HA 261, Hanson Unit 1 notes
HA 261, Hanson Unit 1 notes
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Jacques Louis David Oath of the Horatii 1785 Neoclassicism bold edged contrasted focused pointed directed w obvious items swords hands feet light emotional vs nonemotional commissioned by Louis 16 David s subject is the patriotic oath taking of the triplet Horatii brotherse who pledge to fight to the death for Rome against the triplet Curatii brothers of Alba in the 17th c BCE The subject is based on an ancient Roman historical account Sabia sister of the Curatii married medium the materials used to create a work of art impliedideal viewer the target audience for an artwork the viewer or viewers for whom the work was constructed style a distinctive or characteristic manner of expression manner in which an artist produces a work Neoclassicism refers to the style of Euro ad Am architecture and fine and decorative arts btwn the mid18th c and the mid 19th c inspired by archaeological discoveries i the Med and Near East and characterized by the imitation of Greek and Roman forms and motifs A reaction to Rococo opulence Neoclassical works are often linear symmetrical and even severe all applicable of Oath of the Horatii Antiquity belonging to the period or manner of ancient Greece or Rome Use specifically to refer to those aspects of classical art particularly the representation of the human figure in ancient sculpture when they ldealization representation of persons natural forms or scenes in a way that highlights their best features minimizes imperfect features or alters features to conform w is considered most perfect lconography refers to subject matter in works of art including characters animals plants themes stories events places objects and their symbolism and allegorical significance content meaning significance message or emotion that an artwork s formal elements convey composition describes the relationship btwn part to part and to whole composition is not an arbitrary scheme or organization but rather a dominant contributor to the expressive content of the painting pictorial space illusionary space that appears 3D picture plane the imaginary front plane of the picture space linear perspective create the illusion that there s a 3D space behind the surface of the painting Linear perspective is a defining feature of paintings and drawings in the Western tradition color establishes a general key and sets up a relationship of parts 0 hue name to the color 0 value relative degree of lightness or darkness 0 saturationintensity color s quality of brightness or dullness 0 temperature warm or cold modeling modulation of light and shade to create a sense of mass and volume linearity the reliance on line for the principal effect in a composition o painterly the reliance on color and the handling of the medium for the principal effect in a composition 0 illusionisticveristicacademic smooth surface emphasis on representation of naturalistic detail artist s hand is not visible image constructed by imitating objects in the world to create a reality effect c expressiveselfreferentialmodern rough surface emphasis on the material quality of the medium artist s hand is visible image constructed by departing from objects in the world to create expressive content themes power identity race history justice masculinity Rococo Official Royal Portraits Neoclassicism and the French Revolution 0 France I 15891792 House of Bourbon dynasty rules France I 177493 Ancient Regime Old Order crown clergy 3rd estate everyone else not recognized as Fr citizens political and social system I 177492 Louis XVI King of France amp Marie Antoinette Queen Consort of France I 1789 French Rev Storming of the Bastille on July 14 1789 Royal Portraiture large scale overlife size full scale forced to look up theatrical settings to dramatize drapery column solidaritylegitimacy I convention an established technique practice or device I Antoine Callet Louis XVI King of France 1779 Rococo 0 create volume solid unmoved gilden throne highest heels reserved for highest power second body spiritual emphasis of legs and musclarature o scepter w fleursdeIis lily finial o scepter w Main de Justice Hand of Justice finial o crown I propaganda ideas facts or allegations spread deliberately to support one cause or individual or to damage another I George Stuart Historical Figures Louis XVI 1979 or after 0 emphasizes his actuality lazy fat unattractive I Hyacinthe Rigaud workshop Portrait of Louis XIV after 1701 Rococo I Elisabeth VigeeLeBrun Portrait of Marie Antoinette 1778 Rococo o robe a pannier dress w wide hoop about the hips 0 she actually had to be trained to walk Iook pretty present herself at court Austrian fashion icon 0 pastel color drapery light and airy pink rose femininity associated ostrich feathers play on Austria to remind she s Austrian often a scapegoat 0 hair sculptures first of her kind gemstones faux hair 0 reproduced in prints cartoon 0 artist 40 images to her career I Elisabeth VigeeLeBrun Marie Antoinette en chemise dress 1783 o casual scandalous sun hat w ostrich feathers w rose wo corset one of her personal favoritets I Elisabeth VigeeLeBrun Marie Antoinette 1783 o formal presented more lavishly w rose I identity socially and historically constructed concept of the self that s determined through interactions w family peers organizations institution media and other connections in everyday life 0 History painting before the Fr Rev I David Oath of the Horatii 1785 Neoclassicism 10x13 symmetry divided space distinct foreground middleground and background linear in drapery hidden hand red most saturated o catches eye towards 3 brothers 0 foreshadowing bloody battle aftenNards nurse holding child s eyes open or shielding o from his future I sex malefemale biological characteristics I gender masculinityfemininity socially constructed I French Academy Ecole des BeauxArts School of Fine Arts official art school sponsored by the French monarchy I Salon annual or biennial juried exhibition sponsored by the French Academy David first noticed in the Salon I Hierarchy of Genres formal ranking followed by the Fr Academy 0 O O O O 0 French Rev I France narrative painting male body is the ideal of beauty portraiture genre painting scene from everyday life landscape animal painting still life 1789 French Rev storming of the Bastille on July 14 1789 1793 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette executed by guillotine in Paris 17934 Reign of Terror 11 months 30000 arrested 1700 guillotined tricolore 3 color French flag adopted in 1794 17991804 Napoleon first Consul of France 18041415 Napoleon Emperor of the French guillotine device used by the revolutionaries to execture the I David Lictors Bringing Home the Bodies of Brutus s Dead Sons 1789 10x13 Neoclassicism lictors police est first republic of Rome not Caesar Brutus Brutus ordered his two sons dead hiding in the shadow turned away stoic contemplating his decision Female figures huddled together wife and daughters red amp knitting basket scissors guillotine o relate to French Revolution o The Rise of Napoleon I not even French rose in power by military David Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass 1800 Neoclassicism military portrait commissioned by Sp leader not Napoleon about 20 copies 0 emphasis rise 0 sharp diagonals stretching his hand upward o dramatic shadow reminder he s a selfmade man flag stones 0 Charlemagne Bonaparte Hannibal refers to powerful leaders convention as est technique practice or device Equestrian statue of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius 2nd c CE Paul Delaroche Bonaparte Crossing the Alps 1850 Academic art JeanAugusteDominique lngres Napoleon on his Imperial Throne 1806 Neoclassicism 0 not really French not a king 0 not commissioned wo patron hung in Salon for his personal attention in 1806 o seated frontal scepter w reference to Charlemagne borrowing from ancient Roman history coin of Jupiter eagle wearing a wreath of gilden leaves victory Caesar times not idealized not symmetric stubble commission a work of art produced for a patron or buyer 0 speculation a work of art produced for sale wo a buyer I first learning question I classical antiquity monarchy gt republic Brutus in shadow of Roma statue reason amp order men emotionalism amp hysterics women clear distinction in genders red table gt Fr Revolution storming of Bastille has already occurred amp guillotine veiled ref to Marie Antoinette traitor o Neoclassicism in Fr cnt d history painting and the female nude 17981801 French Campaign in Egypt and Syria 17991804 Napoleon First Consul of France 18041415 Napoleon Emperor of the French 0 O O O o Romanticism 0 Napoleon was Corsican not French JeanAugusteDominique lngres Grande Odalisque 1814 Neoclassicism stereotypical Orient over life sized shallow space middleground turquoise Turkey Persia exotic East drapes towards nude background is dark to contrast nude complimentary colors juxtaposed against peacock feathers fan and drapes texture hidden hand serpentine textures galore ivory feathers fur satin incense burner turban wjeweled headband reclined in exotic textures pipe gt Orient figure perfect skin 0 anatomy extra vertebrae weird leg looks like no bones odalisque female slave in a harem harem the part of a Muslim dwellinghouse appropriated to the women constructed so as to secure the utmost seclusion and privacy collectively the female members of a Muslim family postcolonial theory examines the relationship btwn colonizers ie Euro Empires and the colonized ie Eastern or Oriental territories Orient in the context of 19th c France the Orient was a fantastic construction and a pastiche of cultural attributes The term Orient was used to refer to any geographic territory that was not Europe or America Orientalism the Western construction of the Orient as an exotic mysterious feminine passive and undeveloped region that was in need of Western institutions 0 Edward Said Palestinian American precursor AnneLouis Girodet The Sleep of Endymion 1791 Romanticism the right figure light cast on the figure takes up more space more body features shown feminine 0 against the limpness of the figure very questionable about the gender quite feminine and masculine look to contemporary dramatic events Cupid Eros god of desire Zephyr personification of the west wind 0 Diana as a moonbeam usually a huntress conventionally wasn t a human figure used to dramatize the scene Endymion mortal shepherd hallmarks of Romanticism o irrational unconscious of the world to not waking life subjective experience of nature dramatic compositions diagonal lines I sfumato Italian sfumare to tone down or to evaporate like smoke in painting or drawing the fine shading that produces soft imperceptible transitions Mona Lisa I Academie Fr term for the drawn study of the nude figure practice at an academy of art 3rd year 0 Romanticism end of the First Empire The Downfall of Napoleon I France 18041415 Napoleon Emperor of the French 18141524 Louis XVIII King of France Louis XVIII declares that the Salon of 181415 will project a message of stability 18141530 Restoration of House of Bourbon July 5 1819 wreck of the Fr naval ship the Meduse Medusa 1817 two survivors Alexandre Correard and Jean Baptiste Savigny coauthor an account of the shipwreck 182430 King Charles X House of Bourbon 1830 July Revolution July 28 for 3 days I Theodore Gericault Wounded Cavalryman Cuirassier Leaving Battle 1814 Romanticism over life size 12 framed tightly exceed the painting s composition heightens drama diagonals hill legs in contrast to curves hat horsetail small horizon line explosions in background red to heighten drama again light and shadow that alludes to the battle looser brushwork Cuirassier member of Napoleon s elite forces and brass chest plate blood along hairline overt daring but not too daring horse bloodshot eyes flared nose red highlights modern because he s dealing w a contemporary event undoing the traditional soldier convention David s Napoleon I Gericault The Raft of the Medusa 1819 Romanticism 16x23 4 ships towards Senegal slave trafficking from France for trading 500 on the ship raft is the wreckage of the Medusa lifeboat began dragging but cut off exposed for 15 days no foodwater suicides murders and Cannibalism values from the Rev are not upheld very charged o asymmetrical composition raft turning towards viewer two pyramids mast amp male figure stability against the waves compositional line from bottom figures to top figures man holding the Fr flag gt Gericault aligns himself w revolutionaries man holding that flag gt antislavery o Gericault isolates himself in his studio captain reconstructs the raft for him including truncated limbs dramatizes maximum desperation faint faint ship on horizon male nude figures too idealized not malnourished looking reverting back to Neoclassicism o foreshortening the treatment of an object or human body in a picture so as to produce an illusion of projection or extension in space I July Revolution 1789 Fr Revolution 1830 July Revolution July 28 for 3 days Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading the People 1830 Romanticism o pyramid 0 Lady Liberty holding the Fr flag Fr Revolutionequality o asymmetrical foreshortening dramatic color red white blue and yellow towards the flag and the lady and to combine figures together 0 Marianne is a symbol of democracy who stands for the Fr Republic and against the monarchy She s also a allegorical figure a figure that stands for an abstract idea or concept of liberty and reason I ex Statue of Liberty I drapery is idealized I upper body is not underarm hair I Winged Victory of Samothrace for inspiration Phrygian cap free slaves in Rome w tricolor cockade different clothing every classbackground middle classfrock coat and top hat factory workershirtsleeves and apron gavrocheblack beret worn by students and cartridge pouch cuirassier Fr soldier nightshirtworker rebel dragged from his home red flannel belt and smocktemporary worker Romanticisms 0 England I 1780s cptn of the Brit slave ship Zong orders the crew to throw sick slaves overboard in order to collect insurance for cargo lost at sea 1800 steam power improves mining and manufacturing 1807 slave trade abolished in Britain 1820 George N becomes king 1820 steam powers ships and railway locomotives 1830 William IV becomes king 1833 act for the emancipation of the slaves 1837 Victoria becomes queen 1838 Slavery is abolished in the Brit Empire 1840 Turner exhibits his painting at the Royal Academy one month before the World Antislavery convention in London I precursor to Romanticism A Gothic Nightmare 0 Henry Fuseli The Nightmare 1781 Romanticism o predates Romanticism a little 0 large scale multiversions o woman limp too overt exposed gt Fuseli Swissminister s fame ZurichgtEngland I tight clinging dress almost wet looking 0 mara demonic monster that would visit you at nightincubus seek out victims at night and have sex through their belly young woman virgin white dress horse possibly the demon s vehicle or a play on the word nightmare I eyes reflecting the moon or asleep 0 hallmarks I content c cloak image in darkness 0 asymmetrical I artist s interest in emotion belief that there s supernatural forces out there subjective angle of nature 0 Gothic fear and delight in terror I Picturesque and Sublime landscape painting 0 hierarchy of genres formal ranking followed by the French Academy as well as the British Royal Academy 0 narrative painting 0 portraiture 0 genre painting I everyday life topical includes humans 0 Spain 0 landscape 0 animal painting 0 still life 0 John Constable The Hay Wain 1821 Romanticism o picturesque landscape cart hay wain few human figures dog led through the eyes on the left w the curve long horizon line natural light and shadow specific topographic feature 0 modern actual place the topographic Suffolk England elevating landscape painting make small oil sketches en plein aire meant to be enjoyable there s no work depicted in the image connected to the Industrial Revolution I Industrial Rev the process of change from an agrarian handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture This process began in England in the 18th c and from there spread to other parts of the world in 2005 British voters chose this painting as the nation s second fav image 0 JMW Turner Slave Ship 1840 Romanticism o textured intense concentrations of color become immersed in the scene 0 hallmark expansive depiction of scene and can expand not tranquil not balanced scaling 0 modern looser brushwork invoking an atmosphere 0 17001811 House of Bourbon rules Spain 17881808 Carlos IV is king 180712 Napoleon installs his brother Joseph I Bonaparte on the throne of Spain 1808 Spanish freedom fighters in Madrid Madrilenos rebel against French forces 180814 War of Independence Spain defeats France 181433 Ferdinand VII is king Francisco de Goya Family of Charles IV 180001 Romanticism Goya The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters 17981803 Romanticism o aquatint print from the series Los Caprichos The Caprices 0 mass producing for profit everyday images to get to the masses o aquatint printmaking technique that produces tonal effects by using acid to eat into the printing plate creating sunken areas which hold the ink I Goya Execution of the Madrilenos on the Third of May 1814 Romanticism c at night to heighten the drama French soldiers o the man 0 small holes referencing to Jesus on the cross 0 Germany I Caspar David Friedrich Monk by the Sea 180910 Romanticism o wintertime very cold and severe sublime terror incited when in the vastness of nature 0 Ruckenfigur black figure a figure that s seen from behind and invites the viewer to experience the scene vicariously from hisher perspective 0 contemplating his own death I Friedrich Abbey amidst Oak Trees 180910 Romanticism o postdeath his funeral I Wes Anderson s film Grand Budapest Hotel features a set w a landscape backdrop by Friedrich 0 France 0 1830 July Rev or Rev of 1830 3 days 0 183048 King LouisPhilippe citizen king House of Orleans July Monarchy I increased unemployment increased gap btwn the rich and the poor increased elitism and return to monarchical privileges 0 183043 La Caricature weekly illustrated newspaper published 0 1834 Rue Transnonian Massacre 5 April 1834 20 workers killed 0 Realism o Honore Daumier Masks of 1831 in La Caricature 1831 and The Past the Present and the Future in La Caricature in 1834 Realism o caricature representations often portraits that exaggerate certain features or characteristics to humorous or ludicrous effect I the French king poire pear is slang for moron o lithograph planographic printing process in which a design is deposited on the stone or plate w a greasy substance which will accept ink I orig used to print sheet music 0 Daumier Rue Transnonian in Monthly Lithograph Association 1834 Realism I 20 citizens killed in response to police king s officers riot against the rioters I black amp white to dramatize night clothing lived there and the troops took him out of bed to shoot him right figure cropped foreshortened woman in background girl crushed under reclining figure I perspective belowlooking at figure part of the scene I printing plate destroyed 0 Social commentary and Rural Life 0 France I 183048 King LouisPhillipe I 1848 French Rev of 1848 King LouisPhilippe abdicates and flees c 15000 people dead in the streets of Paris 12000 exiled to Algeria I 1848 LouisNapoleon Bonaparte first pres of the Fr Republic I 1851 Pres LouisNapoleon Bonaparte Napoleon III I Gustave Courbet The Stone Breakers 1850 Realism missing 1945 o antiSalon Socialist 0 young man and old man working together for the most menial job out away from Paris stones used for roads repetitive tasks clothing tattered and peasantry old man right profile wheat cushing under his knee shallow composition against shadowed embankment natural colors some blue in sky and socks brightest colors in the old man s vest anonymous faces clothing material concrete towards the viewers 0 thick application of oil in bottom right corner o draw attention to the canvas draws attention to Courbet s ow work with the canvas 0 hallmarks things seen in everyday life statement of class born into a job from youth to death 0 Ornans in the FrancheComte region is known for its chalky cliffs 0 population of 3000 I JeanFrancoise Millet The Gleaners 1857 Realism o gleaners low level women allowed to come to the field after the harvest to pick up stray pieces 0 each level of labor man on horse proprietor women treated by monumentalizing their form volumize the height light and shadow to cast a golden light pyramidal forms to knit foreground and background to plant them in the ground soft pastels golden haze in the background 0 most detailing in the straw foreground tried labeling it as a religious painting more kindly received I Courbet A Burial at Ornans 185051 10x12 Realism 0 left to right uncle s funeral o pallbearers priest beetles in red kneeling figure gravedigger right side relatives of the disease women no focal point all people are of equal standing not following the rules creating a shallow composition 0 grave front and center who is the imaged viewer figuratively standing in the grave all equal in death Napoleon human skull on the edge in death we re forgotten 0 voter rights only men who own property can now vote 0 avantgarde French advanced guard a military term used to describe a type of art that is ahead of its time such art often challenges traditio through formal experimentation the embrace of new subjects and the expression of an ideology o palette knife thick to replicate and draw attention to its physicality I Rosa Bonheur Playing in the Nivernais 1849 Realism o well received particularly because of her display of favorable labor in animals harmony in work 0 Academic painting The More Things Change the more they stay the same 0 1851 President LouisNapoleon Bonaparte Napoleon lll Emperor 0 185170 Second Empire I Napoleon III was the nephew and heir of Napoleon o Franz Xavier Winterhalter The Empress Eugenie Surrounded by her Ladies in Waiting 1855 Academic art wife of Napoleon lll he s unmarried when comes to power she s elevated above everyone else and bathed in light 0 half Spanish half Scottish olive skin not produced in piece everyone can afford this type of clothing perfectly manicured setting hallmarks of academic art 0 hidden brushwork neatly finished seam film like backdrop repurposing churning out the same thing wo innovating flowers depicting fertility she s prego o Courbet Young Ladies on the Banks of the Seine Summer 1856 Realism cheeky joke young ladies prostitutes Fr for horizontal slang for prostitute wearing her undenNear paisley and fringed blanket very expensive signifies marriage but instead thrown out on this prostitute circular composition rowboat man s hat but he s missing lying figure eyes slightly open and acknowledging that she s a prostitute viewer may not want to see US 0 O Romanticism and Westward Expansion 16221924 American Indian Wars intermittent 1860 Lincoln elected Pres 186165 American Civil War 0 military conflict btwn the Union north and Confederacy south over issues of salvery and the constitutional rights of the states vs the role of centralized government 1862 Homestead Act land granted to farmers who settle land in the West 1863 Emancipation Proclamation Albert Bierstadt The Rocky Mountains Lander s Peak 1863 6x10 Romanticism o slightly above perspective 0 Native American activities 0 opening towards the viewer no drama more tranquil middle groud lake adds tranquility and adds to demonstrate his mirroring ability and waterfall zig zags to lead throug the composition 0 atmospheric perspective distant objects are shown in less detail w less intense colors and often w a bluer cast 0 propaganda for Westward Expansion including photographers artists architects towards East manufacturing 0 Lander went to Rocky Mts in Wyoming killed in combat and named after mountain in painting only veiled ref to Civil War 0 hallmarks of Am Romanticsm 0 large scale panaramic 0 interest in exploring of land 0 sublime but no threatening like Turner s Slave Ship to the viewer 0 symmetry depiction of man in harmony o more controlled brushwork tighter 0 like Constable s The Hay Wain 1822 it cna be argued that what Bierstadt includes in his landscape is just as significant as what he does not 0 some art historias have argued that Bierstadt s idealized landscape might express the artist s belief in manifest destiny 0 coined in 1845 the phrase refers to the belief ie ideology that Americans had a Divine Right to expand their territorial boundaries and farm the land even if this expansion meant the displacement of indigenous peoples Realism photography and the civil war 1839 photography is invented simultaneously in France and England 1860 Lincoln president 188064 Lincoln sits for Mathew Brady s studio 30 times 186165 over 7000 images of the Am Civil War are made 186566 Alexander Gardner published Gardner s Photographic Sketch Book of the War including 44 images by Timothy O Sullivan I Mathew Brady President Abraham Lincoln Washington DC 1865 Realism o seated o torso taking up most of the frame 0 focused on the head and facial features 0 turned head as though engaged in conversation to engage the viewer depicted w askew features tie and hairgt more approachable helps craft his image to win his Presidency cartedevisite French visiting card term for a smallformat photography size of a baseball card mounted on cardstock these portrait photographs were popularly exchanged and collected from about 1853 1870s 0 produced for the masses same image used on the 5 bill I Timothy O Sullivan A Harvest of Death Gettysburg Pennsylvania July 1863 from Gardner s Photographic Sketch Book of the War 186566 highest number of casualties 51000 people killed bodies dragged around not exactly what it was immediatly after that shoeless pockets rifled through taken for other soldiers bodies bloated from the sun buttons popped off horizontal composition to go to the vastness and the bodies go on for miles draw the viewer s eyes towards the back towards the haze producing the image was laborious follow behind and develop image in wagon 1 month lag btwn producing and distributing for the publishers store front Gardner doesn t publish until after the war people wanted images during the war to serve as a visual reminder for the deaths title more evocative I Homer The War of the Union 1862 A Bayonet Charge 1862 print circulated in newspapers photographers unable to capture action due to technology 0 Neoclassical sculpture I Edmonia Lewis Forever Free 1867 Neoclassicism contrapposto a position in which the weight rests on one leg in the round marble woman artist trained in Oberlin trained in Rome and later in plaster for men to make in marble emancipation proclamation produced in remembrance for abolitionist Garrison ancient Greece and Rome for form not a narrative from that time but using the idea of that form shackles around foot and wrist female figure kneeling Lewis is part Native American part AfricanAmerican o criticized for looking back to Neoclassicist styles 0 should have developed her own style 0 Lewis representation of an active and triumphant male vs a pious and submissive female reaffirms the negative stereotypes about women s role in the 19th c o REalism Painting in the Civil War I Winslow Homer Veteran in a New Field 1865 Realism practitioner of Realism democratic form of art accessible to everyone the topography of place veteran holding a sife divided into 3 bands of colors light blue sky yellow wheat and greenish ground not a new field hallmarks choice of subject matter frank labor handling of paint looser brushwork for the landscape and tighter for man focal point is the man I follows his arms I across the arm I the man was a soldier coat and canteen in the corner I taking up his vocations after the war I anonymous and a standin for the viewer former cradle sife contemporary with time I single blade is outdated I relating to the grim reaper death lamentation of Lincoln s assassination 0 000 O I Harper s Weekly proUnion cartoon of Jefferson Davis as the grim reaper I Homer Croquet Scene 1866 Realism series of 5 paintings on display in Chicago croquet is at its height in America after high popularity in Europe shallow compostition depth slight diagonal mostly dark colors fashion up to date pettycoat raised skirt looked to instruction illustrations gameplay man reaching down because of the girl s inability to reach down sexual tension 0 Realism Portraiture after the civil war I Thomas Eakins The Gross Clinic 1875 8x6 12 ft Realism trained in Philadelphia took part in class for Dr Gross o pioneered the surgery for preserving limbs reproduced in pocket books for saving limbs the procedure patient s hip shown anesthesiologist dipped cloth in chloroform woman shielding her face relative of the patient possible self portrait light and shadow to dramatize the doctor is shown in most light most detail students in background most direct borrowed from Rembrandt The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp 1632 Dutch Baroque 0 group portrait of surgeon s guild I more engaged o corpse former prisoner believed all artists to know anatomy to observe and learn about it from science classes produced for Philadelphia Exhibition and later rejected but later able to display in the Army Pavilion 0 2nd empire Paris 0 France Louis Napoleon Bonaparte 1st president of the Fr REpublic o 1851 Pres Bonapartegt Napoleon Ill 0 185170 Second Empire I in 1853 napoleon lll asked the Fr administrator GeorgesEugene Haussmann to oversee an ambitious urban planning project to modernize Paris The project now referred to as Haussmannization transformed Paris into a modern monopolis I Charles Marville Rue Hautefeuille 1865 propaganda for the government to convince residents that their renovations are necessary there was no closed sewer system no light no sidewalks narrow roads new renovations facades broken up by windows broader sidewalks and roads gas lighting signage rapid growth and population Industrial Rev previous housing was unsafe and unsanitary worried about future revolutions easier to manuever about to clear up disturbances o no well received for everyone I Baudelaire 0 brought symmetry to the city 00000 I newcomers from the country gt ability to become part of the middle class more money discrentaries department stores mini cities a place to be seen modernity knockoff clothesproducts 0 Leisure fashion I Edouard Manet Music in the Tuileries Gardens 1862 Realism semipublic weekend listeing to free concert middle class members Gardens semipublic expanded as part of Haussmanization there was a dress code not always open no narrative no political meaning no hero subject matter from everyday life the crowd motion and animation no central subject or resting spot natural color palette and some butter cream yellows light blues peachs very small painting 76 x 118cm elements 0 not traditional using dimiutation overlapping figures obscure faces cropping men the girl and the right side all deliberate in response to photography o repitition of black hats and black tree trunks knitted together that every man had to wear a hat was considered middle class and allowed in the park 0 repitition of pairs two women in butter coats and reflected in women behind chairs faced away 0 applications of paint facture very thin in the tree foliages I the veil middle feminitize painting used to obscure attention from men used to protect their health from the dust I man dauphing his hat blurring and using anonymity attention to social customs that are markers of class the content is only on the social classes 0 his own selfportrait and of Baudelaire o Manet far left cropped somewhat flaneur o Baudelaire blurry and amongst the crowd flaneur relates to his views of modernity 0 fashion 0 copying from fashion plate 0 front in profile w full skirt and sack coat cage crinoline I unable to make out the female figure 0 aneur o engaged observer 0 modernity artist could be curious not copy the old masters like a child like a drunkard and bumping into new people ee ng fashion 0 photography 0 using his friend s photograph of he and his wife to put into canvas blurried faces 0 tableau vivant silent immobile arrangement of one or more customed performers 0 Leisure Nakedness and Moderity in Paris I Manet Victorine Meurent c1862 Realism 0 she was the model for many of Manet s paintings I Manet Le dejeuner sur l herbe Luncheon on the Grass 1863 Realism o criss cross diagonals clothes and men French students his brother and brotherinlaw 0 female treatment not idealized nakednot nude she s not perfect using black for shadow first mistaken for smudge 0000 O working against tradition o no narrative o the woman in background is out of scale 0 not following perspectival rules facture 0 using white paint to create volume with basket inspua ons o Titian The Pastoral Concert 1509 It Ren o Raimondi Judgment of Paris after Raphael 1510 Italian Ren o rejecting all the rules yet copying the work of the masters submitted to the Salon of 1863 but rejected because of the high number of rejections that yearapprox 23s of the works Napoleon lll created the Salon des Refuses as an alternative Seward Johnson Dejeuner Deja Vu 1994 bronze painted Grounds for Scultpure in Trenton NJ 0 The Female nude High class courtesan or low class prostitute I Manet Olympia 1863 Realism immediatlly know she s a prostitue with that title unknown class intended viewer hetereo white man but uncertain of the class playing on social tensions w broader roads prostitution is more visible nearly life sized like a cardboard cutout corpse couldn t acknowledge that she was indeed a prostitute she is nakednot nude not idealized looks like her feet are dirty w the shadowing animalistic hand unable to reconcile her nakedness avant garde 0 direct gaze at the viewer meant to frighten objects 0 hibiscus gift from client cashmere shawl gift for wife from husband but gift choker bracelet that belonged to Manet s mom cat symbol of promiscuity black servant holding flowers gift an abundance but ref to genitals Salon de 1863 rejected but at the Salon de Refuses Salon de 1865 was accepted inspWa on o Titian Venus of Urbino 1538 It Ren I nude flawless so it s ok I reponses to Olympia cartoons coal worker black lines o Alexandre Cabanel Birth of Venus 1863 Academic I foil to Olympia I purchased by Napoleon III for his private collection I just waking up I highly idealized long hair kelp o hierarchy of genres formal rnaking followed by the Fr Acadmey I narrative painting female nude is the ideal of beauty portraiture genre painting landscape animal painting still life 0 prostitution o totally legal 0 part of brothels or had cards to pass out on the streets 0 regulated by government 0 different classes of prostitutes Henri FantinLatour Edouard Manet 1867 Realism 0 still wanted to be in the Salon accepted and a joke in the Academy to have his presence there 0 Portrait photography Nadar o Nadar Portrait of Charles Baudelaire 185658 Realism I has studio takes celebrity photos starts as a caricaturists I light and shadow deliberate that bifercates him partial view of him I comment on the literary figure a man of mystery feeling intoxicated with slight blur relating back to being a part of the crowd o Daumier Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art 1862 Realism I censorship no longer caricaturist so attention to parodies I Nadar created the first aerial view of Paris owns his own hot air balloon joke 0 Unkonwn Facade of Nadar s Studio at 35 Boulevard des Capucines Paris c1860 3 questions to the discussion board on Bb that demonstrate understanding of the debate topics 0 due Tues 8am 0 ex I In Napoleon on his Throne 1806 Ingres depicts Napoleon w an asymmetrical face Does his treatment make his painting a more or less compelling form of proBonaparte propaganda than David s Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass 1800 Why France 0 18701940 Third Republic o 1874 First Impressionist exhibition at Nadar s photography studio 0 1874 Louis Leroy coins the term Impressionist I the artists now known as the Impressionists held eight 8 exhibitions btwn 1874 and 1886 This group of 56 artists called themselves the Anonymous Society of Painters Sculptors and Printmakers Each artist had hisher own style of Impressionism 0 Early Impressionism I Claude Monet On the Bank of the Seine Bennecourt 1868 Impressionism o implied viewer standing on the same bank small scaled 0 short brick lick diagonals of paint in grass but thiner in the water reflection 0 en plein air in the open air 0 invention of premixed paints in tubes new colors smaller colors portable easels women future wife w child financially struggling high key a term referring to bright colors free of gray black or dark hues colors that approximate the range of colors seen on a sunny day I hallmarks of impressionism 0 modern suburb leisure in domestic spots 0 freer application of paint 0 color rather line to define form 0 interested in an impression of a scene instead of representing 0 suggestion of sponeity I Impressionists Salon 0 democratic deliberately against the trad values of the Salo 0 works lined up individually instead of piled on I Monet Impression Sunrise 1872 Impressionism o looser brushwork they hover o offering meditive version of the scene o Impressionism smoke stacks in the background politicized I Monet Gare SaintLazare 1877 Impressionism Musee d Orsay Paris 3rd Impressionist exhibition POV standing on the tracks small scale horizontal but emphasizing vertically focused on lighting steam interactions modern choice of subject matter this train station was the most popularcongested station 0 architecture using metal and glass sizing color 0 blues using new hues looks spontaneous but actutally well played out and planned Gustave Caillebotte Paris Street Rainy Day 1877 Impressionism 7x9 0 upper classes and buys a lot of works from fellow Impressionists fisheyed view near his home gas lighting Haussmannization cropped at top cobblestreets w relflectioning water IifesizeoverIife size figures couples I their umbrella is about to strike the other umbrella tension 0 repetition I buildings I men all uniformed and same umbrella o aanonymity 00000 O cropping I the couple are rushing towards us the ground is falling out underneath them 0 fashion I identifying class walking dress amp veilrelating back to starburst shaped intersection upper class 0 WATCH CLEANING video I PierreAugust Renoir Dance at the Moulin de la Galette 1876 Impressionism lower classes young Bohemians en Montmartre works against tradition almost animated benches blocking viewer out of the space no focal pt feathery brushwork not favorable bought by Caillebotte moved to the Musee d Orsay o Impressionism Women I Berthe Morisot On the Balcony 1872 Impressionism closely aligned w Manet and married his brother personalized training from an artist wealthy Camille Corot over the Seine River gold dome military hospital today a military museum no Eiffel Tower yet shallow space bifurcated by the railing no ready access to her for the viewer able to paint on a balcony unable to go about the city alone mistaken for prostitute urn w flowers 0 same silhouette as women but reference to women appropriate painting subject matter brushwork o varied rhythmic lines treatment of the Seine River 0 umbrella red w white paint on top for visual blending I Morisot The Wetnurse 1880 Impressionism distorting everyday objects taking place in a Parisian backyard women had no access to models friends family no horizon line radically flat deliberate showing of the canvas abstraction deliberate departure from representing objects in the natural world 0 possibly looking to Madonna s nursing Jesus portraits I Edgar Degas Song of the Dog 1875 Impressionism pastel over monotype performer at a cafe outdoor leisure o imitating a dog looking grostesque o more about dressing up and performing than the actual performance 0 Degas is on the stage I Degas Woman with Field Glasses 18756 Impressionism oil on cardboard o impression hallmarks o artist s choice of setting 0 application of paint fleeting moment loose feathery 0 high key color palette pastels conveying light 0 informal composition 0 postimpressionisms o the Brit art critic Roger Fry coined the term PostImpressionism in 1910 This art historical category is used to group four very different artists Seurat Cezanne van Gogh Gauguin Unlike the Impressionists these artists worked mostly independent of one another They were active btwn the 1880s and the 19008 o timeline 0 urban leisure 18701940 3rd Republic 1910 critic Roger Fry 0 Georges Seurat A Sunday on La Grande Jatte1884 188486 PostImpressionism received education from the Academy mixed classes of people interested in fashion that specific moment and on a Sunday weekly holiday French soldiers w red pants walking shoulder to shoulder ex of postimpressionisms o careful arrangement of figures 0 solid form depictions 0 using geometry arrangement 0 women on far right w monkey maybe prostitute 0 man next to each her almost touching her with hand and the walking stick and parasol parasols connect other figures objects next to figures play w shapes by the sail boat pointing to a cloud which echoes the puff of smoke from far right man 0 anonymity pointillism painting technique whereby tones and hues are obtained by applying regular small touches of unmixed pigment on the canvas so that they combine optically Seurat himself preferred the term chromoluminarism conveying his dual interest in intensifying light effects and color effects seurat s technique also involve the systematic placement of complimentary colors adjacent to one another complementary colors are those opposite one term gender differences 0 womenrounded and clothing 0 menrigid figures bustle pads or frames worn at or below the waist in the back to distend the garment backward at the hips 0 changes the far right women s bustle to add and make it more contemporary landscape painting Paul Cezanne Mount SainteVictoire 1887 Postimpressionism 0 still life 0 0 en plein aire cohesive image focused on solidarity optical effects of being out in nature 0 vista a large view of the landscape 0 repoussoir a pictorial element that leads the eye back into illusionistic space 0 saturation intensity of his colors very deliberate product color and application to question academic tradition and appear both 3D and 2D no composition anchor evergreen repoussoir equally saturated colors not taking distance into his equation using yellows to highlight and bring the mountain fonNard and pulling towards the viewer Cezanne applies strokes of yellow alongside green to blend adjacent shapes These blocks of warm and cool colors suggest plots of land The technique of blending adjacent shapes using line or color to create spatial ambiguity is called passage 0 plots of land 0 used in different directions Cezanne outlines the contours of the mountains to give them the suggestion of a solid and unified architectonic structure Cezanne The Basket of Apples 1893 inconsistencies of perspective 0 unbalanced table wine bottle 0 effects of seeing things through time wind in landscape Vincent van Gogh Starry Night 1889 PostImpressionism cyprus anchor star and moon are pulsating I abstraction a deliberate departure from what one sees in the natural world cyprus I impasto thick application of pigment primitivism in Brittany and Tahiti O O 0 Paul Gauguin Vision of the Sermon Jacob Wrestling with the Angel 1888 PostImpressionism I Brittany spirituality 0 cropped priest on right 0 redbrown plane 2D composition and moving away from tradition with depiction of agel I hallmarks 0 flat passages of unmodulated color 0 line to convey emotions 0 flat space no foreground middleground or background nor horizon line 0 color unnaturalistic the red ground 0 uses tertiary colors I modern 0 abstraction 0 subject matter outside of Paris 0 Japanese woodblock prints 0 cropping o flattening space I Primitivism NOT an artistic movement describes a sensibility that was shared by some Western artists who looked to be uncivilized hallmarks I zones of bright color I pushing figures up close and monumentizing them Gauguin Are You Jealous 1892 PostImpressionism I are you jealous of my way of life front figure ancient Greek influence abstract passages of modulated color blocks repetition of color second figure 0 truncated figure sensual trying to imagine how the other culture is like denotes a work that you should learn for the exam Last name title of work date win 5 years style John Baldessari BrainCloud With Seascape and Palm Tree 2009 Philips Koninck A Panoramic Landscape Peter Paul Rubens Entombment 1612 Kehinde WiIey Alexander the GreatVariation 2005 post mod Delacroix Women of Algiers in their Apartment 1834 Romanticism Thomas Kinkade Coblestone Mill late 20th c Caspar David Friedrich Monk by the Sea 180910 Romanticism Rosa Bonheur Playing in the Nivernais 1849 Realism Unit 1 Jacques Louis David Oath of the Horatii 1785 Neoclassicism bold edged contrasted focused pointed directed w obvious items swords hands feet light emotional vs nonemotional Elisabeth Vig eLeBrun Portrait of Marie Antoinette 1778 Rococo David Lictors Bringing Home the Bodies of Brutus s Dead Sons 1789 10x13 Neoclassicism David Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass 1800 Neoclassicism JeanAugusteDominique Ingres Napoleon on his Imperial Throne 1806 Neoclassicism JeanAugusteDominique Ingres Grande Odalisdue 1814 Neoclassicism Girodet The Sleep of Endymion 1791 Romanticism Gericault The Raft of the Medusa 1819 Romanticism 16x23 Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading the Pe0ple 1830 Romanticism Henry Fuseli The Nightmare 1781 Romanticism John Constable The Hay Wain 1821 Romanticism JMW Turner Slave Ship 1840 Romanticism Goya The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters 17981803 Romanticism Goya Execution of the Madrilenos on the Third of May 1814 Romanticism Daumier Rue Transnonian in Monthly Lithograph Association 1834 Realism Gustave Courbet The Stone Breakers 1850 Realism missing 1945 JeanFrancoise Millet The Gleaners 1857 Realism Courbet A Burial at Ornans 185051 10x12 Realism Franz Xavier Winterhalter The Empress Eugenie Surrounded by her Ladies in Waiting 1855 Academic art Albert Bierstadt The Rocky Mountains Lander s Peak 1863 6x10 Romanticism Mathew Brady President Abraham Lincoln Washington DC 1865 Realism Edmonia Lewis Forever Free 1867 Neoclassicism Winslow Homer Veteran in a New Field 1865 Realism Thomas Eakins The Gross Clinic 1875 8x6 12 ft Realism Edouard Manet Music in the TuiIeries Gardens 1862 Realism Manet Olympia 1863 Realism Nadar Portrait of Charles Baudelaire 185658 Realism Caude Monet On the Bank of the Seine Bennecourt 1868 Impressionism Gustave Caillebotte Paris Street Rainy Day 1877 Impressionism 7x9 PierreAuguste Renoir Dance at the Moulin de la Galette 1876 Impressionism Berthe Morisot On the Balcony 1872 Impressionism Morisot The Wetnurse 1880 Impressionism Edgar Degas Song of the Dog 1875 Impressionism Georges Seurat A Sunday on La Grande Jatte1884 188486 PostImpressionism Paul Cezanne Mount SainteVictoire 1887 Postimpressionism Vincent van Gogh Starry Night 1889 PostImpressionism Paul Gauguin Vision of the Sermon Jacob Wrestling with the Angel 1888 PostImpressionism Gauguin Are You Jealous 1892 PostImpressionism
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