Chapter 1-9 Notes
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Thursday September 3 2015 Course Introduction Outline Business ethics basic elements within larger fields of decision making Is it necessary It links to business What is business ethics Providing reasons for how things ought to be in the economic world Requires Values In business ethics these are the priorities elected to guide decisions Facts The people or things involved in a decision in business ethics Argument Showing how given the facts one action serves specific values better than other actions in business ethics Question What is more important The individual or the collective How well do we get along with each other OverallLarger Outcome Example curing cancer by putting serum into random water bottles seeing who lives dies curing cancer in the long run 0 Values what is more valuable the prioritysacrifice Facts facts of the world will it really cure cancer or kill people is it really true Putting together facts with values argument 1 Value collective welfare more important than individual dignity and freedom autonomy 2 Fact will it actually do 0 3 Argument directs one way or another easy to respond to Thursday September 3 2015 Ethics vs Brainwashing Ethics compared from clear values recognized facts and the comprehensible reasoning of solid arguments The Place of Business Ethics Distinction of morality taking accepted rules and applying them to the world everyday life Metaethics debate about basis of ethics and where it came from Dividing normative ethics from descriptive ethics Normative what we should ought to do Descriptive description of why Ethics above morality Ethics discusses why rules exist convert to morality Morality rules we follow Ethics factory of rules how rules are madewhat rules should bewhy some rules are better than others Comparing ethics against other forms of decision making nonethical ways Instinct or gut inclination Knowledge advancement Prudence not wanting to die Peer pressure Law jail Money influence Authority figures turn to ask Ethics discreet way of making decisions lt is1 way out of many It is the opposite of peer pressure Thursday September 3 2015 Inflection points Plato and Idealism 400 BC Idealism and truth one pure value is unchanging ex definition of a chair Locke and Rights 1700 Ethics against aristocratic repression prevailing individual autonomy and freedom Mill Bentham and Utility 1850 Social welfare Ethics is unchanging it doesn t progress Inflection points not considered advancements they build off of each other There are skeptics Nietzsche 1888 facts interpretations culture Tuesday September 22 2015 Kant The Duties of the Categorical Imperative Immanuel Kant 17241804 German Sought strict ethical regulationprinciple without ambiguity of perennial duties a firmer mechanism of decisionmaking Categorical Imperative Hypothetical versus categorical imperative absolute command apply to everybody all the time 3 expressions of 1 imperative Act only according to maxims that can be willed as universal law Treat others never only as a means but always as an end Act only according to maxims that cohere with a kingdom of ends In applied ethics first 2 expressions or versions are most common If you make one of the first two rules work the dilemmaquestion is answered First versionexpression of the categorical imperative Act in a way that the rule for your action could be universalized Act only according to that maxim whereby you can will that it becomes a universal law Consistency principle In ethics the requirement that similar people in similar situations be treated in similar ways see it if applies to everyone Tuesday September 22 2015 Universalized action An action that could be carried out by everyone all the time without internal contradiction imagine a world where everyone lies all the time Case ls Lying Possible Inside Kant s Categorical Imperative 39 Kant s first formulation of the categorical imperative Act in a way that the rule for your action could be universalized Universalizable action An action that could be carried out by everyone all the time without internal contradiction ls lying possible in Kant s categorical imperative Why or why not Example lying or stealing If everyone lies all the time reality not rationally conceivable Impossible to lie when everyone is lying all the time the concept of lying evaporates NO it is irrational If everybody is lying all the time there is no such thing as truth You would be forced to check out There would be no truth or lies idea would evaporate Everybody would be wondering what s the truth and what s not We cannot imagine a world where everybody lies all the time It would be like a movie or poker game Movie went in not expecting truth or lies to begin with ls stealing possible NO if everybody stole from everyone there would be no definition of ownership personal property it will disappear But if it doesn t belong to someone then it can t be stolen If it can t be stolen then it can t be done Example helping others in need I may be able to rationally conceive of a purely selfinterested reality A world where everyone only cares about themselves is imaginable But would I want to live there Kant Steps Maximrule Universalize rule Tuesday September 22 2015 Conceive a world in which everyone is doing this all the time Conclusion if you can conceive this then do it if you can t then don t Music File Sharing example 39 Can t steal music download illegally because then people will stop putting up their music and then there won t be any to download Objection to the first version of the categorical imperative A reality without lying can be uncomfortabledangerous Boss grandma deranged addict The question of ethics and etiquette can lying sometimes be justified as part of the world of etiquette not ethics Second expression of categorical imperative Treat people as an end and never as a means to an end People as ends not means requirement that people not be used as instruments tools to get something else Examples lying stealing doesn t matter if you can cure every disease forever you can t use people as a tool to get to that point Example if I own a restaurant can I hire waiters and cashiers Dignity principle People have value in themselves Dignity principle vs consistency principle Thursday September 24 2015 Kant and Chapter 2 Review Categorical Imperative Kant Act only to maxims that can be willed as universal law CONSISTENCY PRINCIPLE Treat others as ends not means tool Things that are ends are irreplaceable DIGNITY PRINCIPLE Act only according to maxims that cohere with kingdom of ends To do this 1 establish maxim 2 universalize 3 conceive a world in which everyone is doing action all the time 4 come to a conclusion Pat down example antipat down people vs TSA antipat down people vs propat down people Fairness Theories Treat equals equally and treat unequals unequally Veil of ignorance Perennial Duties Kidnapping Examples People involved police chief criminal kidnapper Thursday September 24 2015 victim court prosecutor The prosecutor was right to charge the police chief for threatening the criminal in order to find out where the boy was because if he hadn t done so then how would they have found out where the boy was This included the theoriesperennial duties of Police officer s ethical duty should be to not harm others Dignity argument and developed talents Fundamental Differences Founda onalques on Perennial duties Fakness Kant Rights a justified claim against others vs perennial duties which claims to press upon people Rights vs Duties Duties Protective in nature About assuring that people aren t mistreated Community oriented Rights Thursday October 1 2015 Chapter 3 What Is Consequentialism Kant don t use people as part of equation Morality of action judged by consequences Reversal from principle duties and rights to consequences how things are absolutely to how things turn out Consequentialist ethicists focus on the results of what you do not what you do Central ethical concern Since consequentialists are more worried about the outcome than the action the central ethical concern is what kind of outcome should I want Three principle answers Utilitarian Altruist Egoist Utilitarianism 39 Outline Definition Happiness calculation Global ethics Versions of utilitarian happiness Versions of utilitarian regulation Advantages and drawbacks Definition the ethically recommendable act is that which brings the greatest good to the greatest number if it increases net happiness or decreases net unhappiness when everyone is taken into account the outcome matters not the act Thursday October 1 2015 o The reciprocal relation between acting to increase happiness and decrease su enng Happiness Calculation Ethics as calculation Ethics as totaling the happiness pleasure unhappiness suffering that results from any act Act is good if it raises happiness by 10 points or decreases unhappiness by 10 points Global Ethics Global in the sense that the ethical dimension of any particular decision expands across places and time Ethics taking into account everyone affected by an act in all places Ethics taking into account everyone affected by an act now and in the future Task foresee present and future happinesssuffering for all affected What is Happiness Monetized utilitarianism hedonism idealism Monetized idea that when we need to calculate out happiness the best and most reliable way to do it is to attach dollar values to everything dollar value on happinesscertain experiences to judge whether or not something is considered happy or worth it Hedonism believe that getting pleasure right now is good but not as good as maximizing the feeling over the long term Going out for drinks in others words instead of going to the library isn t recommendable on the evening before midterms Utilitarianism seeking to maximize any and all sensations of happiness and pleasure go to bars Idealism utilitarianism seeking to maximize sensations of happiness and pleasure connected with intellectual life and culture go to library or museum Thursday October 1 2015 Perennial Duties Fakness Kant Rights YouTube example Pro YouTube I think YouTube left the video up because they were looking out for themselves and receiving views The lady from YouTube thinks that she s seen the video or similar videos on the news so she wants to know if what s on the news affects what goes on YouTube She s stating that it s basically the same thing The ethical decision in her perspective is that she thinks if it s fair for the news to post the video then it s fair for YouTube too as well YouTube woman is being fair to those who upload the videos Aristotle fairness She s being loyal to the YouTube users She has a duty to herself to not disrespect the company she works for to keep her job She has a duty to herself to fulfill her talent monitoring the posting of YouTube videos She s informing the public rather than entertaining them She universalizes this idea for every video posted on YouTube She says there was a greater good the dignity of the movement is why she wanted to keep the video up lf concentrating on dignity video would have to be taken down Woman killed is being used as tool for views if title was Watch Woman Die you d be using the title and content as a tool for views Leave other one with title up because it respects the project as a news item rather than using the death as a tool for views and entertainment Thursday October 1 2015 Respect the dignity of others If you leave the video up for views you re treating the person as a means for views instead of an ends views for the causeproject In the end her death is being treated with dignity The video is up to spread information about the movement Utilitarianism AdvantagesDrawbacks of Utilitarianism Advantages Clarity and simplicity Acceptability Bringing the greatest good to the greatest number coheres with common and popular ideas about ethical guidance Flexibility The weighing of individual actions in terms of their consequences allows for firm ethical rules without requiring that everyone be treated Drawbacks Subjectivity Diverging definition of happiness for distinct individuals Quantification Happiness can t be measured with a ruler or weighed on a scale Apparent injustices The dying grandmother who informs her son that she s got 200000 stuffed into her mattress She asks the sone to divide the money with his brother This brother however is a gambling alcoholic who ll quickly fritter away his share In this case the utilitarian recommends that the responsible brother with children to put through college just keep all the money That would produce the most happiness but do we really want to deny grandma her last wish Utilitarian monster An individual capable of feeling disproportionately high sensations of pleasure and happiness one who consequently requires many others to sacrifice their happiness in the name of maximizing new happiness Utilitarian sacrifice An individual whose happiness is sacrificed in order to increase the happiness of others Thursday October 15 2015 Chapter 3 cont Egoism Ethical egoism whatever action serves my selfinterest is also the morally right ac on Invisible hand amp Adam Smith Adam Smith 17231790 Scottish economistphilosopher By pursuing hisher own interest shehe frequently promotes society and does so more effectively than when directly intending to promote it The Wealth of Nations 1776 Book IV Chapter 11 Rules of Egoism Personal versus Impersonal Egoism Personal Egoism Practicing an ethics of egoism without regard for what others are doing or should do Impersonal Egosim The belief that everyone should practice ethics of egoism invisible hand argument Four relationships between egoism and business Advocating and challenging ethical egoism advocate Clarity and simplicity Practicality Sincerity for those who subscribe to psychological egoism Unintended positive consequences invisible hand Advocating and challenging ethical egoism challenges Thursday October 15 2015 Egoism isn t ethics the reason we have ethics in the first place is to help us live together in society not always be out for ourselves Egoism ignores blatant wrongs Psychological egoism is not true
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