psych prelim 2 class notes
psych prelim 2 class notes
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Psychology Prelim 2 10215 The Problem Of Perception The color changing card trick 0 Everything in the video changed not just the cards How do we acquire knowledge about the world Sensann 0 We acquire basic sensory information we detected distal objects in the world through the senses Taste Touch Smell Headng Vision 0 Brain transduces incoming information eg light waves sound waves particles Are my sensations the same as yours 0 Do we see the same colors or taste the same taste Perception 0 Putting sensory information together to represent the external world is what we mean by perception Identi cation what am I seeing Categorization what kind of thing is it o How does basic sensory information turn into mental representations Difficult problem 0 The mind uses a number of tricks in order to make sense of all of the incoming sensory information 0 Visual perception Our mind makes certain assumptions about the environment to help us see accurately despite having limited data to work with 0 Color Object Depth A simple assumption 0 Shadows make surfaces darker When we see a surface in a shadow we automatically assume it is lighter than it looks 0 So we see it as lighters Objects how to view 0 Proximity 0 Similarity 0 Closure 0 Good continuation 0 Common movement 0 Good form Depth Perception 0 One of our more important perceptual abilities involves seeing in 3D 0 Depth perception is dif cult because we only have access to 2D images 0 How to we see a 3D world only using 2D retinal images 0 MullerLyer illusion o Ponzo illusion 10515 Can we Trust Perception Natural selection put pressure on the brains of developing mammals to develop a reliable visual system Shepard s Table lllusion l two tables that look like they re not the same shape actually are Sensation and perception give us an internal representation of the world How accurate and objective is it Perception is not perfect 0 We are susceptible to a variety of visual illusions o What we can see can vary depending on other visual cues present Visual context shadows surrounding lines etc What kinds of information can actually make perception distorted 0 We know that we are susceptible to illusions and that what we see can vary depending on other visual cues present 0 Also shaped by broader context expectation abut what you re perceiving Interpretation of ambiguous gures The quotMcgurk Effect an auditory illusion o A man is saying bah but when you change the picture to him looking like he s saying quotfahquot but he is actually saying bah the whole time Are there quottop down effects on perception 0 quotLow level cognition sensation perception basic identi cation and categorization 0 quotHigher level cognition beliefs thoughts desires motivations 0 Most processing of information is obviously of the quotbottom up variety Sensations l perceptions l judgments beliefs emotions 0 Can our beliefs thoughts desires emotional states actually change the way that we perceive the world Possibility 1 Basic perception is protected against in uence 0 Basic perception esp visual is modular Cognitiver impenetrable or informationally encapsulated o Sensory information is process by low level computations that give rise to perception This output feeds into our higher level cognitive systems 0 This actually why many visual illusions continue to work despite our knowledge that they are giving us incorrect information Possibility 2 No Even basic perception is infused with our desires beliefs thoughts 0 There is no such thing as pure perception 0 People actually perceive the exact stimulus in a completely different manner depending on their values motivations beliefs cultural backgrounds etc 0 These don t just shape our interpretation of what we see but what we actually see What is at stake Universality and reliability 0 I hate relativism l have relativism more than I hate anything else excepting maybe berglass powerboats surely no one but a relativist would drive a berglass powerboat Jerry Fodor What is the answer Which possibility is the right one Language and the perception of color 0 The SapirWorf hypothesis linguistic relativity is that the language we speak constrains our perception and cognition 0 Speci c prediction Our basic perception of color depends on the categories we have for carving up the visible spectrum EG not all languages have a blue green linguistic distinction What do we know 0 Linguistic color categories shape a great deal of color cognition Memory learning and discrimination 0 But there appear to be clear basic universals in perception Infants and individuals from cultures with only terms for light and dark are able to tell the difference between focal colors ie basic red green blue yellow Etc 0 Dichotic listening task attention is important in getting things into memory primary job provide you w relevant info so you can connect memories that enable you to do the right thing the attention in the real world miss changes when focusing attention other places people completely ignore things that are relevant to their survivals miss stimuli coming into senses bc never makes it to central attention sensory memory l short term memory info that we attend to in sensory memory passes into shortterm memory ong term memory seems to have no limit but shortterm memory has a limited storage capacity the magic number 7 2 short term memory is constrained chunks of info dramamine dra ma min drama mine stages of memory sensory memory shortterm memory like ram ongterm memory kind of permanent storage episodic semantic procedural memory motor movements how to do things chunking keeps in short term memory how to get into long term rehearsal serial position effect better memory for the rst things on list more likely to rehearse those recency better memory for rst terms on list mnemonic strategies rhymes acronyms method of loci associated items w physical locations depth of processing deep semantic processing leads to better memory than shallow processing context depended memory scuba divers learned list of words underwater onland given memory tests underwater onland memorize better in place in which they learned it ocation smelltriggers state dependent memory whatever state you happen to be in you will have better memory for words that have good associated with them if your in a good mood and Vice versa DeeseRoedigerMcdermot paradigm which of these words were on list Doze sound sleep truck easy to get people to misremember things that they never saw shows you in the real world that kind of error would be ok how does memory work encode store retrieve info rough stages sensory short term working long term mechanism that moves info from sensory to long term attention rehearsal semantic processing etc all aid process of trying not to forget something quotremembering thing that never happenedquot thorough strategies can have fully formed memories that are false Loftus and Palmer 1974 showed participants a video of a car accident and asked people how fast the cars were going when they hit each other or how fast were they going when they smashed into each other when asked smashed question they said the cars were going faster more likely to saw they saw broken glass when there was none when you feed people misinformation you can contaminatechange their memory get misinfo if questioned in a leading way leading questions with the verb smashed 408 mph collided 393 mph bumped 381 mph hit 340 mph contacted 318 mph misremembering the severity of a crime participants read about a man named frank who ate a meal at an expensive restaurant The details included total price of the meal as well as the price of some individual items all participants were told that he walked out on his bill without paying one group BAD FRANK told that this is because he was a jerk and liked to get away with it another group GOOD FRANK told he received a phone call in the middle of dinner that his daughter had been in an accident did recall one week later to see if they remembered prices 39bad frank group remembered more actual numbers implanting false childhood memories memory is dynamic ll holes of things w things that didn t happening sidebar about attention weapon focus sometimes you just never shift your attention towards the right thing takes a lot of training for people to take attention away from things such as gun and move it towards there face aren39t there special indelible memories quotan impression may be so exciting emotionally as to leave a scar upon cerebral tissuequot ashbulb memories asked individuals to report highly emotional events people reported having vivid detailed memories of surprising and important events they typically remember where they were what was going on at the time who told them the news how other felt how they felt problem the ashbulb memory study assumed that these memories were ACCURATE but the original brown and kulik study did not have a way to access accuracy space shuttle challenger 1986 memory method 106 students recall shuttle disaster the morning after it occurred and again 2 12 years later results high con dence for memories but low accuracy selfreported emotions did NOT correlate with accuracy false confessions about 25 of exonerated criminals actually confessed to their crimes sau kassin false confession studies accuse subjects of pressing a computer key they were instructed to avoid or accuse them of cheating on task Chapter 10 intelligence Intelligence ability to direct one s thinking adapt to one s circumstances and learn from one s experiences Ratio IQ statistic obtained by dividing a person s mental age by the person s physical age and then multiplying the quotient by 100 Deviation IQ statistic obtained by dividing a person s test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100 Factor analysis statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors Twofactor theory of intelligence every task requires a combination of a general ability and skills that are speci c to the task Fluid intelligence ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences Crystallized intelligence the ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience Emotional intelligence ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning people tend to be happier show less neural activity when solving emotional problems data based approach suggests there are 8 middlelevel abilities fraternal twins develop from 2 different eggs fertilized by 2 different sperm identical twins develop from splitting of a single egg that was fertilized by a single sperm genes important in intelligence heritability coef cient statistic that describes the proportion of the difference between people s scores that can be explained by differences in their genes shared environment those environmental factors that are experienced by all relevant members of a household nonshared environment those environmental factors that are not experienced by all relevant members
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