trait theory PSY 0160 - 1030
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Arielle Reiner on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 0160 - 1030 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Cynthia Lausberg, Kimberly Olsen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
trait theory 10222015 Consistent patterns in the way individuals behave Traits function to 0 Describe taxonomy o Predict 0 Explain 0 Not all trait theorists are concerned with this Situations in which behavior changes Traits o How you are 0 Consistent State 0 How you are feeling 0 Changes 0 Activities 0 What you are doing 0 Roles o What are you supposed to be doing 0 Who is watching you Gordon Allport 18971967 Humanistic view 0 People are always in a state of becoming who they are going to be Emphasis on individual s unique thoughts and behaviors Thought the best way to study traits was to study each individual and their own set of traits and behaviors Proposed that traits are neuropsychic structures 0 Invisible to the eye but they exist in the nervous system 0 We know they exist when we observe consistencies in the individual s behavior 0 Traits can initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive to the environment and expressive behavior Traits are common or personal 0 Common traits are used to classify people on a particular dimension 0 Personal traits are what make us unique individuals like a ngerprint Urged other trait theorists to focus on the individual but most thought it was too cumbersome to try to spend time with each individual to learn their uniqueness Can be studies by nomothetic or idiographic methods preferred idiographic The same traits can be found in every person but at different strengths Recognized the importance of the situation Traits explain consistency o Consistent aspects of our personality 0 Situation explains variability because it exhibits different traits upon different situations Cardinal traits o Pervasive and dominant in the individual 0 Master motives What your life goal is o Ruling passions Very true and engrained and dominant in us that they govern how we approach things in the world Central traits 0 Important but control less of one s behavior than cardinal traits 0 Typical descriptors Secondary traits 0 Less important and conspicuous 0 Preferences 0 Not as often called into play Personality development 0 Concept of the quotselfquot What is particularly ours What belongs to the individual 0 Functional autonomy What motivates and in uences us Takes over for peripheral motives Important in explaining one s behavior and not an underlying psychological con ict or something like that Based on our present interests and conscious processes Peripheral motives when we are young because we depend on other people since we have to have our needs met by someone else since we are incapable of taking care of ourselves tension reduction Eg if hoarding money is functionally autonomous to a person it does not mean that the individual has had a traumatic experience but that they like money and choose to focus interests in this area Adult life a Shift toward self strivings Legacy 0 Valued contributions to personality and trait theory 0 Theory lacks explanation of traits and where they come from Inability to gure it out in his time not technologically advanced enough 0 Research concerns No clear traitsituation link No support for claim of hereditary in uence Over reliance on idiographic methods Raymond Cattell 19051998 0 Factor analysis method 0 Used for a variety of statistical elds 0 He introduced it to personality psychology and trait theory 0 Surface traits o On the surface o Behavioral tendencies Source traits 0 Internal psychological structures that are the underlying causes of intercorrelations of surface traits 0 Rise to surface traits 0 English contains many trait terms nearly 5 of all our words but are there really so many traits Aggressive Bashful Con dent Dependable Energetic FooHsh Greedy Honest Intelligent Jolly Kind Lazy Mean Nice Obedient Proud Quiet Romantic SenQUve Trustworthy Understanding OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO o Vain o Welcoming o Zealous A few source traits can create what seem to be many different surface traits A factor analysis of surface traits can reveal their underlying source of traits Factor analysis 0 A statistical tool for summarizing the ways in which a large number of variables in terms of our class variables are traits are correlated 0 Premier tool used by trait theorists to identify the structures of personality 0 Step 1 collect surface trait ratings from many people 0 Step 2 calculate correlations among those ratings items 0 Step 3 extract factors from the correlation matrix What seems to go together 0 Step 4 calculate factor loadings Loading of 6 items on 2 factors 0 Step 5 review the loadings and name the factors Loadings of 34 are usually considered signi cant
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