HA 261, Hanson Unit 2 notes
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Art Nouveau in Montmartre France Symbolism in Oslo Norway Austria Secession and Austrian Expressionism 0 Belle Epoque 1870s1914 beautiful era period of peace and prosperity during which the arts music and lit flourished A golden age for the wealthy who indulged in the pleasures of life such as expensive clothing fine dining and evenings out at new entertainment venues Many Parisians belonged to a large underclass for which such luxuries are out of reach 0 Roger Fry significant form not interested in the social context nor artist bio the formal elements is all that is important Art Nouveau o Moulin Rouge Red Windmill dance hall I can can I cheap rent which attracted Paris tourists and lower class 0 ToulouseLautrec I renewed the poster market actually becoming fine art or more appreciated I Henri de ToulouseLautrec Le Divan Japonais Japanese Love Seat 1893 Art Nouveau color lithograph was a night club content form and color all come together hallmarks of art nouveau o undulated curving lines 0 architecture and design gt ads gt fine artists 0 1890s1910s circulating throughout Europe and into the US black central figure 0 arms hat sleek curves and angles reduction of form lady from cartedevisite glowing orange hair cropping o and for performer and she is cropped at the top left to highlight her high black gloves space 0 compressed ghost gray for orchestra cropping the conductor male critique friend of ToulouseLautrec suggesting welcoming environment by sitting next to other performers Japonisme influence of Japanese art on Western art 0 asymmetrical composition 0 radical cropping o passages of flattened space O O TououseLautrec At the Moulin Rouge 189295 Art Nouveau oil on canvas intro broad schematic impression of genre and subject matter artist name and date and title 0 format roughly square 0 composition compressed bar that separates us from the figures front lady oddly bisected and looking at viewer fand her features color repeated colors technique of application conclusion all treatmentsgt meaning to the work hallucinating image or some conclusion that supported by the image Symbolism in NonNay I Edvard Munch The Dance of Life 18991900 Symbolism Austria Gauguin s Vision of the Sermon is the first Symbolistlike work focused on distortion for emotional impact pessimistic turn away from the elites and high class hallmarks 0 expression of personal dreams desire to use images to escape reality 0 simplified forms abstraction using color in an unknown way particularly with the natural elements blocked outside the picture plane observe from the outside viewer is supposed to relate to ambiguity Munch Love and Pain Vampire 1894 Symbolism no narrative like Fuseli s The Nightmare her hair displaces blood that she s biting his neck 0 femme fatale having power over the man unclear of what s going on Munch The Scream 1893 Symbolism deliberately distorted unnatural color palette raises more questions than answers figure treatment 0 no hair 0 skulllike 0 can t determine age or gender above fjord two figures in back primal feargt Munch s bio experience going for emotional effect I Vienna secession o Gustav Klimt Secession I 1898 Vienna Secession poster 0 O O O O 0 group of artists that didn t want to be in the Austrian Academy I couldn t get official commissions I incorporate all aspects of art musicians designers all medias ancient Greek mythology I Athena rightside wisdom and war and culture 0 acknowledging the new takin over the old Minotaur I man blessed by Athena I the Academy conservative thought to be ephemeral gold leaf censored by having the black trees in front of nude figure 0 Klimt Adele BlochBauer l 1907 Vienna Secession 0 000 00000 his early career portraits and landscapes models with the Austrian community gold and silver leaf received as incredibly ornate frowned upon I by the Academy serpentine forms surface ornament square composition slight indication of horizon line traditional media with her anatomic features Egyptian eye eye of Horace wards off evil forces inspua ons I mosaics gold leaf made a trip to ltaly Byzantine mosaic Mycenaean spirals I Austrian Expressionism o Egon Schiele Selfportrait with Chinese Lantern and Fruits 1912 Austrian Expressionism O O O O painted at 22 confident yet fragile slightly more horizontal than vertical for portrait texture of paint particularly in his face and shirt and background directions of paint visual tension hallmarks I choose portraits or nudes erotic subjects I expressive line work I radiating nervous energy I flattening out the composition 0 goals of today s lecture o tenets of Fauvism and origin of term 0 define Primitivism comparecontrast sev artists treatments of nonWest subjects 0 analyze the formal elements of an abstract nonobjective painting and make a claim about that work s content 0 interpret a work of art in the socialhistorical context of WI 0 France 0 1905 3rd Salon d Automne art exhibition Grand Palais Paris France I alt exhibition to actual Salon taken place in fall I art critic Louis Vauxcelles coins term les fauves the wild beasts insult and application of paint and color palette to describe the work of Henri Matisse and Andre Derain I 191418 WWI great war I originality highly valued o Fauvism o Henri Matisse Woman with a Hat 1905 Fauvism I submitted to Salon d Automne showing all max of 10 allowed I hallmarks o bright color palette o vigorous brushwork free from form in the naturalistic world tension in plane with unmodulated canvas drawing attention to 2D but othenNise very 3D an image that has depth likeness of postimpressionists informal group of artists placement of colors to make the colors pop complementary and serves to fulfill the composition and complete and short lived 190507 not interested in construction but rather color for depiction of form 0 Matisse o lawyer gt formal art education can work in the traditional work academic 0 subject matter Matisse s wife 0 fan across her chest 13 of canvas w hat vehicle for experimental painting 0 green smear across female figure face to suggest shading I a pot of colors flung in the face of the public I barbarous and naive games of a child playing with a box of colors 0 Matisse Le Bonheur de vivre The Joy of Life 190506 Fauvism W8 I drawn from antiquity no story necessarily attached with subject working with color drew sketches from nature no attention to scale complimentary colors with central figures highlighted with bold lines o Matisse Blue Nude Souvenir of Biskra 1907 Fauvism Biskra colony of France oasis type location in North Africa thick blue lines to outline body no suggestion of space or depth exotic plants unnatural colors was not well received suggestion of African body Orientalism not America and not Europe Primitivism late 19th early 20th c pure unspoiled culture untouched by modernity looking for something more authentic more Euro 0 Andre Derain Mountains at Collioure 1905 Fauvism Germany working w Matisse application of paint 0 short bricklike brushstrokes 0 much of the canvas ground shown through 0 sticks of dynamite o no suggestion of natural light and shadow o 1911 Der Blaue Reiter Blue Rider collective formed in Munich Germany name selfgiven all spiritual hallmarks of German Expressionism 0 various mix of media 0 interests in spirituality 0 bright colors 0 interest in subjective aspect of art work 0 Vasily Kandinsky Der Blaue Reiter Almanac 1911 cover Blaue Reiter for Kandinsky for moving beyond the actual depiction and moving on or horseman of apocalypse religiosity icon images that portray a sacred entity and that are themselves regarded as sacred 0 Kandinsky Composition IV 1911 German Expressionism 4th in a series after musical terms doesn t want to link anything in the outside world composition bright effect running colors 2 central linesanchors also floating bright colors that also read as a rainbow can convey spirituality specific values to colors blue sky purity yellow earth shrill sounds acidity tastes lemons synesthesia the condition in which one type of sensory stimulation is interpreted or perceived through another sense O O 0000 O O O I 5 preliminary studies for the work his work through abstraction completely deliberate and constructed immediacy nonobjective Albert Bloch Three Pierrots and Harlequin 1914 German Expressionism only American in the group born in STL lived in Germany taught at KU until 1946 harlequin on right and pierrots on left all comedic figures pierrots melancholic more frightening appearing produced at beg of WWI sinister faces glowing spot outbreak of war I non objective no meaning in particular 0 German Expressionism Die Brucke Bridge collective 1905 Die Brucke collective formed in Dresden 190708 influenced by the Fr school of Fauvism 19101 relocates to Berlin Primitivism becomes a dominant sensibility to work in Die Brucke Nidden Karl SchmidtRottluff Three Nudes Dune Picture from Hidden 1913 German Expressionism Dresden Erich Hecket Standing Child Franzi 1910 German Expressionism woodblock print Berlin Primitivism looks at Oceania artwork and just looks doesn t go to that part of the world seated female figure 15th20th c Mali Bamana peoples the look they have jagged lines masklike faces almond shaped eyes wo pupils looking at African aesthetics radically abstracted jagged lines from Medieval Gothic prints Franzi female model couldn t afford actual models liked the awkwardness facial features African artwork masks ages 811 she modeled for him woodcut prints made using the process of woodcut which is a relief process in which the design is cut into and printed from the plank side of a wood block Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Street Berlin 1913 German Expressionism I women prostitutes big hats on for sale identically dressed men all interchangable moving through the city issues with sexuality erotically charged by treatment of formal elements in the piece woman taller stand ins for skyscraper the centerpiece having control over men in the city jagged lines masklike faces AfricannonWestern subject matter psychological experience for moving about the city prostitutes stress 0 Kirchner Self Portrait as a Soldier 1915 German Expressionism masklike face bright blue eyes background figure hard to read limp cigarette in mouth hands one clenched the other severed he did work in the war later became institutionalized unable to serve because of his mental state severed hand afraid of what would ve happened had he worked in the war war could ve taken his life alcoholic drug addict later commits suicide goals 0 France 0 O O O analyze the visual elements in works of protocubism analytic cubism and synthetic cubism identify sev possible sources of inspiration for Picasso s The Young Ladies of Avignon 1907 and explain their significance comparecontrast 2 abstract ie nonobjective paintings in terms of form and content interpret a contemporary artist s response to Malevich art critic Louis Vauxcelles coins the term Cubism to describe a landscape painting by Georges Braque 191012 Picasso and Braque develop Analytic Cubism 191213 Picasso develops Synthetic Cubism 191418 WWI Great War ProtoCubism O Pablo Picasso Les Demoiselles D Avignon The Young Ladies of Avignon 1907 Cubism I 190104 moving btwn Paris and Madrid and remains in Paris forthe rest of his lifetime I began in 1906 took summer off and then later finished and added 2 right figures title very deliberate w reference to prostitutes figures teasing showing themselves off commerce is important prostitutes are threatening to the conservative moral culture alongside w nontraditional nonWestern traditions protocubist hallmarks 0 new treatment of form and space 0 pressured up against frame 0 figures ripping and tearing up picture to shatter picture plane 0 multiple viewpts o frontally and above table 0 2nd figure over as though she is reclining viewing her above 0 near square format 0 tension as though the figures are squashed and pushed fonNard into viewer s space over life size threatening canvas size LOTS of studies 16 sketchbooksstill kinda academic o initially includes 2 male figures sailor and medical student I NO narrative I in uences 0 Egyptian art 0 ancient Iberian sculpture SpainPortugal 0 African masks reception 0 thought as unfinished 0 one friend buys the piece 0 Museum of Modern Art bought it as today Analytic Cubism Georges Braque Viaduct at L Estadue 1908 Cubism O O O O challenging what Cezanne was doing w passage and push and pulling fragments and facets to break up the houses 3 hallmarks of analytic 0 reduction of color palette o reducing forms to basic forms 0 forms gt faceted shape examiningbreaking down visual forms Braque The Portuguese The Emigrant 1911 Cubism nearly monochrome portrait memory of musician performing in France white plumes smoke plumes or light reflecting from window clashing noises and sounds using passage to blend forms most noticeable w figure s shoulders letter stenciling working to deflattening the work 0 pop culture Picasso Ma Jolie 191112 Cubism Ma Jolie my pretty also a song possible ref Picasso Landscape with Posters 1912 Cubism bridge btwn analytical and synthetic bouillon cube playing w visual joke about Cubism by inserting that Synthetic Cubism Picasso Glass and Bottle of Suze 1912 Cubism 0 Russia papier colle a type of collage and painting that uses only paper to create the composition the term means glued papers as though viewing above and side like a cafe tableblue oval overlapping forms like posters on Paris streets ashtray w lit cigarette glass w charcoal and newspaper newspaper content 0 highly political Balkan war cholera epidemic articles read in cafes o 1915 Kazimir Malevich launches Suprematism at the Last Futurist Exhibition of Paintings 010 zeroten in Petrograd St Petersburg Russia Supremacist over all art in the past end of old conventions and new pictorial language all visual phenomenon in real world was meaningless all emotional icon images that portray a sacred entity and that are themselves regarded as sacred Orthodox Christian icons installed in the east corner of a room in a home 0 his black square is replacing those icons Kazimir Malevich Black Sguare 1915 Suprematism 0 square canvas if rotated won t change no horizon line pure white and pure black black pure void nothing else to be referenced white frame halo for secular icon mechanically reduced can still see artist s hand nonobjective refers specifically to abstract art in which the forms have had no beginning or reference to nature Malevich Suprematist Composition Airplane Flying 1915 Suprematism o veiled ref to flight o banished horizontal line planes flying in space 0 A contemporary response to Malevich o Susanne Norregard Nielson Kites 2006 color photograph flying his work o Futurism in Italy Dada in Zurich Berlin and New York City 0 goals I aims of Italian Futurism use textual evidence from The Futurist Manifesto origins of Dada analyze a Dada performance as a response the concept of the New Woman ways in which Duchamp challenged the mythical status of Art as unique original beautiful handmade and sacred 184971 Unification of Italy capital moved from Florence to Rome 1909 The Futurist Manifesto published in Le Figaro Parisian newspaper are still in Neoclassicism and continue to look up to the classics da Vinci Luigi Bazzani A Visit to Pompeii 1880s House of the Ancient Hunt with wall fresco o tenets of Neoclassicism Futurists 0 all men coin their own term rather publish their introduction in French in a French newspaper o Marinetti published their article which receives international a en on o FT Marinetti After the Marne Joffre Visited the Front by Car 1945 a parole in liberta words infreedom I typography b Marne important WWI battle I when the French stopped their agressive front c map I left sid curving 8 form the welcoming front I M mountain peaks I using cut edge media particularly film I sculpture painting I hallmarks of Futurism 0 interest in fragmentation 0 forms conveying meaning 0 collage various fonts found in different sources poem is free verse most popular interest in free wording ignoring grammar and rules 0 interest in war 0 simultaneity o bird s eye view 0 narrative a dialogue 0 words that suggest sounds I speaking to the French audience 0 Gino Severini Armored Train in Action 1915 Futurism a b c i j 1915 year Italy enters WWI Severini is in Paris not in the war zone clear rejection of Academic tradition I recession and space stabile composition shape of train is distorted by the smoke I to suggest how quickly the train was moving noise speed and aesthetic I gunfire w fractions of light shards I anonymous faceless shooters robots o echoes by the divets in the train borrowed from analytical Cubism I radically simplified shapes I broken down into facets o unclear of what s what I goals are different 0 Futurists are showing objects moving through space bright color palette Futurism hallmark I aesthesized work I suggesting that war is beautiful a celebration of war and technology I what s shown is as important as what s not shown 0 injuries and death proNationalist proItaly I modernism and technology Marinetti eventually aligns himself w Mussolini thought that war would wipe out all traditions the classics and make room for a clean slate o Umberto Boccioni Unique Forms of Continuity in Space 1913 Futurism bronze a 995 series of four sculptures the last one painter until 1912 saw the Cubists and decided to take up sculpture trying to depict movement w a 3D solid object diagonal composition lines I suggesting movement through space I emerging from pedestals o Dada f not interested in Neoclassic or idealized ways nor anatomically accurate originally made in plaster made in bronze after he died 45 high I bronze light off the material a mechanical form almost robotic interest in technology j no face or arms or feet I deliberate choices I more streamlined I suggesting that man is becoming more machine life I feet elevated ABOVE k prowar technology and machine he dies in 1916 in war m looking to the Winged Victory of Samothrace I still looking back to classics 393 I Hugo Ball Karawane 1916 Dada originates in Zurich Switzerland working in various medium a poetry performance costume anything basically emerges from Cafe Voltaire in Zurich reactions to horrors of WWI Switzerland was neutral hallmarks of Dada a complete rejection of traditional artistic rules b embrace of nonsense and the absurd all nonsense words a concerned w pronunciation of words reject all truth in the world all nonsense name a Dada rocking horse I yes Romanian and Russian I often first word uttered by a baby b deliberately ambiguous for multiple meanings commentary of words and meanings gt commentary on war I Sophie Taeuber Arp The Stag King Koning Hirsch 1918 Dada marionette theater simplified forms ovals and discs nonWestern influence Africa or Oceania childlike curiosity Dada hallmark a shocking breaking down barriers and taboos expressive mobility allow more shocking reactions O Dada in Berlin 1918 Overthrow of Kaiser Wilhelm and royal family 1918 women get the right to vote in German for the 1st time 191933 Weimar Republic 1920 1st International Dada Fair Berlin Hannah Hoch Cut with the Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar BeerBelly Cultural Epoch in Germany 1918 Dada photomontage o commentary on new freedoms of women the New Woman a working outside the home b vo ng o 4 quadrants each w a different a top right I antidada I politicians I military soldiers b lower right I figures aligned w Dada I self portrait c lower left I crowds involved w political d top left I Einstein aligning himself w Dada 0 kitchen knife domestic role w women a undoing femininity b subversive technique of women 0 De Stijl in the Netherlands Bauhaus in Germany amp New Objectivity in Germany 0 discuss the ways in which Duchamp challenged the mythical status of Art as unique original beautiful handmade and sacred Dada in NYC I 1913 Armory Show NYC 0 1400 works exhibited and 90000 visitors introduced Americans to Euro modern art 0 23 American and rest Euro 0 expected Euro works to be classical like Renaissance I 1916 Wilson reelected I 1917 US declares war on Germany Duchamp Nude Descending a Staircase 1912 Dada I no experience w Cubism or Italian Futurism I Duchamp is reducing his color palette and breaking down form reducing to triangles ovals cylinders against a darkened space and pushes the work fonNard NOT analytical Cubism but interested w ltalian Futurism initially a painter stops in 1912 and eventually onto 3D art I Duchamp enjoyed the negative feedback Duchamp R Mutt Fountain 1917 Dada readymade I creates a group that have a jury that be willing to show everything shown I readymade massproduced utilitarian objects which the artist transforms into works of art by placing them in an artistic context I questioning and challenging the value of Art 0 separation of high art and low art 0 challenging and raising the question of where art is and if anything an artist signs and shows is considered art I R Mutt reference to cartoon or urinal company I playing with stable conditions w masculine and feminine w the urinal o breaking down barriers Duchamp LH00Q 1919 Dada I readymade I inking moustache and beard signature and location I again playing w gender roles selfportrait I Elle a chaud au cul 0 she has a hot ass 0 also playing w English look reference to Mona Lisa postcard and drawing by Duchamp I status of a masterpiece o individuality the quality of the postcard 0 De StijlBauhuasNew Objectivity 0 describe the hallmarks of De STijl by Mondrian o tenets of Bauhaus and the types of work 0 De Stijl The Style 0 191728 De Stijl The Style journal and group founded members include Piet Mondrian Theo van Doesburg and Gerrit Rietveld interested in mass sense of media reduction of color palette to neutrals and primary colors Mondrian I started as a landscape painter in series out work out aesthetic issues 0 Piet Mondrian Lozenge Composition with Yellow Black Blue Red and Gray 1921 De Stijl I concerned about the way it interacts w the wall and ceiling get rid of the concept of a landscape or portrait no horizon line animate the lines and create tension all shapes and form are together hallmarks of De Stijl 0 use of geometric abstraction o believe that that can be as a means to be accessible worldwide reduction of colors emphasis on order and clarity and commitment to balance logic 0 use of white 0 variations of white 0 Germany Bauhaus 1919 founded in Weimar 1925 Dessau 1930 Berlin 1933 closed down by Nazis I Marianne Brandt Coffee and Tea Service 1924 Bauhaus 0 only female in the metalwork o prototype o hallmarks 0 simple pure geometric reject surface decoration o intense and focused study of properties metal 0 functional and utilitarian handles and knobs I Oskar Schlemmer Slat Dance and Metal Dance 1926 Bauhaus c was in war injured twice turned into aerial photographer eventually lead him to the theatre workshop in the school 0 focus on human and space architecture 0 a response to WI a new response w the body and technology a hybrid body utopian 0 New Objectivity Neue Sachlichkeit o 1918 women get the right to vote in Germany for the 1st time 0 OOO 0 George Grosz Fit for Active Service 191617 New Objectivity Germany known for caricatures relations w his own experiences on the battlefield the doctor declares the soldier corpse 0 iron cross rewarded so frequently worthless almost replaced the heart of the doctor 0 jagged and thicker pen lines o KV fit for service medic w pin on lapel w German flag 0 small features and only one aware of the ridiculous situation back figure 0 wearing a helmet that was no longer used reminder of failure to protect soldiers squaress o militaristic meaning rationale poking fun at the order outside 0 no longer utopian cityscape door 0 entrance commentary never allowed to leave 0 Otto Dix Skat Players 1920 New Objectivity machine gunner in war wounded several times one of the founders critique of the fallout of WWI mechanized bodies of former soldiers skat germany s card game 4 players implicate the viewer as the dealer approx 80000 soldiers returned as amputees different medium 0 paint 0 coHage o newspapers 0 small oval portrait silver foil 0 blue fabric and painted over hallmark o artistic use of garish colors 0 leg as arm and hand hybrids of machine and human man at right sitting in basket 0 Otto Dix The Journalist Sylvia von Harden 1926 New Objectivity reference to the New Woman sitting alone in the club not permissible before the 1920s flat chest covering w hand smoking the box has a golden eagle German elongated figures and features 0 plaid dress spidery hand monocle fashionable for men guarded hands over her own body garish makeup explain Freud s theory of the mind and use his ideas to interpret the work of the Surrealists discuss the various techniques used by Surrealists 2 strands Automatism and Verism analyze the ways in which an artist construct an image in their ethnic timeline 0 1880s Freud practices in Vienna o 1900 Freud s Interpretation of Dreams published 0 1924 Fr author and poet Andre Breton writes the first Surrealist Manifesto I started as a literary movement I Surrealism a higher reality than the real sur Fr above I response to WI Sigmund Freud Austrian o ego mediates btwn societal rules and desires o superego selfregulation angel on shoulder 0 id pleasure devil on shoulder o unconscious mind was in control Surrealism Automatism o to access the unconscious mind like an automatic action riding a bike brushing teeth 0 Max Ernst Blue Forest 1925 Surrealism I largely selftaught I visited and worked in mental institutions and served in WI I founding member of the Cologne branch of the Dada movement and later meets Breton I frottage the technique of making a rubbing from a textured surface 0 uses as a platform for creating different items guiding I forest 0 dead trees more interested in fractured qualities from the wood wo aesthetization I no scale but horizon line suggests massive qualities 0 Max Ernst The Horde 1927 Surrealism I grattage the creation of forms and textures by scraping a wet painted surface I chance forms that emerge from the technique for the piece I related to his experiences in WI I demonic army on the march preWW o Ernst Landscape 1957 Surrealism I decalcomania technique for generating images paint is applied to a piece of paper that is then either folded creating a mirrored pattern or pressed against another sheet I ambiguous space and for the viewer to make sense of it all I influences Rorschach test ink blots 0 May Ran Andre Breton Yves Tanguay Max Morise Exquisite Corpse 1928 Surrealism exquisite corpse refers to images composed by several persons where each participant is not allowed to see the previous contributions 0 originated as a game from cutting up word phrases o Surrealism Verism lllusionism o Salvador Dali The Persistence of Memory 1931 Surrealism Spanish little pictures 1 wide creating a visual language that question all reality 0 wanting to question the viewer terrain Bay of Roses boyhood memory of this landscape time appears frozen water reflecting fourth closed pocketwatch ants emerging from o anxiety of sexual abilities subconscious form Freud central figure 0 walrus like sea creature o influence from melting cheese biomorphic figure 0 selfportrait unaware of that identification title reinforcing Freud memories are always there 0 hallmarks following academic rules of lines slightly distorted attention to detail clarity broad swathes of color hidden hand 0 Destino 2003 Surrealism Disney and Dali o Rene Magritte The Treachery of Images 19289 Surrealism Belgium orig commercial artist 0 deadpan depiction of objects willingness to accept realism o illusionism challenges through multiple meanings of image and text 0 Surrealism Women artists 0 Meret Oppenheim Object Le Dejeuner en FourrureLuncheon in Fur 1936 Surrealism Germanborn Swiss vast media working moved to Paris at age 18 MoMa bought it immediately at young age found objects fur of Chinese gazelle 0 creates an immediate response of revolution 0 evocative and mysterious o fur looks like mold 0 giving the viewer an uneasy feeling w multisensory reactions I teacup 0 reference to women serving tea in a domestic setting 0 Frida Kahlo The Two Fridas 1939 Surrealism I left colonized version white dress lattice coral calcified I right Mexicanidad embracing ethnicity clothes are more common 0 holding small portrait of Diego usually worn on chest 0 exam format 0 O O O today s goals 0 O O O O 0 describe the artist s use of line shape and color treatment of space application of paint identify several visual elements that might take reference to a female sitter identify 2 hallmarks short answer unknown identifications comparecontrast essays and identifications define abstraction w American Modernism analyze the constructedness of 2 photographs interpret artworks in the context of the Great Depression cityscape American Modernism Childe Hassam New York Street 1902 American Impressionism fashionable only in America at the beginning of the 20th c o Armory Show 1902 PhotoSuccession formed Flatiron Building constructed Fifth Ave designed by Chicago architect terracotta and glass 190507 Stieglitz opens 291 art gallery at 5th Ave NYC studied in Germany started his own movement in 1902 1913 Armory Show NYC 191418 WWI Great War Alfred Stieglitz The Flatiron Building 1903 Pictorialism suggesting that the building isn t triangular emphasizes the role of the photograph elongated format to heighten the building and tree 0 triangle of negative space from the building s absence of not looking triangular sharing same plane suggesting 3Dness of the tree against the building creating the muffled sounds of being in a desolate park hallmarks of Pictorialism elevate to a higher process 0 beautifully rendered images 0 photographer s hand is visible w manipulations o to show subjectivities 0 odd cropping o constructedness o reject sharp focus Georgia O Keeffe Red Canna 1924 American Modernism 19291940 traveling btwn NYC and New Mexico positioning against Euro artists for Am claim of Modernism flowers 0 sublimity of nature personal experiences abstractions from organic forms not geometric abstraction a deliberate departure essentialism the practice of regarding something as a presumed human trait as having innate existence or universal validity rather than as being a social ideological or intellectual construct women artists not allowed to be in the Academy calling back to still life portraits 0 Charles Demuth My Egypt 1927 Precisionism Alfred H Bar 0 sharpedge style order and clarity 0 one of first Am artists to accept Euro modernism 0 Lancaster Illinois 2 grain elevators 0 title parallel w pyramids and grain elevators equal respect for each region 0 monumental qualities of persistence old brick building contrasts massive forms borrowing from Cubism and Futurism o Cubism simplifications of shape 0 Futurism interest in fractured light pencil and rulers right to canvas and left visible own American brand of modernism reduction of color palette to red hallmarks of Precisionism 0 modern subject matter 0 artist interest in what s native to cityscape 0 response to photography 0 hard edged lining 0 response to Cubism and Futurism o O Keeffe Radiator Building at Night 1927 American Modernism double portrait as Stieglitz left neon light and O Keeffe right steamy radical abstractions cityscape tilting slightly left photographic skyscraper from ambiguous spot reduces color palette and simplifies shapes skyscraper s windows show artist s hand facade flattened paper that s been perforated orbs of light unclear 0 Great Depression art 0 1930s39 Great Depression 1933 128 million unemployed persons 0 1934 Dust Bowl 193543 Works Progress Administration WPA 193945 WWII 1941 Pearl Harbor declares war on Japan Germany and Italy effect on artists I WPA painting murals on schools courts and libraries 0 Grant Wood American Gothic 1933 Regionalism I went to Europe 4 times I from Iowa 0 Thomas Hart Benton Missouri John Steuart Curry Kansas 0 all aware of Euro style and reject that I hallmarks 0 treatment of rural subject matter interest in celebrating midwest culture reject abstraction line and pay close attention to detail no artist hand 0 deadpan objective style I what s shown is as important as what s not shown I building I figures 0 anonymous and recognizable as Midwest types 0 pitchfork echoed in man s clothes and in the architecture of building and windows and facade o woman domestic setting repeating the pattern in her apron w house curtain o elongation of figures I trees are highly stylized I inspirations o Arnolfini Portrait van Eyck 0 Untitled farm couole found tintype vernacular I satirical comment on Midwest and positive on figures in the Midwest as resilient survivors of the Great Depression 0 Aaron Douglas Asbects of Negro Life From Slavery Through Reconstruction 1934 Harlem Renaissance I teaches in Nebraska and moves to Harlem I hallmarks of artistic Harlem ren deliberate detachment from Euro traditions Egyptian art influence looked to Art Deco looked to African masks and subject matter I AfroCubism I slavery through Reconstruction I iconography OOOO 0 far left pink silhouettes are ref to KKK o on horse black silhouettes picking cotton background 0 soldiers marching out from the South I allowing KKK to rise up clenched man w broken shackle freedom central figure orator holding a bill in one hand and pointing at capital building in distance 0 right side rising hands southern Af Americans celebrating Emancipation and Proclamation Lincoln holding the document w concentric circles back to us criticized by both Af Am and white people 0 Dorothea Lange Migrant Mother 1936 Social Realism Farm Security Administration two figures turned away showing vulnerability hand position that shows futility w her starving children anonymous and basic subject matter to show purpose used as propaganda for these kinds of people 0 had an immediate effect some relief for this photograph capturing the fear during the Great Depression regardless of income in uence 0 Madonna and Child with Two Angels 0 Charity Bouguereau o allegorical and often shows nursing a child 0 no inclusion of masculine figure 0 burden of her responsibility 0 Art during WWII 0 Edward Hopper Nighthawks 1942 American Realism largescale not specific more generic of a diner woman Hopper s wife Jo two figures sitting close but two coffee repetition suggesting all night activity artificial light like a beacon like a moth o topical and new brick building contrasting outside shades pulled down cash register stands for human absence modern building all glass 0 no entranceexit o impossible conditions tension btwn light inside the building and outside 0 sense of silence from standing outside selfconscious hallmarks of Am Realism o depictions of everyday life 0 representations of the urban city interpreted w WWII blackouts were frequent o asked to close blinds and doors 0 portrait about involvement w WWII o Archibald Motley Nightlife 1943 Harlem Renaissance painted after seeing Nighthawks born in NOLA in Chicago bar extent of color palette man on left open into the scene highly stylized figures to guide to composition started as portrait painter but could not find interest then makes pieces that are happy and vibrant for white viewers 0 interest Henri de ToulouseLautrec Le Divan Japonais Japanese Love Seat 1893 Art Nouveau ToulouseLautrec At the Moulin Rouge 189295 Art Nouveau oil on canvas Klimt Adele BlochBauer l 1907 Vienna Secession Henri Matisse Woman with a Hat 1905 Fauvism Matisse Le Bonheur de vivre The Joy of Life 190506 Fauvism W8 Matisse Blue Nude Souvenir of Biskra 1907 Fauvism Kandinsky Composition IV 1911 German Expressionism Albert Bloch Three Pierrots and Harlequin 1914 German Expressionism Karl SchmidtRottluff Three Nudes Dune Picture from Hidden 1913 German Expressionism Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Street Berlin 1913 German Expressionism Kirchner Self Portrait as a Soldier 1915 German Expressionism Pablo Picasso Les Demoiselles D Aviqnon The Young Ladies of Avignon Georges Braque Viaduct at L Estadue 1908 Cubism Braque The Portuquese The Emidrantl 1911 Cubism Picasso Ma Jolie 191112 Cubism Picasso Glass and Bottle of Suze 1912 Cubism Kazimir Malevich Black Square 1915 Suprematism Malevich Suprematist Composition Airplane Flvinq 1915 Suprematism FT Marinetti After the Marne Joffre Visited the Front by Car 1945 Gino Severini Armored Train in Action 1915 Futurism Umberto Boccioni Unidue Forms of Continuitv in Space 1913 Futurism bronze Hugo Ball Karawane 1916 Dada Hannah Hoch Cut with the Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar BeerBellv Cultural Epoch in Germanv 1918 Dada photomontage Duchamp Nude Descendinq a Staircase 1912 Dada Duchamp R Mutt Fountain 1917 Dada readymade Piet Mondrian Lozenqe Composition with Yellow Black Blue Red and Grav 1921 De Stijl Marianne Brandt Coffee and Tea Service 1924 Bauhaus Oskar Schlemmer Slat Dance and Metal Dance 1926 Bauhaus George Grosz Fit for Active Service 191617 New Objectivity Otto Dix Skat Players 1920 New Objectivity Otto Dix The Journalist Svlvia von Harden 1926 New Objectivity Max Ernst The Horde 1927 Surrealism Max Ernst Blue Forest 1925 Surrealism Salvador Dali The Persistence of Memory 1931 Surrealism Rene Magritte The Treachery of Images 19289 Surrealism Meret Oppenheim Obiect Le Deieuner en FourrureLuncheon in Fur 1936 Surrealism Frida Kahlo The Two Fridas 1939 Surrealism Alfred Stieglitz The Flatiron Building 1903 Pictorialism O Keeffe Radiator Building at Night 1927 American Modernism Charles Demuth My Egypt 1927 Precisionism Grant Wood American Gothic 1933 Regionalism Aaron Douglas Aspects of Negro Life From Slaverv Throudh Reconstruction 1934 Harlem Renaissance Dorothea Lange Migrant Mother 1936 Social Realism Edward Hopper Nighthawks 1942 American Realism Archibald Motley Nightlife 1943 Harlem Renaissance
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