amount is less than the 50 of the spouse s bene t the larger amount is provided quotSpousequot also refers to exhusband or exwife in many cases to qualify on you record your exspouse must have been married to you for at least 10 years be at least 62 years old be unmarried not be eligible for an equal or higher bene t on his or her own or someone else39s Social Security record SS disability bene t 620 credits in 310 years before disability must wait for 6 months to receive disability bene ts not expected to fully replace previous earnings spouses and children may qualify for disability bene ts SS survivor bene ts certain members of the deceased39s family may be eligible for monthly bene ts spouses age 60 or older spouses of any age if caring for your children the age of 18 unmarried children under 18 who are still in school adult children who become disabled before age 22 aso a onetime death bene t paid to the surviving spouse of quali ed workers 255 at this time MEDICARE separate from social security empoyees pay 145 of wages matched by employers no annual wage limits calculated evenly for poor middle class and wealthy quaifying workers age 65 or older certain disabilities kidney failure requiring dialysis or a kidney transplant qualify individuals under the age of 65 original Medicare plan Parts A and B at age 65 a quali ed worker automatically receives part A hospital insurance inpatient care in hospitals and skilled nursing facilities not longterm care hospice care some home health care no monthly fee if you or your spouse paid Medicare taxes while employed Part B supplemental health insurance doctors39 services outpatient care not required to purchase Part B 935 per month in 2007 prescription drugs may also be covered but vary by type coverage and cost participants are expected to pay a base amount each bene t period UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE states and federal government work together to provide unemployment bene ts to eligible workers not intended to provide full compensation workers needs to have at least a 1year base period to qualify for compensation worker must not be responsible for hisher situation bene ts generally last up to 26 weeks GOVERNMENTSUPPORTED ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS pubic programs are nanced andor supported by tax dollars private programs are nanced through charitable contributions both types require some justi cation or quali cation criteria for families to qualify for assistance PRIVATELY FUNDED PROGRAMS often faith based donations funneled through religious organizations St Judes Habitat for Humanity food pantries funding is provided through individual or group donations HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES one of the most recognized US agencies for assistance programs Medicare Medicaid Administration on Aging Meals on Wheels National Family Caregiver Support Programs Chidren39s Entitlement Programs Programs focusing on disease safety disasters 102014 USDA United State Department of Agriculture provides food assistance programs to citizens Food Stamp program Commodity food resources Food safety Nutrition education Research National School Lunch Program school breakfast program programs addressing needs of elderly pregnant and breast feeding women disaster relief FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION promoting and protecting the public health through monitoring the safety and effectiveness of certain types of products new drugs medical devices OTC drugs microwave ovens insures all ingredients in foods are safe and uncontaminated must approve all food additives infant formulas dietary supplements no requirement to verify claims FDA CONT medical products medicines vaccines blood products gene therapy medical devices drugs and devices for animals abes must be accurate and informative process for approving and withdrawing products is time consuming which means that consumers may pay
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'