COM 471/CES 404 Stereotypes in Communication Notes for the Semester + Test Prep
COM 471/CES 404 Stereotypes in Communication Notes for the Semester + Test Prep CES404/COM471
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Chapter 1 Intro De nitions Prejudice negative feelings towards a group and its members based on incomplete and biased info Stereotype belief that a group has certain attributes Communication exchange of info Main themes of book 0 Communication effects on prejudice Communication interventions Prejudice everywhere 0 See examples Children don t have prejudices up to 2 or 3 years old Bc by observation quotI am not prejudiced butquot 0 rhetorical use of language in speaking and writing strategies 0 apparent agreement 0 apparent admission of nonsupport in some instances exceptions children if the couple is in a conservative community then ie Interracial couples could be problematic o displacement reasons for b children would be in harsh atmosphere w emotional problems 0 indirectness quotyes as long asquot strategies to justify our own biases names not important won t be on test concepts will Chapter 2 Communication and Prejudice Classic De nitions Communication Common element in classic de nitions Concern w effect or response communication occurs only if the organism ie a human reacts to the message in some way 92 a transactional model of communication gure 21 0 communication is a transaction source and receiver participate to gain something 0 communication is purposive goal directed gure 22 0 communication is circular interactive persuade change your attitudes or opinions receiver reach decisions purpose of feedback is to correct unconscious communication subtle unintentional unconscious involuntary cues that provide info to another person cues often convey emotion cues can be verbal or nonverbal in uenced by suppressed thoughts and experiences and implicit biases primed by the presence of a stimulus ie a quottargetquot person encoding the message encoding transforming the response to a stimuli into signs o a sign represents the response conveys meaning verbal or nonverbal meanings of signs in uenced by culture See examples 0 terrorist groups verbal communication 0 use of language language is a formal system of signs and rules that relate particular signs to meanings verbal language uses words phrases and sentences to convey meanings transmitted orally or in written form 0 the linguistic category model explains how meanings can vary according to linguistic category used by the source For example 0 descriptive action verb 0 interpretative action verb 0 state verb 0 adjective 94 visual communication 0 the transmittal of meanings using still and moving pictures 0 average person in US exposed to 5000 visual images in a day worldwide visual culture nonverbal communication nonverbal signals O 0000 CO facial expressions 10000 expressions paralinguistics gestures body language and posture proxemics space eye contact and gazing haptics touching primary functions O 0000 express emotions from experimential state of source express interpersonal attitudes manage the interaction augment selfpresentation de ne rituals or greetings visual communication 0 the transmittal of meanings using still and moving pictures 0 average person in US exposed to 5000 visual images in a day worldwide visual culture 0 pictures have a direct route to longterm memoryquot humans remember in quotchunks of information pictures better remembered than words 0 the power of visual images 0 big chunks of info in short time o greater force realism and immediacy than words 0 can evoke involuntary unconscious responses 99 Noise Selective exposure Selective perception Selective recall 0 We remember what we want to remember Remember info that supports our exisisting cognitive structure Con rmation bias Levels of analysis lntrapersonal level encoding making sense out of the message and decoding o Interpersonal level social context communication in groups 0 Social system level social structures organizations 0 Cultural system level transmission of culture values beliefs and behaviors shared and accepted by members of a social system 0 A culture of prejudice o Prejudice and selfpreservation o Prejudice is transmitted by signs socialization agents including the media 0 Bias and noise in prejudiced communication Women were more likely to stand up to the taxi drivers Chapter 3 What is Prejudice Classic de nitions Gordon Allport for the test just match the name to the concept 0 quotA feeling favorable or unfavorable toward a person or thing prior to or not based on actual experiencequot 5Phase Model of Prejudice antilocution o engage in conversations w others who are like us 0 look for people who are like minded bc you don t want to have con ict 0 negative feelings are reinforced o rarely will we speak out against group 0 ex Search committees are gender biased avoidance o voluntary avoidance of groups you don t like 0 craig cobb o separatism discrimination o exclusion informallyformally physical attack 0 hate crime 0 physical injury demonstrated extermination o Hitler EXAMPLES Contemporary de nitions 0 quotan attitude consisting of affect or belief or at least the affective or evaluative reaction to group differences Hecht 1998 o p 36 911 FivePhase Model of Prejudice ADD NOTES FROM BOOK Antilocution a talk conversations between people b we engage with people who share our opinions because disagreement is uncomfortable c we look for people who are like minded d negative feelings are reinforced within these groups of people within our conversations Avoidance a voluntary avoidance of groups that we dislike Discrimination Physical Attack Extermination most extreme Levels of Analysis of Prejudice Individual level information processing psychodynamics socialization 0 Sub concepts to remember 0 Selfesteem the desire to maintain selfesteem we have higher selfesteem because we compare ourselves to others the maintenance of selfesteem is a process of comparison 0 Identity the desire to maintain ones identity very much tied to the groups that we belong to o my group is better than other groups Interpersonal level interactions between individuals 0 Group level outgroups and ingroups 0 Institutional Level how formal structures and organizations in society practice maintains and change policies and actions based on prejudice Targets of Prejudice Social Identi cation theory ingroups and outgroups o Categorization categorize people group people because this is an easy way of simplifying a complex world 0 Social identi cation 0 Social comparison Target Group Categories 0 Race focus on physical characteristics of genetic origin such as skin pigmentation nasal index lip form eg in US quotCaucasoidquot quotMongoloidquot and quotNegroidquot See also census bureau categories 0 Problems in using race as a biological category human beings share 999 of our genes within a racial category there are nongenetic differences such as language values etc 0 Ethnicity focus on shared social and cultural heritage in the US race and ethnicity are often used interchangeably racial physical characteristics are readily visible therefore a convenient way of classifying people 0 Racism the exercise of power against a racial group de ned as inferior by individuals and institutions with the intentional or unintentional support of the entire culture 0 Levels of racism 0 Individual 0 Institutional 0 Cultural How can cultural racism be minimized 0 change in power structure 0 change in values education media 0 change in laws and policies 0 Gender expressed in quotSexismquotspeci c acts or behaviors that denigrate womenquot nd examples the SIGI index for worldwide as well as US examples see page 45 0 Sexual Orientation expressed as quotheterosexismquot quotan ideological system that denies denigrates and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior identity relationship or communityquot 0 Age expressed as quotAgeismquot quotnegative or positive stereotypes prejudice andor discrimination against or to the advantage of elderly persons on the basis of their chronological age or on the basis of a perception of them as being old or elderly EXAMPLES 916 target group categories 3 gender expressed in sexism speci c acts or behaviors that denigrate womenquot In the US Examples Worldwide Examples the SIGI index 4 sexual orientation expressed as quotheterosexismquot quotan ideological system that denies denigrates and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior identity relationship or communityquot Herek 1990 EXAMPLES 5 age expressed as quotageismquot quotnegative or positive stereotypes prejudice andor discrimination against or to the advantage of elderly persons on the basis of their chronological age or on the basis of perception of them as being 39old or 39elderlyquot EXAMPLES p 47 who can be prejudiced 0 People in power ngroups and outgroups See quote from jones 1997 0 Everybody can be prejudiced Chapter 4 Measures of Explicit and Implicit Prejudice Operational De nitions how a concept is measured Correlation coef cient measures reliability consistency and validity measures the quotreal thingquot I Measures of Explicit Prejudice direct questions about how respondents feel about a group 0 The bogardus social ditance scale acceptance of a group into relationship from most distant would exclude to most intimate as close relatives by marriage Examples p 50 N modern racism scale MRS racism against blacks is a thing of the past blacks are too pushy and demanding of their rights advances and gains blacks have made are undeserved examples p 51 3 the symbolic racism scale SRTS lessens social desirability adaptable to other groups Examples of items p 51 4 the colorblind attitude scale CoBAS unawareness of racial privilege institutional discrimination blatant racial issues ex p 5253 5 the attitudes toward women scale AWS attitudes towards rights and roles of women 0 See p 5455 6 the ambivalent sexism inventory ASI measures hostile antagonistic attitude toward women and benevolent subtler modern sexism See p 5556 7 the modern homophobia scale MHS prejudice against lesbians and gay men Differentiates bt gays and lesbians see p 57 for items example 8 the fraboni scale of ageism FSA prejudice towards the elderly see p 5859 IV Weaknesses of explicit prejudice measures social desirability V Does explicit prejudice drive overt actions See example p 60 VI Measures of lmplicit Prejudice Implicit prejudice biases for or against people or objects that are not under the conscious control of the individual making the evaluations o Unthinking automatic impulsive and intuitional Ex p 6162 1 The lmplicit Associations Test IAT timed associations bt quottargetquot group and positive or negative words and objects see pg 64 for examples Go to website and take 2 tests advantage of IAT over explicit measures resistant to self presentation effects some results p 6466 STUDY GUIDE 2 incidents described in the book are muslims asked to leave airplane after they have passed security discrimination 3 interracial marriage apparent admission when you are worried how a child will be treated in community 4 KNOW THE NAMES 13 in uence of the mass media cultural 15 extermination most serious as opposed to antilocution is conversation degrading another group 16 explicit measures weak links bc only small number of people you can measure being biased implicit biases stronger links 17 IAT is individual measure institutional is example of South Africa during apartheid 18 comparing ourselves w others 3 processes 19 7 items and know results 0 they show that there s a preferential treatment of people based on race AP survey 20 international measure of SIG index just have an idea of what it measures 21 4 items 22 everyone can be prejudiced Sue says that people in power are prejudice Tanjones says everyone 23 correlation coef cient measures reliability and valididty can range from 1 to 1 closer to 1 the stronger the relationship If you take IAT today and tomorrow will results change No results are very similar Explicit measures are not quite as reliable 24 7 items know what they measure and what is the better measure Chapter 5 Consequences of Prejudice l Predictive Validity 0 Ability of explicit and implicit measures of prejudice to predict discriminatory behaviors and judgments ll Greenwald et al 2009 analyzed 184 research studies Explicit prejudice stronger predictor of behaviors and judgments that were not socially sensitive such as consumer and political preferences 0 lmplicit prejudice stronger predictor of socially sensitive behaviors such as interracial interactions lll Hiring Practices and Evaluations o Bertrand amp Mullainathan 2004 0 Applicants w White names needed to send about 10 resumes to get one callback applicants w Black names needed to send 15 resumes difference of 50 o Whites w higherquality resumes received nearly 30 more callbacks compared to Whites w lowerquality callback compared to Whites w lowerquality resumes no difference in callback for Blacks w higher quality resumes compared to Black w lower quality resumes N Ziegert amp Hanges 2005 0 college students in the climate for racial bias condition quothire a White candidatequot evaluated the Black job candidate signi cantly lower than did participants in the climate for equality condition explicit prejudice did not in uence candidate ratings in either of the climate conditions 0 college students who showed a bias for Whites over Blacks in the IAT rated the Black candidate lower than the White candidate but only in the climate for racial bias condition 3 Rooth 2010 eld study 0 56 ofjob recruiters study sample in Sweden had at least moderate implicit bias against Muslims recruiters w moderate bias against Muslims were 5 less likely to invite a job applicant for an interview compared to Swedish applicants based on names explicit prejudice did not affect invitations to interview 4 MossRacusin et al 2013 gender bias among 127 science professors men and women evaluator rated the male applicant more competent and hirable than the female applicant recommended a higher salary offered more career mentoring o the more bias against women modern sexism scale the less competent and hirable the female candidate was perceived to be and less mentoring offered to her No effect on evaluation of males IV Political Attitudes and Behaviors preferences for political candidates and positions on racecoded issues 1 Greenwald et al 1009 1057 registered voters in 2008 presidential election controlling for liberalconservative ideology age gender and race 0 white preference thermometer scale Symbolic Racism Sclae and lATs predicted preference for McCain to Obama accounting for 214 of vote preference conservatism was strongest predictor of preference for McCain 2 Knowles Lowery and Schaumberg 2010 285 adults implicit prejudice against Blacks predicted a vote against Obama and opposition to the Obama health care proposal implicit prejudice predicted negative evaluations of and opposition to the health care plan when attributed to Obama When attributed to bill Clinton implicit prejudice was not related to opposition to the health care policy caution in overinterpreting these results no evidence that all who oppose obama and his policies are explicitly or implicitly prejudiced against him because of his race 107 Chapter 6 Where do prejudices come from IndividualLevel Analysis Sociobiological Explanation o Humans hardwired to be prejudiced evolution survival of species 0 Studies of monkeys o Criticisms of strictly biological explanation In uence of environment culture 2 Cognitive Style how we process info prejudice is based on fear of unknown to conquer this fear we have to be open to new info openness facilitated by ability to process complex info intolerance of ambiguity cognitive rigidity and preference for simple answers positively related to prejudice lower levels of intelligence have an indirectly related to prejudice via social conservatism and authoritarianism eg Hodson amp Busseri 2012 caution in overinterpreting these results modest link 6 bt intelligence and prejudice account for mediators p 8485 intolerance II Group Level Analysis Integrated Threat Theory Stephan amp Stephan 2000 Basic principle Fear caused by perceived and real threats leads to prejudice o lngroup identi cation Relevance Contact group status Realistic threats Symbolic threats lntergroup anxiety OOOOO 0 Research stephan et al 2011 report that 4 threat types predicted prejudice toward immigrant groups 1014 II Group Level analysis integrated threat theory Stephan amp Stephan 2000 Basic principle fear caused by perceived and rela threats leads to prejudice o lngroup identi aation Relevance 0 Contact 0 Group status Realistc threats Symbolic threats 0 lntergroup anxiety Research Stephan et al 2011 report that four threat types predicted prejudice toward immigrant groups lll Social level analysis socialization 0 In uence of parents and the quotcultural environmentquot examples 0 Sinclair dunn amp lowery 2005 o Prejudice in children is in uenced by parents peers adults other than parents and the cultural environment 0 Children internalize cues form the cultural environment p 9091 De ning stereotypes Overgeneralizations Positive or negative Selective Conscious or unconscious Many dimensions 0 Awareness and endorsement Inaccurate incomplete info Accurate knowledge Stereotypes come before prejudice II where do stereotypes come from 0 Cognitive model cognitive economy Psychodynamic model individual s needs Sociocultural model group identi cation and membership maintenance I How are steretypes measured Explicit measures Free responses Attribute checking Attribute ratings Semantic differential Group reality ratings 0 Belief sclea lssues w explicit measures 0 Social desirability 0 Endorsement by a group 00000 P 101 1021 b implicit measures lATs asian American stereotype nativewhite stereotype 0 foreign landmarks w native Americans and foreign landmarks with whites o perceived self consciously to be foreign weapons and faces 0 whites associated w harmless objects 0 gender and science 0 gender and careers 0 women associated w family and males w careers IV Public Stereotypes of American Racial Groups 0 Associated Press Racial attitudes poll 2012 see summary p 106 0 Muslims and war on terror 2012 Latinos barretto et al 2012 0 Most ratings positive or neutral Not showing negative stereotypes Explicit measure Perceived to be more hardworking Least boastful complaining and least lazy P 107 00000 V Stereotypes of Americans Abroad DeFleur amp DeFleur 2003 Tan et al 2010 Tan et al 2009 PEW Global Attitudes Project 2012 see Table 72 1023 V Stereotypes of Americans Abroad DeFIeur amp DeFIuer 2003 Tan et al 2010 Tan et Al 2009 PEW Global Attitudes Project 2012 see Table 72 Stereotypes of older people 0 Positive 0 Warm sincere kind motherly 0 Wise knowledgeable experienced patriotic expenenced 0 Negative 0 Shrewd greedy sel sh stubborn grumpy 0 Lonely depressed closeminded boring wrinkled forgetful technologically challenged o Pessimistic difficult grouchy irritable Gender stereotypes o Men and Women in Public Office PEW 2008 Table 74 75 o Traits 0 Men hardworking ambitious 0 Women honest intelligent compassionate out going creative Performance skills Men dealing w crime and public safety dealing w national security and defense Women working out compromises keeping gov honest representing your interests standing up for what they believe dealing w social issues Don t know and no difference responses highest for some skills table 75 Who makes the better leader Equal69 Men 21 Women 4 ll Comparison on leadership traits dolan 2014 Women compassionate expressive honest better bale to deal w constituents Men competent decisive strong leaders ability to handle a crisis ability to deal w issues Women child care poverty education health care women s issues the environment Men economic development military trade taxes agriculture Positions of authority table 7 Most frequent response preference same for baker surgeon lawyer airline pilot family doctor Among those giving a preference 0 Men police of cers surgeons lawyers airline pilots 0 Women elementary school teachers bankers Little diff bt male and female respondents except for family doctor women preferred a woman men preferred a male Stereotype threat Chapter 8 l stereotype threat effects of negative stereotyping on targeted groups Being at risk of con rming a negative stereotype steele amp aronson 1995 A general threat can be experienced by any negatively stereotyped groups Situational activated when task or setting provides opportunity to validate the stereotype Depends on identi cation w stereotype domain eg behaviors covered and contents o If situation is important to someone then stereotype threat works Target person does not have to believe the stereotype to be affected Why is performance affected by stereotype threat Stress arousal Performance monitoring Selfconsciousness arousal Ways to reduce stereotype threat Chapter 8 consequences of stereotypes Stereotype Threat effects of negative stereotyping on targeted groups 0 O 0 Being at risk of con rming a negative Situational activated when task or setting provides opportunity to validate the stereotype Depends on identi cation w stereotype domain ie behaviors covered and contents Target person does not have to believe the stereotype to be affected Why is performance affected by stereotype threat stereotype threat and performance Women and math steee et a 1997 African Americans and standardized tests steele 1997 III reducing stereotype threat Reframing the task Increasing salience of nonthreatened identities Selfaf rmation selfworth High standards and assurance 0 Positive role models 1030 Vl Decision to shoot Priming stereotype stored in memory is accessed directs behavior Correll et al 2007 college students 0 shoot black targets armed and unarmed more frequently than white targets 0 more quickly shoot and armed target when he is black than when he is white 0 more quickly don t shoot an unarmed target when he is white than when he is black 3 Glaser amp Knowles 2007 o the stronger an association of Blacks w weapons IAT the greater the tendency to shoot armed Black men stereotypes and health of older people 0 among elderly samples those who endorsed positive stereotypes more likely than those who endorsed negative stereotypes to 0 recover after a severe disability 44 more likely 70 years or older 0 show lower cardiovascular responses to stress and to engage in healthier activities 0 live longer plus 75 years 50 years or older stereotypes and ageism in the workplace underrepresentation due to negative stereotypes policies that favor younger workers 0 in health care discriminated and disrespected bc of age denied access to services mistreated or misdiagnosed in career choices of younger people working w older people is lowerst preference 0 social exclusion excluded from social activities civic activities access to basic services neighborhood exclusion nancial products material goods elder abuse and neglect REVIEW Associate name w result of study 1 a large number of discriminatory behavior are predicted by implicitexplicit measures prejudice indicating behaviors 0 high predictability 2 Bertrand and maullainathan sent out 5000 resumes In response to employment ads in Chicago in boston they found same for all names 14 this level of analysis of the origins of prejudice takes into account processes and traits of the curve win a person as she or he environment 0 individual 15 3 questions 17 integrated threat theory of prejudice de nitions of components 0 realistic threats symbolic threats 0 relevance of the threat 3 questions 21 3 questions stereotypes over generalizations 2324 0 Describe a measure then ask what it is Study results 33 3 questions 0 leadership traits performance skills 0 career preference 0 ex Family doctor preference depends on patient 39 3 questions 0 know what 3 strategies for reducing threat 1113 I any group can be stereotyped in the media time space and creative limits 0 Focus on groups that have less economic and political power less privileged history of discrimination Contemporary portrayals ll Asian Americans 0 Ronald takaki quote 0 Media action for asian Americans portrayals and remedies P 134 Ill Latino Americans Latino decisions national ispanic media coalition 0 Dixon amp lutz 2000 IV African Black Americans 0 Common media stereotypes Nonverbal bias in television Weisbuch Pauker amp Ambady 2009 V Native Americans 0 Historical media stereotypes native American journalists association 0 Contemporary stereotypes mclaurin 2012 VI Arab Americans Arabs Muslims Common media stereotypes DECEMBER 11 IS DEADLINE FOR PAPER Chapter 10 0 Media interventions to reduce negative stereotypes informationbased Media exemplars Dasgupta amp greenwald 2001 o Dalisay amp tan 2009 0 Zhang amp tan 2011 122 Chapter 10 0 Media interventions to reduce Negative stereotyping o Informationbased Media Exemplars Dasgupta amp greenwald 2001 Dalisay amp tan 0 Zhang amp TV Programs and Children 0 Cognitive categorization Sesame street 0 Different and the same P 156 III Institutional Interventions Minority journalists associations 0 ALL AMERICAN how to cover asian Americans IV Media Content by Experts 0 Aboriginal peoples television network 0 Canadian broadcasting corporation 0 Spirit bay 0 Moccasin ats MediaSmarts The native Americans 12914 Chapter 11 What is prejudice II III Intrapersonal communication interventions controlling oneself from stereotypes 3 Rokeach and Rokeach 1986 value study Personal Contact 0 1 contact improves intergroup relations 0 participants quotindividuatequot o negate strict categorization o optimum contact conditions 0 1 equal status 0 2 cooperation to achieve common goals 0 3 shared goas o 4 authority sanction 5 absence of competition b extended and vicarious contact 0 knowledge about interactions of ingroup w out group members from 0 direct observation 0 media vicariously o conversations more effective when contact is friendly positive tolerant blair IV mediated communication interventions o Reactive rather than proactive o Reacting to a message delivered by amedium 0 Recommendations based on lab studies 0 Need for testing in natural environments A informational narratives 4 colorblindness social categories should be dismant led everyone treated as an individual 0 5 multicultralism group differences acknowledged and celebrated multiculturalism more effective than color blindness in reducing prejudice 12 why negative stereotypes in the media 3 questions write what we know women and elderly women a
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