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Date Created: 01/13/15
ANTH 212 09052014 Omnivorousness Humans are primates Mammals we lactatenurse our babies Primates are omnivores most of themsome exemptions O O O Earliest primates were here about 50 MYA Cows are big and have big digestive systems because they eat grass and grass has to be digested many times in order to maximize the nutrients Cats are small and have smaller digestive systems because they are carnivores and eat meat and meat is very nutritious and doesn39t have to be digested as much Humans are right between cats and cows with our digestive system since we eat both plants and animals Primates require VITAMIN C often get from fresh fruits and veggies O Other mammals can use glucose to produce vitamin c and don39t have to produce it themselves 0 This is why primates tend to live in environments with 0 resources that are rich in vitamin C Primates have large complex brains relative to their body sizesaka they need more glucose to support neurological functions and don39t want to have to worry about the fact that all of their glucose is being used towards just producing vitamin C Dietary plasticity allows primates to live in many different environments Glucose is the primary source of fuel for the brain Human Evolutionary History Bipedalism came before the big brains At rst maybe we were vegetarian because we didn39t need as much energy but when we began walking on two feet we required more energy and began eating meat Dietary reconstruction DenUUon Isotopic analysis Artifacts and animal remains at archaeological sites Data from living people and animals Lucy Lived 34 MYA An australopithecine Biped All of our ancestors began in Africa Small brain and body size The size of her molars were drastically different in size than her smaller teeth up front Heavy bones in herjaw compared to modern human Hard to tell the difference between her molars and canines o Probably ate a lot of plantsbut just leaves 0 She had thick heavy bones which insinuates that she probably had thick heavy muscles There has been a downgrade of dentitionourjaws and teeth have gotten smaller Homo erectus 12 MYA Boy about 12 when he died 0 Larger body size and larger brain Would39ve been about 6 feet tall if he grew completely 0 Beginning of rock toolsso their brains must39ve developed more 0 Used to break apart sticks but also to break apart bones and get bone marrow super nutritious o Consuming meat o Is there a relationship between consuming meat and having a big brain 0 Yes because they need the glucose and calories 0 Brains are expensive tissue 0 Consuming meat is necessary to have a large brain 0 Gut also shrunk down 0 Modern human brain is roughly 1300CC o Chimpanzee brain is roughly 4OOCC Neandertals 60030KYA or thousand years ago 0 Restricted with the geographic range that they lived in 0 Found in Europe and Western Asia Russia area 0 Very cold environments 0 Associated with sophisticated stone tools 0 Requires a lot of skill and creativity 0 Big game hunters based on the tools they used 0 Eat mammoths and reindeer o Apex predators in their environment 0 They also used re 1700CC brain sized bigger than ours Very muscular and big boned but shorter than us 0 Modern Humans 150 KYA or thousand years ago 0 Found in Africa 0 They drew pictures of animals on cave walls 0 Hunting magic if they drew a picture of an animal with a spear through it then it would help them actually kill Represent things they ate a Horses 0 They made tools out of bones that they used 0 First time we saw fossils from ocean animals 0 Used bers to make cloth and baskets as well More sophisticated ways of obtaining and storing food 0 The Paleolithic Diet 0 Juhuansi people of Africa had this diet Were relatively healthy and this is where the Paleo diet came from 0 Why did we start cooking 0 quotCooking became a medium for transforming the item to the status of edible foodquot 0 De ning food 0 Folk taxonomies ways in which different cultures classify things 0 4 humors Yellow bile re Blood air Black bile earth Phlegm water 0 Legacy of the humoral system Consuming hot tea when you have a cold 0 Restore balance by consuming something hot 0 The fact that we call upper respiratory infections quotcoldsquot is a legacy of the humoral system 0 Dietary taboos and ritual purity of food 0 Islam 0 Halal permitted foods coffee pita hummus chicken goats seafood 0 Haram not permitted pork products and alcohol Judaism 0 Kosher permitted foods alcohol sh only with scales and ns chicken goats cows hummus and pita o Treif not permitted pork products hamburgers pizza seafood anything that crawls on ground no meat and milk in same meal hence why no pizza or hamburger Both are concerned with how animals are slaughtered have to use a knife to slaughter 0 There is a halal and kosher certi cation that is on food 0 Hindu castes social strati cation meets ritual purity 0 Indian caste system is actually currently illegal 0 Had to eat food that was produced of someone from your class or higher considered ritually impure Nutritional classi cations The food pyramid has changed to become my plate 0 notes in notebook Terminology in epidemiology Mortality rates death rates Infant mortality death rate for infants under 1 Health statistic that gives an idea of the health of a nation Morbidity rates illness rates for a speci c disease Incidence the number of people who become sick with a particular illness within any given period of time New cases of illness Prevalence the number of people who are sick at any given time with a particular disease New existing and reoccurring cases As incidence rises prevalence will also increase If people are dying from a particular disease they are no longer a part of the count of prevalence and therefore prevalence will drop Kind of misleading Endemic disease that is prevalent in a population but at a low level CONSTANT Epidemic community state etc Pandemic epidemics that are global 0 Ultimate explanations for genetic 0 Variation for a trait o Heritability Differential reproductive success 0 Selective pressures 0 Climate mammoths to elephants Disease to organisms Members of own social group which they are competing with 0 Example sickle cell anemia protects against malaria supposedly 0 Adaptability or Plasticity An organism39s capacity to responding exibly to changing environmental conditions 0 Examples thermoregulation our body being able to maintain a certain body temperature Vasodilation and vasoconstriction High altitude stress causes hypoxia 0 Adaptability l more RBC39s increased capillary volume and reduced hemoglobin quotstickinessquot Healing systems 0 Pluralism in biomedicine Pluralism is the fact that there may be a dominate culture and several types of sub cultures 0 For instance we have physicians prestigious and barbersurgeons not so prestigious l pluralism Medical pluralism in the US speci cally Chiropractics osteopathic medicine Healers o AfricanAmerican Spiritualist Healers 0 Born under a caul remnant of the amniotic sac that could be xed to the baby39s head 0 Birth order 7th son 0 Dreams and visions Healing 0 Healing and treatment in Western biomedicine Placebo effect and nocebos o Placebo you think it39ll help you so it does 0 Nocebo substance or treatment that you believe will make you sick treatment has nothing that will make you sick but you take it and it actually makes you sick 0 A curandera treating a patient for susto o Susto disorder that occurs a lot in the Americas Disease with fatigue and lethargy and life doesn39t have meaning soul is becoming disengaged from body similar to our depression 0 Curandera treat you by sweeping your soul back in your body 0 Indian ayurvedic medicine 0 Ayurvedic food spices and herbs have a strong potency and are used to treat people with diseases and disorders 0 Ethnopharmacology versus intellectual property rights the neem tree 0 Ethnopharmacology western biomedicine trying to understand how herbs and spices are used for medicinal reasons 0 Neem tree grows naturally in India and is used for treating illnesses and diseases 0 Companies want to patent the tree to make money off of it and quotstealquot the knowledge of indigenous people Psychoactive substances Betel nut type of tree that people chew on all day long mouth stains red mild stimulant like chewing tobacco Coca leaf tea what cocaine is derived from mild stimulant effect when tea is made or it is chewed less stimulating than caffeine Tobacco Ayahuasca and diame plant diame is very psychoactive can make you vomit take it ritually to interact with spirit world Chinese medicine Meridians and acupuncture Dine Navajo sings and sand paintings and medical syncretism Incorporating multiple traditions together is medical syncretism Traditional biomedicine Christian healing and Navajo healing 0 Will make sand paintingsis meant to be blown away and not preserved sign to Gods to help with healing The Num Tchai Will dance and chant for hours Funerary rituals Determined by beliefs about what happens when you die 0 Ex Mummies in Egypt used to make statues of people when they died because the soul needed somewhere to go soul also needed nourishment l temples were set up where priests would watch over and take care of quotsoulsquot Ex Tibetan sky burials don39t believe much happens after you die body no longer serves a purpose so might as well nourish other organisms leave people39s bodies out on mountain sides so that birds of prey come to feed on the body Ex The ZAKA in Israel in order to be resurrected you must have your whole body together in one place they go and search for body parts of people who were blown up and try to match them all up Ex Shinto Funeral in Japan lasts several days would make transplantation very difficult because of the length of Shinto funerals you need the organs immediately after person dies Religion and food Sylvester Graham and the Popular Health Movement 0 He created graham crackers originally started as a health food 0 How is the health food movement like a religion 0 Sacred texts o Conversation salvation o Proselytizing l trying to get other people to convert to your religion 0 Ritual purity mana things you aren39t supposed to touch or eat things that have mana have a lot of POWER and taboo o Sinning o Rabbis and ministers quottemplesquot Phytochemicals and bioavailability Chemicals present in plant foods phytochemicals 0 Some are bene cial and some are harmful Body39s ability to extract nutrients from food bioavailability the transition to food production hunting and gathering foraging small vs large scale foraging groups p33 0 rst kinds of foraging groups were large scale beginnings of social inequality or hierarchy because some people would receive more food than others horticulture growing plants different from agriculture since it doesn39t use any sophisticated technology 0 mainly used to support JUST your family produce things that are very starchy pastoralists harvest blood from animals 0 get dairy products from animals 0 areas where you can39t have much agriculture because of the climate 0 food acquisition and gender hunter and gatherer groups women have higher status than men 0 horticulture women do bulk of gardening and harvesting men are in control of the distribution pastoralism women milk but don39t have much status families use cattle as source of wealth men with more cattle have more wealth which allow them to purchase brides 0 terms 0 patrilineal trace kinship through the male line only father 0 matrilineal trace kinship through female line only mother 0 dowry when a girl is getting married and her family gives a gift to the grooms family this woman is a burden and is worthless so we will give you HER and more valuables bride price and bridewealth groom must give her family a gift in order to get her especially if bride has good skills or anything valuable patriarchal a system or culture when men have more power than women egalitarian all people are equal and deserve equal rights 0 how did it alter our genes 0 Most human populations are lactose intolerant o How did actase persistence evolve NOT being lactose intolerant If you are a pastoralist and it is better to have animals then to plant plants you need to be able to digest lactose Vitamin D affects calcium absorption in bones Lactose digestion and skin color are correlated Vitamin D and rickets rickets make child birth very difficult if not impossible Lactase persistence is common in areas where light skin color is also common Europe northern Africa and Middle East Lighter skin people are able to produce more vitamin D from sunlight Is there a mismatch between our current lifestyle and the environment in which we evolved in 0 BMI connected to health o Foodlnc Human Reproduction Women39s Reproduction o The hypothalamicpituitaryovarian axis controls the ovarian cycle located in the brain secrete hormones that the ovaries respond to o Ovarian cycle is also known as the menstrual cycle 0 Pituitary secretes FSH hormone which stimulates the ovarian follicles to develop 0 Positive feedback loop as more estrogen is produced from the follicles more FSH is produced in return 0 LH triggers ovulation 0 BC pills and how they work 0 Early pregnancy and menstruation o The endometrium inner lining of the uterus Myometrium muscular lining of uterus responsible for contractions during labor and delivery 0 The embryo implants in the endometrium 10 days after fertilization 0 Egg starts developing and dividing as it moves through the fallopian tubes 0 After fertilization the embryo produces hCG which causes the corpus uteum structure left over from follicle to continue to produce progesterone o Progesterone maintains the uterine lining aka why she won39t shed it and have her period 0 hCG is the hormone that pregnancy tests test for in urine Ectopic pregnancies when the fertilized egg implants in the fallopian tubes 0 Anthropology of Women39s Reproduction How does it vary around the world 0 Biological anthropology of women39s reproduction Comparing contemporary foragers to industrialized populations n Later menarche 12 vs 16 n Earlier menopause n Longer interbirth intervals longer times in between birth tend to nurse their babies for longer period of time tends to shut down ovulation a Lower hormone levels BC is designed for women in Western countries a For women in other countries they have lower hormone levels to begin with I Would overwhelm their bodies since they are used to low levels of hormones Do progesterone levels explain international differences in breast cancer incidence a Our lifestyle re ects in our hormone levels 0 Overnutrition and low levels of physical activity Female genital cutting in other countries a Occurs because it is seen as pure and increases a women39s chances of getting married a Rite of passage to show that they can bear pain because they have to be able to bear pain during child birth Human Reproduction o Pelvic morphology large brains and smaller pelvic inlets Human babies are born face down 0 Related to walking upright Changes in pelvic morphology are due to bipedalism and giving birth to a large brained baby 0 Differences between men and women pelvises 0 Men have heart shaped and women have circular shape 0 Reproduction Continued Relaxin relaxes the ligaments joining the pelvic bones aids during child birth Acts on more than just pevic bones Can act on the feet and otherjoints in the body Male Reproduction Endocrine control of reproduction in both sexes o FSH stimulates Sertoli cells to produce sperm 0 LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone Feedback loop between brain and testes Evolutionary perspectives on male reproduction Male reproductive strategies competition outside or inside the female reproductive tract 0 Physically ghting with another male 0 Outproducing another mae39s sperm As seen in chimpanzees testes are almost the same size of their brains o Penis morphology Semen is very gel and thick leave a waxy plug behind in reproductive tract of female Blocks other males sperm from getting in there Copulatory plug gooey thick plug By changing the penis shape it can adapt to scoop or get around the copulatory plug left by another person Testicle size related to female promiscuity o Gorillas have a large body size but small testicles relative to their body size only one adult male per lots of children and females 0 Are females likely to mate with multiple males in the human race Relative to our body size male testicles aren39t super large We are in between Women are less promiscuious then female chimpanzees but we aren t as monogamous as gorillas Baculum a penis bone 0 Can give an instant erection 0 Make the most out of any mating opportunity 0 Gives a straight path for sperm to follow 0 Chimpanzees have one but humans do NOT Not sure why men don39t have it but interesting difference to note 0 Male fertility o Erectile dysfunction and medicalization o Penis is not a muscle erections are achieved vascularly by blood ow 0 Viagra was marketed to cure ED when it was originally created for hypertension 0 ED increases with age men who are obese and sedentary What causes male infertility O 0 Check motility of sperm how much ejaculate how much sperm etc when checking male fertility Isn39t a clear difference between men who are fertile and who are not fertile There are men who produce sperm who are also infertile Doesn39t seem to be a relationship between testosterone and sperm production Low Testosterone epidemic in US Men concerned about having low T lf low the idea is that they could have physical side effects could affect sex drive could lose masculinity etc There is variation between men and testosterone levels a What causes variation 0 Athletic competitions for players and observers Relationship between testosterone and libido Shift in men who are married l shift in reproductive strategies already mated and shifting towards investing in offspring Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and lactational amenorrhea 0 When a women doesn39t get her period because she is breastfeeding Also could mean she isn39t ovulating since she isn t having her period Usually LA is extended because breastfeeding costs around 500 calories a day Calorically stressed because of lactation tends to shut down reproductive system Begin ovulating within rst couple of months after birth and during breastfeeding 0 Not guaranteed for contraception Perspectives on breastfeeding 0 European attitudes Wet nurses women who breastfeeds babies would be hired by wealthy women El Became lower class to breast feed your own kid which is why wet nurses came about Wealthy were wellnourished and therefore could have more kids immediately after the one they just had 19th century America39s love affair with breastfeeding El El Healthy movement Many middle class women who were stay at home moms and breastfed since they had time to stay home and do so People would take portraits of people breastfeeding their babies 20th century Supplemental foods and infant formula El El El Breastfeeding was primitive Wanted to use the newest science to nourish your baby aka infant formula Women stopped breastfeeding again Nestle lnfant formula scandal Exported formula to developing countries including Africa 0 Didn39t have access to sanitation and are often poor using bad water and using diluted versions of formula 0 Many babies died as a result of using infant formula Would39ve been better and babies would39ve survived if they were breastfed Nestle was pro ting off of the death of the babies and were pushed out of developing world La Leche and social movements Encouraged women to breastfeed Encouraged women to be educated about breastfeeding Contemporary breastfeeding issues a Public indecency laws and activists n FLMA postpartum leave 12 weeks unpaid Family medical leave act a Women are coming back to work soon after they give birth 0 Have to use breast pumps 0 Cause workplace issues and storage issues a Ultimate explanations for aging Life history theory organisms have a nite supply of energy and lifespans available to them have to choose how to use that energy not consciously but have evolved as to how to do these things 0 Two evolutionary theories for aging o Antagonistic pleiotropy As referring to aging there are genes that are bene cial to things earlier in life like reproductive tness but as you get older and reach postreproductive life those genes are no longer bene cial genes that have different actions earlier in life than they do later in life good for you earlier in life and bad for you later in life 0 Example good to have high levels of progesterone early in life because it helps you get pregnant but having high levels of progesterone later in life can increase your risk for breast cancer Disposable soma quotdisposable bodyquot when you reach post reproductive life from the perspective of natural selection your body isn39t very useful so there is really no point in maintaining your body in postreproductive life this is an explanation for why things fall apart 0 The evolution of grandparents Menopause and grandmothering o Offspring that you have closer to your postreproductive period are less likely to survive and you are more likely to die Caloric restriction Reduces your exposure to free radicals Can reduce the effects of aging Aka you39ll look and feel younger for longer Okinawan cuisine and aging chimushinji Main staple of diet is sweet potatoes 0 Their sweet potatoes are purple Social cohesion how importantinvolved you are in your community 0 The more an older person is involved in their community and family the more likely they are to live longer and have healthier lives Infectious disease and the immune system Pathogens cause disease Bacteria viruses etc How infections spread Direct contact Vectorborne intermediate organisms such as mosquitoes 0 Indirect contact fomites o Inhalation o Ingeonn Types of pathogens 0 Viruses have DNA and can replicate not considered living organisms o Measles is caused by Morbillivirus and can be prevented by the MMR vaccine Recent measles outbreaks due to the fact that people don39t want to vaccinate their children Herd immunity issues 0 Mumps is caused by Rubulavirus O Prevented by MMR vaccine Rubella is caused by Rubella Prevented by the MMR vaccine Smallpox is caused by the Variola virus and has been eradicated by vaccines In North America people don39t even get vaccinated for it anymore because it has been eradicated There have been a number of Ebola outbreaks which is also a virus Bacteria have DNA and can replicate but are considered living organisms O Pertussis is caused by Bortedella pertussis and can be prevented by the TDAP vaccine whooping cough Tetanus diphtheria and pertussis vaccine TDAP Tetanus is caused by Clostridium tetani and can be prevented by TDAP vaccine Used to be called lockjaw because it causes your muscles to freeze up Get it by having a cut or scrape that bacteria get into Treponemal diseases are caused by Treponema Syphilis Yaws syphilis in other areas of the body U Get it from contaminated water These diseases show evidence of infection on bones only diseases that has shown this Many bacteria have developed antibiotic resistance MRSA especially a Multiple drug resistant staphylococcus aureus Tuberculosis as well is drug resistant These tend to proliferate in populations with poor people because they cannot afford antibiotics Eukaryotes worms fungi and protozoa have a nucleus and DNA are living 0 Giardia causes diarrheal disease 0 Plasmodium causes malaria o Infections with atworms Helminths are called helminthic infections Prion proteins misfolded proteins that are infectious and can spread to other areas disrupt their function 0 Can spread their misfolded shape to other areas of the body 0 Spongiform encephalopathies brain disease spongy like Holes in brain Whole regions that have died off Loss in mass of brain 0 CreutzfeldtJakob disease Causes severe change to behavior muscles facial expressions etc Mad cow disease BSE n Same disease just found in cows Found in New Guinea Similar to CreutzfeldtJakob disease Kuru is the same thing has Jakob disease just the native word for it The idea is that they get it from eating other people cannibalism a They cannibalize their loved ones when they die to honor them a They also cannibalize people that they don39t like 0 The immune system our defenses against pathogens 0 The innate immune system nonspeci c Generalized doesn39t ght against speci c pathogens Exists to keep our body generally protected Nonspeci c defenses In Tears n Saliva n Ear wax a Skin largest protective barrier n Cilia in throat and nose that function to sweep bacteria out The in ammatory response a Production of histamines chemicals that alert your body that there is an invader or injury 0 Causes vasodilation increases circulation to the area skin turns pink or red and is warm a Local vs systemic response 0 Local is if you get a cut or sprain ankle Systemic is if your entire body is responding such as hives and fever a Fever is it adaptive Increase in temperature 0 Back in the day if you had a fever people would try really hard to bring it down 0 Now they try to limit that unless your fever is dangerously high because it helps body to ght off infection o Inhibits bacteria growth 0 Increases selfmetabolic rate 0 The adaptive immune system speci c Body learns how to deal with it when exposed to speci c pathogen n Bcells create antibodies in response to antigens n Lock and key analogy 0 Antibodies match up to the antigens perfectly n Antibodies immunoglobulins lgA lgD lgE lgG lgM Tcells have antigen receptors that respond to antigens n Macrophages go around eating infected cells or pathogens 0 Bring them to Tcells n Tcells respond by producing memory cells 0 Help for future infections from that speci c an gen I Also produce cytotoxic Tcells Attack and kill body cells that have become infected with pathogen I Also produce helper tcells Secrete interleukins which enhance the response that is made by Bcells Ampli es the immune response MHC molecules bind to antigens inside infected cells and present them to Tcells D Major histocompatibility complex 0 Important to have tons of variation so your body can respond to several different an gens n Same thing has HCA human leukocyte antigen The Tshirt experiment u Had men wear tshirts for a week I Gave the shirts to women who sniffed the shirts and rated the attractiveness of the men based on that a When women rated man as attractive they were very different from men in terms of their MHC n Women are more likely to attract to men with different MHC then them so they can get ultimate variation in MHC when producing offspring Gives offspring a greater protection against parasites and pathogens 0 Ultimate perspectives on infectious disease 0 Infectious disease and food production 0 Increased population density and a lack of sanitation facilitated infectious disease transmission in early cultures 0 Example Catalhoyuk Turkey 0 Earliest town with lots of houses and little to no space in between houses 0 People got around town by walking on rooftops o No separation between waste water and drinking water 0 Very few ancient civilizations separated waste water from drinking water 0 Examples Indus Valley India and Ancient Rome Malnutrition caused by overreliance on one crop increased the risk of infectious disease 0 Animal domestication exposed early pastoralists to zoonoses or zoonotic disease 0 Diseases that jump from animals to humans 0 Pigs goats llamas etc Sickle cell is a genetic adaptation that prevents malaria o Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite which is transmitted by a mosquito vector 0 Slash and burn horticulture likely facilitated the growth of mosquitoes that carry malaria Standing water brought mosquitoes to the area and therefore brought malaria o Sickle cell gene probably became an adaptation and more prevalent when slash and burn agriculture began o G6PD De ciency is a genetic disorder that also matches closely with endemic malaria Genetic disorder like sickle cell anemia De ciency in the enzyme that prevents the buildup of hydrogen peroxide a potent oxidant Tends to cause RBC to burst Stops malaria infection in tracks because it prevents the spread of Plasmodium throughout the body Also have to watch your intake of oxidants such as drugs or fava beans that contain vicine By consuming vicine you are protected against malaria since it stops the spread Sleeping sickness seems to be a zoonotic disease that was transmitted from cows to humans via its vector the tsetse y 0 Cow pox which is similar to smallpox was transmitted to humans through direct transmission 0 The evolution of pathogens 0 How do they get past our immune systems 0 lmmune cells recognize and respond to pathogens using antigens epitopes o Pathogens can change their antigens by antigen drift HIV tends to undergo antigenic drift in individual people since the infection lasts so long Basically adapting so that it can get away from medicines and things that are trying to get away from it Antigenic drift might explain why some pathogens are able to cross species 0 Pathogens can share genetic material with each other resulting in antigenic shift Antigenic shift explains why some pathogens like H1N1 originated in several different places a Have different u strains from us that have affected several different species a Viruses from many species have been combined into a whole new kind of u Why are some infectious diseases more deadly than others 0 Pathogens can have several adaptive strategies Reproduce quickly and produce lots of toxins n Tend to be highly virulent have a big impact on the host and make you very sick I Might require a vector doesn39t have to just be an insect could also be water a Example Cholera Cholera bacterium tend to produce toxins which cause watery diarrhea Cholera is acquired from contaminated water Reproduce slowly and produce fewer toxins a Can get up and walk around and easily transmit it to other people a Less virulent n Transmissible by direct contact a Example HIV Reproduce quickly and produce lots of toxins a Can be highly virulent if there are caretakers involved a Can be transmitted by direct contact a Example Ebola Sit and wait strategy n Acquire from the environment a Can be highly virulent n Example TB Mycobacterium causes TB is surrounded by a capsule and can live in the soil for a long time 0 Infectious disease and allergies Allergies atopic diseases Hygiene hypothesis because we have great hygiene we don39t expose ourselves to pathogens as frequently and therefore when we do get exposed to pathogens our bodies have quotseverequot reactions 0 lgE 0 Would normally produce lgE in response to pathogens but we aren39t exposed to pathogens as frequently since we are so hygienic so we produce a lot of lgE in response to allergens Helminth hypothesis 0 Lack of exposure to parasiticworm diseases because of sanitation so we produce excess amounts of lgE 0 People who aren39t exposed to Helminths have higher levels of autoimmune diseases and allergies o The Human Microbiome Coexisting with microscopic creatures o Helminth therapy 0 Deliberately consuming Helminth larvae to help alleviate autoimmune and allergy symptoms Microbiome The bacteria we share our body with 0 There are many more bacterial cells in your body than there are human cells 0 Almost 10x as many microbe cells as human cells 0 Common types of bacteria in the human Microbiome o Actinobacteria Firmicutes Proteobacteria Bacterioides Different types of bacteria some dominate more than others depending on which part of the body you are focused on o The American Gut Project Studying which microbes are in the gut How it varies from person to person 0 What factors in uence the microbes that you have 0 They use high throughput sequencing o Robotic machinery that extracts DNA makes many copies of DNA so it is easier to analyze and determine sequence of entire DNA Can run it 247 0 Data requires lots of computing power Can only do this in this day in age since we have computers and technology and people to analyze the data 0 The Microbiome and human health 0 How is the Microbiome related to disease risk 0 Done research involving human twins and transplanting fecal samples from human twins into sterilized mice Found how obesity is related to Microbiome One twin was obese and one was not Transplanted the fecal matter of twins into sterile mice The obese twin fecal matter made the mice obese and the skinny twin fecal matter made it skinny When they took fecal matter from the skinny twin and gave it to a fat mouse the mouse got skinny 0000 O When you feed chickens antibiotics when they are not sick they get fat I Bacteria are able to release calories from your diet that you consume a Help break food down that you eat so that you can absorb them l but when you absorb calories that can cause you to gain weight a Link to early use of antibiotics and obesity 0 Relative prevalence of different types of bacteria changes with weight loss Bacteroidetes are associated with healthier people Firmicutes are associated with more obese people Change in bacteria levels with diet and weight 0 Pregnancy and the Microbiome Difference in women who are pregnant in rst trimester vs third trimester a First lots of rmicutes and bacteroidetes a Third lots of proteobacteria The idea is that women can extract more nutrients from food and therefore gain weight which is considered healthy during pregnancy 0 The composition of the Microbiome changes over the lifecycle Bacteroidetes healthier Firmicutes unhealthier The Microbiome and cancer 0 Might predispose you to cancer if you have certain bacteria 0 Treating Cdiff with fecal transplants o Destroys your gut and colon o Nosocomial infection get it from staying in the hospital 0 Very resistant to antibiotics and hard to treat 0 Putting fecal matter from one healthy person into that of someone with Cdiff o The Microbiome and human evolution 0 How does what you eat affect your Microbiome o What about probiotic supplements Restore bacteria Keep you quotregularquot 0 Dietary change can affect your Microbiome 0 New Orleans vs Texas 0 Don39t have to take supplements or transplants to change Microbiome just eat different foods 0 The amount of insoluble ber polysaccharides in your diet affects the composition of your Microbiome o Lowfat high ber diet high in rmicultes o Highfat and high sugar western diet high in moliculetes Humans have relatively small guts compared to herbivores o Cows vs humans 0 We have to rely on meat to get adequate nutrition since our digestive systems can39t digest plants as well as cows We have big brains so we need the nutrition Ancestors got their calories by hunting I Also ate lots of plant food Bene cial if you can get as much nutrition from plant foods as possible Humans have relied on Microbiome to maximize the extraction of nutrients from plant food n We have coevolved with bacteria that help us break down these plant nutrients n Stuff that is making us obese would39ve been bene cial for our ancestors El 0 Gastroanomie Industrial cuisine food produced on assembly line in factory Globalization 0 Movement of people ideas goods and money across borders Facilitated by 0 Technology 0 Global nancial interests 0 Trade organizations 0 Neoliberal economic policies 0 How do industrial food impacts indigenous peoples Globalization and food in Guatemala 0 Mayan heirloom squash 0 Not good for native Guatemalans because it takes away from their typical nutrients globalization 0 People are eating less tortillas and eating more coke and sweets Indigenous cultures and globalized food 0 Oglala Fried bread is typical food Was brought to this culture by globalization 0 Women in Fiji Many traditional people are heavy set Valued body type Means that you are a healthy and wellcared for person Thinner body type is recently more popular due to globalization o The new Green Revolution Biotechnology Genetically Modi ed Organisms o The Green Revolution and India Fertilizers pesticides and irrigation to increase crop yield 0 Why are people concerned about GMO People are worried about cutting and pasting genes from old organisms into new organisms human eye genes in potatoes snail genes in broccoli etc Created to keep pests away 0 You can make recombinant DNA by cutting DNA strands and pasting them into other organism This means you can transfer desirable genes from one organism to another to make transgenic organisms You can also put genes into bacteria and force them to make important proteins like growth hormones 0 BT corn is genetically modi ed with a gene from bacteria that kills caterpillars A way to get plants to produce their own pesticides o RoundUp Ready crops are resistant to RoundUp an herbicide Give corn this gene and you can spray everything with RoundUp and it won39t kill the corn but will kill all of the weeds Help to increase crop yield use less money etc o Bacteria are used to grow recombinant bovine growth hormone rBGH which is then injected into cows to get them to produce milk 0 Golden rice is transgenic rice modi ed with a gene from daffodils that produces betacarotene Golden rice was developed to alleviate vitamin A de ciency which causes blindness Means you aren39t getting enough betacarotene However to get enough betacarotene you39d need to consume 50 bowls of golden rice per day In many areas of Asia white rice is more prestigious than colored rice so people refuse to eat golden rice In reality many children who have vitamin A de ciency is because they live in poverty and area eating limited diets n De cient in more than just vitamin A Gastroanomie How are people responding to the food industry 0 Return to foraging and a reversal of type 2 diabetes among the Western Desert Aborigines 0 La Via Campesina The peasant lifestyle People from all over the world getting together to say we are all suffering lets get together and talk about how the global food industry negatively affects us 0 jose Bove and malbouffe in France Fast food malbouffe bad food junk food French hate it and consider it disgraceful to sit in your car and eat fast food jose Bove destroyed a Mcdonalds They hate fast food and see it attacking French cuisine eroding traditions etc o ltaly39s Slow Food Movement and the Ark of Taste Important to sit down and have meal with family Slow Food Movement idea that you should sit down and enjoy meal with friends and family n Focus on eating local foods Ark of Taste website to archiving traditional local foods from around the world 0 The people39s grocery in LA Food deserts there isn39t a grocery store within 1 miles for 0 Globalization Poverty and Infectious Disease 0 Emerging new infectious diseases entirely new Resurgent new outbreaks and new epidemics coming back again 0 Ex Ebola The origins of civilization and epidemics Animal domestication l zoonotic diseases 0 Animal populations may serve as reservoirs for zoonotic disease such as ebola Urbanization and increased population density increased direct contact and caused sanitation problems 0 Social hierarchies created unequal access to resources 0 O O Creates differential risk for diseases Lower social classes do more physical labor and are more likely to not have access to nutritious food Lower social classes are at higher risk for malnutrition and infectious disease Malnutrition causes infectious disease and infectious disease also can cause malnutrition Led to civilized pattern of disease Spread quickly in civilizations from person to person Spread between contact between different civilizations n Ex when Europe came to America 0 Civilization and the spread of infectious disease 0 Smallpox in the old world 0 O 0 Had gods that they prayed to If you got smallpox it was because you didn39t obey or do the right thing Endemic infection and people were exposed regularly o Smallpox in the new world 0 O A virgin soil epidemic immunologically naive and had no way of ghting these things off since they had never been exposed When Europeans came in contact with Native Americans Native Americans weren39t immunologically sophisticated and hadn39t been exposed to many zoonotic diseases Paved way for Europeans to invade the new world and kill off Native Americans Treponemal diseases Did Europeans bring it here or did Native Americans give it to Europeans Examine bones to see evidence of these diseases Syphilis and yaws Plantations and slavery O 0000 Insects and vectors were present in these areas Large populations of people high density Malnourished and had heavy workloads Created a pool of people who carried infectious diseases Lots of endemic diseases present Colonizing and infectious disease 0 Sleeping sickness o Cows to humans by tsetse y 0 Cause you to go into a coma and die 0 Many white colonists would die down there from this disease Colonialism39s health legacy o Managed to extract lots of resources from Africa and the Americas Would mine local resources and use local populations who are enslaved and not paid well El Would set up plantations for things such as cash crops cotton sugar etc Made tons of money and capital and took it to Europe Used cash to increase infrastructure in Europe 0 Build roads set up factories What caused the Industrial Revolution to happen Allowed for the decrease of infectious disease back in Europe Increased risk of disease in Africa and Americas but increased it in other places 0 Globalization and infectious disease 0 Some people are resistant to AIDS even when they carry HIV Mutation in a gene for a protein called CCR5 0 Did the Bubonic plague black death cause the high frequency of this gene Plague cottage everyone pretty much who lived within this cottage died from this HIV and bubonic plague both affect immune system Fleas spread bubonic plague along trade routes a People who survived bubonic plague must have had some genetic resistance to it n Also gave them resistance to HIV since they both affect immune system 0 Cholera Caused by contaminated drinking water Disruption in infrastructure due to natural disasters can cause water to become unsafe Bacteria is temperature sensitive and can grow in warm water a Global warming and climate issues Cholera toxin pulls salt into the small intestine n Osmosis then pulls water into the small intestine n Causing diarrhea Cholera and religious pilgrimages in India a People will go to different holy sites a Dip themselves in the water in these areas because it is considered holy n Similar to baptism a Not sanitized water sources and people get cholera Cholera epidemic after earthquake in Haiti n Destroyed infrastructure and caused cholera outbreak n Workers brought cholera with them to Haiti 0 Cystic brosis an ion channel disease and GENETIC Controls water balance on either side of membrane O O Want to maintain equilibrium and have same amounts of water on each side of membrane Mutation in protein that allows ions in and out of channel CFTR protein a Tends to cause a mucus buildup when there are two copies of this gene a Buildup of mucus throughout body but problematic in lungs n Harder to breathe Treated by loosening mucus turning child over and smacking the back of the person to loosen it a Genetic disease Since it affects the ow of the ions and the water on each side of membrane could be effective to prevent cholera Cholera and cystic brosis John Snow and London cholera outbreak Found that it was a water pump where people got their water that was contaminated Development Projects and Infectious Disease Neoliberal economic policies are important to globalization Free up economy from regulation May require things like not having a minimum wage not having import tariffs not subjecting businesses to other types of regulation World bank and international monetary fund are important to neoliberal policies 0 O 0 Loan out money to developing countries Money comes from countries like US and UK that are developed US and UK have control on how these banks lend out their money Often strings attached to the money that bene t the US and UK 0 Although intended to help people in the developing world development programs may contribute to poverty OOOOOOO Ground nuts Africa Synagol and the world bank Other countries began producing ground nuts The price fell since more ground nuts were on the market Had to borrow even more money to keep head above water Removed tariffs from imports Got them into an even deeper hole Spending more money on their debt than health and educann How can this cause an increased risk for disease Schistosomiasis caused by helminths and vector is a snail O O O 0 Get it from contaminated water with snails in it Tends to go into liver and also bladder Can cause massive swelling in scrotum in men Live in water and require water Onchocerciasis river blindness caused by helminths and vector is a black y 0 00000 Cause lesions in skin but also in the eyes Caused by being bit by the y Live in water and require water Can make you blind If not treated can cause economic troubles for this involved Imposed economic burden Can39t work if you are blind or sick o If you set up development projects like a dam you attract these organisms that carry these diseases 0 History of the Akosombo Dam Lake Volta in Ghana Hydroelectric dam for aluminum smelting Shareholders and operators Kaiser Aluminum US and Volta Aluminum Company US Supported by the ExportImport Bank US Valco39s investment was dependent on assurances from Ghana that Valco would be exempt from on taxes on trade and would receive an electricity discount Created nice habitats for snails and black les 0 Aswan Dam in Egypt and Cold War politics Built by Soviet Union Fight between Soviets and US about who would build this dam in Egypt 0 Globalization and the spread of Multipledrug resistant TB 0 Has capsule around it so it can hang around in the soil 0 TB endemic disease of the past and a current resurgent disease 0 Seeing a surge in infections 0 More people are getting it 0 Don39t spend a lot of money trying to cure it o MDRTB and XDRTB extremely drug resistant TB 0 Europe North America affected by XDRTB 0 TB is a disease of poverty 0 Affected by globalization 0 Poor people might not be able to keep up with the antibiotics because they cannot afford them 0 Mapping Poverty the multidimensional poverty index 0 Health 0 Education 0 Living standard 0 Comparing poverty and XDRTB 0 Correlations between lots of people with TB and poverty MDRTB in Russia39s Prisons 0 Have a lot of people that are incarcerated o Prisoners don t have sanitation and treat prisoners very poorly Stressors and the stress response 0 Role of neurological and endocrine factors 0 HypothalamicPituitaryAdrenal Axis HPA Stressors in the environment cause the hypothalamus to make corticotropinreleasing hormone CRH CRH stimulates pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH ACTH causes adrenal glands to produce cortisol epinephrine adrenaline and norepinephrine noradrenaline 0 Race and Health 0 Race and hypertension Racial disparities and hypertension have been found 0 African Americans have high rates of hypertension and have special genes that cause this 0 Slavery hypothesis Kidneys had to retain as much salt as they could because they sweat so much salt out in the hot environments Middle passage was a bottleneck aka a very selective process where only the strongest survived Consequences no point in treating it because it is a genetic problem that39s the way that it was handled don39t let them reproduce Bidil the rst drug only for Africanamericans I Was their evidence just because of chance or was it coincidental that it worked better for African americans How likely is a doctor39s assessment of a patient39s race to agree with selfreported race 0 Latino and native American are the ones that they are most likely to get wrong 0 Selfreported race may be variable out of 118000 live births in 2002 there were 600 different racial categories used 0 Race and blood pressure in Puerto Rico Race does not reliably match ancestry Can be mostly white genetically but have black ancestry etc Blood pressure is determined by an interaction between race and income in Puerto Rico Being classi ed as negro can make your blood pressure go up since the social status isn39t as high 0 Why are Africanamerican women more likely to have low birth weight babies 0 The stress of being Africanamerican can cause poor health outcomes 0 What is keeping latinos healthy 0 Lowest rates of all major killers o Latino paradox immigrant latinos who lived under stressful circumstances with lower incomes etc had lower rates of psychological and other illnesses 0 Family structure and level of social cohesion of latinos helps them stay healthy 0 Cultural thing not necessarily genetic 0 Food Insecurity Reduced availability of sufficient quantities of food Reduced availability of food of sufficient quality variety or desirability Reduced access to food due to transportation issues or food deserts Insecurity about money available for food Shifting priorities in family budget to handle food insecurity Reduced food intake Lack of education about basic nutrition and safe food handling 0 Food insecure women in the US are at higher risk of obesity than are men 0 Stress eves different metabolisms between men and women 0 Women with kids might be eating lower quality food than their kids Make sure kids eat fruits and vegetables and you eat ramen noodles The US Farm Bill 0 The 2014 Farm Bill drives down the de cit 0 Trying to get rid of the US debt 0 Cut funding to SNAP by 84 billion cutting about 90 a month per family Food stamp program 0 Reduces SNAP for LIHEAP recipients Cut food stamps for people who receive money to help pay electricity and heating bills for people in the winter Politicians didn39t like that people were double dipping o Cuts quotdirect paymentquot system for farmers 5 billion savings Gives farmers subsidies upfront for crops that might fail Have to apply for federal assistance now if they lose crops instead of just receiving it anyways 0 Includes disaster insurance for losses to farmers Give them money in this sensebut doesn39t match the 5 billion dollar cut made in direct payment Maybe only use 2 billion The 2014 Farm Bill supports farmers o Subsidizes farmers who earn up to 900000 0 Requires farmers to practice land conservation for subsidies o Subsidizes corn and sushi rice 0 Increased farmer39s market funding by 20 million and provides grants to local farmers The 2014 Farm Bill supports nutrition and sustainable agriculture 0 lncreases research funding 7x almost 1 billion 0 lncreases funding for organic crops 0 Changes to meat labeling where it comes from o Added funding for food banks 250 million and nutritious food purchases through SNAP 225 million How are Hoosiers affected by the new Farm Bill 0 Food banks have exceeded their 2013 distribution total 0 People in this state are being negatively impacted by it o More people are using food banks instead of SNAP How is lndiana legislation affecting the food insecure 0 Policy that cuts off food stamps for people in order to ennoble them 0 Being on food stamps makes you dependent on the federal government 0 Will give you more pride if you can get food on your own Localization 0 May involve acculturation Process by which people are exposed to a new culture take in some of that new culture McDonalds taught the Chinese the ne art of lining up 0 May involve local interpretations of food Kaitenzushi in Japan involve little or no interaction with other people What popularized sushi in Japan were these restaurants that served sushi on a conveyer belt and had the prices People grabbed a plate and paid Don39t have to talk to anyone or any staff Modernization to eating experience in restaurant In US eating sushi is locally interpreted as a market of sophistication status and race 0 Whereas in Japan it was more of a fastfood type thing 0 May involve creolization Korean tacos with kimchi and Vietnamese banh mi are creolized foods Taco is a Mexican food but is made with Korean ingredients creolized Banh mi is creolization of French food with Vietnamese food use the french bread to make a sandwich 0 May involve indigenization KFC in Korea shows how a global brand can become indigenized kids dress up like Colonel Sanders McDonalds in China is indigenized where old people hang out Nashi cation is indigenization in Russia 0 quotmaking something that is global oursquot 0 May involve aspects of personal identity like gender race and social class 0 Mental Health and Illness o The DSMV Catalog of diseases that occur in the US and other countries 0 Anorexia 0 Effects of anorexia organs need body fat to function maintain constant body temperature may not get enough nutrients can cause infertility Cross cultural look at anorexia 0 Resistance to cultural norms that expect women to be beautiful and submissive to men to have large breasts and a certain level of body fat 0 Some areas value an overweight body type Live in areas where it is hard to get those extra calories so it shows that you are wealthy and can get that o ADHD o Seen more in boys than girls 0 Culturally mediated maybe not so much rooted in disease 0 Expectation that children should sit down and be quiet when they aren39t prepared to do that Bipolar disorder and creativity 0 Extreme depression and extreme mania episodes 0 More common than we would think o Handled best with medication 0 People who show high levels of creativity might be bipolar Direct relationship Schizophrenia o Catatonia ex Palau Bodies are frozen and they are immobile They don39t talk and seem like they aren39t there Body seems like it shuts down 0 People see things and hear things that aren39t happening in reality 0 Represents the extreme of a continuum Some people have bene ts from having schizophrenia who are in the middle of the spectrum not the extreme cases Religious leaders who can connect more spiritually because of their high imaginations but don39t take it so far that they have crazy delusions Heritability Genes or environment Heritability is the proportion of variation in a trait that is due to genetic variation o It is a number 0 V trait V genetic V environment Don39t need to know this If you have a 0 environment heritability If you have a 1 genetic heritability If you have a 05 mix of both Tells you nothing about what genes are involved 0 Not a measure of genetic determination of a trait o Heritability39s limitations 0 Numbers of ngers and toes in a population is xed 0 O O 0 Pretty much everyone has ve ngers and toes Heritability is 0 because there is no variation if everyone has the same amount of ngers and toes Does this mean the numbers of digits has no genetic determination NO Heritability is greater than 0 in some places where polydactyly is common more than 5 ngers and toes Greater than 0 because there is some variation 0 Mouse embryos normal diet and cholesterol deprived O O O O O Waited until mice were born and examined how many digits they had Normal population had ve digits on paws like normal Cholesterol deprived had fewer or more than ve digits Diet that mom had when pregnant affected the number of digits the mice had Heritability of number of digits would be low in this population Heritability studies in humans 0 O 0 Twin studies monozygotic identical or dizygotic fraternal twins MZ share all genetic info and DZ share some genetic info 50 Compare concordance of M2 and DZ twins compare their genetic information Compare MZ twins raised together vs MZ twins raised apart Helps to see if environment has strong affect on genes More common version 0 Genes interact with stressful life events in depression risk 0 People with SS type had lowest risk for depression o If extremely stressful childhood risk for depression was much higher than other people 0 SS people were very sensitive to how their environment was 0 LL people were more buffered to environment and weren39t super affected by changes in their environment Marijuana use interacts with genes in the risk for schizophrenia o If they smoke marijuana and have this certain genetic variation they are at a much higher risk of developing schizophrenia 0 Very sensitive to cannabis use in terms of their risk of schizophrenia Depression prevalence differs by country 0 Darker red higher risk of depression Schizophrenia prevalence differs by country 0 Darker red higher risk of schizophrenia 0 Almost exact opposite of depression map 0 Food Stamped Movie 1 in 3 children today are overweight First generation ever to projected to live shorter lives than their parents 1 in 8 Americans live below the poverty line and qualify for food stamps Food stamps began as something people would buy to get food at a discounted cost 0 In 1977 people below poverty line were given food stamps without required purchase Food industry has targeted kids Most junk food has dropped in price while produce has increased dramatically 1 per person per meal is the food stamp budget 75 a week is the max a family can receive 4050 a week is what most receive Over 40 of recipients are white people SAD standard American diet Farm Bill largely to blame for why produce is so expensive and why processed food is so cheap Commodity crops corn cotton wheat soybeans and rice 0 Government has payments set up for commodity crops 0 High fructose corn syrup and hydrogenated oil are subsidized by government which makes them a lot cheaper than produce 0 Farmers that make produce don39t receive any subsidies which is why they are a lot more expensive 0 Subsidy program is promoting the foods that are really bad for people People go to food banks towards the ends of months because they run out of food stamp money and have to use the food banks to get through the rest of the month Food banks try to keep things relatively healthy 0 Have increased their fresh produce 0 Now half of the food they distribute is fresh produce Not a good marketing campaign for food stamps some people don39t realize they qualify Job of food banks is to market the food stamp program There is also a lack of access to grocery stores and produce 0 This is why places like People39s Grocery have come about 0 Help to keep the money in the community 0 Create jobs and give access to produce Electronic bene ts transfer EBT credit card for food stamps Now being an acceptable payment method in farmer39s markets Schools buy low sugar items that are already highly marketed reduced sugar apple jacks Also make replica chipotle burritos or panda express noodle bowls to appeal to the kids but make it healthier Their diet was low on calories they thought that they would be losing weight if they continued with that diet They were also shy of the 5 servings of fruits or vegetables daily
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