trait theory part 3
trait theory part 3 PSY 0160 - 1030
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Arielle Reiner on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 0160 - 1030 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Cynthia Lausberg, Kimberly Olsen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
trait theory 10222015 Consistent patterns in the way individuals behave Traits function to 0 Describe taxonomy o Predict 0 Explain 0 Not all trait theorists are concerned with this Situations in which behavior changes Traits o How you are 0 Consistent State 0 How you are feeling 0 Changes 0 Activities 0 What you are doing 0 Roles o What are you supposed to be doing 0 Who is watching you Gordon Allport 18971967 Humanistic view 0 People are always in a state of becoming who they are going to be Emphasis on individual s unique thoughts and behaviors Thought the best way to study traits was to study each individual and their own set of traits and behaviors Proposed that traits are neuropsychic structures 0 Invisible to the eye but they exist in the nervous system 0 We know they exist when we observe consistencies in the individual s behavior 0 Traits can initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive to the environment and expressive behavior Traits are common or personal 0 Common traits are used to classify people on a particular dimension 0 Personal traits are what make us unique individuals like a ngerprint Urged other trait theorists to focus on the individual but most thought it was too cumbersome to try to spend time with each individual to learn their uniqueness Can be studies by nomothetic or idiographic methods preferred idiographic The same traits can be found in every person but at different strengths Recognized the importance of the situation Traits explain consistency o Consistent aspects of our personality 0 Situation explains variability because it exhibits different traits upon different situations Cardinal traits o Pervasive and dominant in the individual 0 Master motives What your life goal is o Ruling passions Very true and engrained and dominant in us that they govern how we approach things in the world Central traits 0 Important but control less of one s behavior than cardinal traits 0 Typical descriptors Secondary traits 0 Less important and conspicuous 0 Preferences 0 Not as often called into play Personality development 0 Concept of the quotselfquot What is particularly ours What belongs to the individual 0 Functional autonomy What motivates and in uences us Takes over for peripheral motives Important in explaining one s behavior and not an underlying psychological con ict or something like that Based on our present interests and conscious processes Peripheral motives when we are young because we depend on other people since we have to have our needs met by someone else since we are incapable of taking care of ourselves tension reduction Eg if hoarding money is functionally autonomous to a person it does not mean that the individual has had a traumatic experience but that they like money and choose to focus interests in this area Adult life a Shift toward self strivings Legacy 0 Valued contributions to personality and trait theory 0 Theory lacks explanation of traits and where they come from Inability to gure it out in his time not technologically advanced enough 0 Research concerns No clear traitsituation link No support for claim of hereditary in uence Over reliance on idiographic methods Raymond Cattell 19051998 0 Factor analysis method 0 Used for a variety of statistical elds 0 He introduced it to personality psychology and trait theory 0 Surface traits o On the surface o Behavioral tendencies Source traits 0 Internal psychological structures that are the underlying causes of intercorrelations of surface traits 0 Rise to surface traits 0 English contains many trait terms nearly 5 of all our words but are there really so many traits Aggressive Bashful Con dent Dependable Energetic FooHsh Greedy Honest Intelligent Jolly Kind Lazy Mean Nice Obedient Proud Quiet Romantic SenQUve Trustworthy Understanding OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO o Vain o Welcoming o Zealous A few source traits can create what seem to be many different surface traits A factor analysis of surface traits can reveal their underlying source of traits Factor analysis 0 A statistical tool for summarizing the ways in which a large number of variables in terms of our class variables are traits are correlated 0 Premier tool used by trait theorists to identify the structures of personality 0 Step 1 collect surface trait ratings from many people 0 Step 2 calculate correlations among those ratings items 0 Step 3 extract factors from the correlation matrix What seems to go together 0 Step 4 calculate factor loadings Loading of 6 items on 2 factors 0 Step 5 review the loadings and name the factors Loadings of 34 are usually considered signi cant Trait Theory Part 2 10272015 Trait theory cont Primarily used to describe people Task is challenging to identify the number of terms used Factor Analysis 1 Collect surface trait ratings from many people 2 Calculate correlations among those ratings items 3 Extract factors from the correlation matrix 4 Calculate factor loadings 5 Review the loadings and name the factors IReduces the multiple re ections of personality to a smaller set of traits it takes a large number of surface traits and narrows them down into source traits IProvides a basis for arguing that some traits matter more than others IHelps in developing assessment devices Cattell 3 Categories of Source Traits Ability Traits skills that allow the individual to function effectively Temperament Traits Traits involved in emotional life Dynamic Traits Traits involved in motivational life 16 PF Test personality factor 0 Self report may not be accurate 0 People tend to be open about describing themselves 0 Used for police screenings couple s counseling clinical counseling management development personal selection and career counseling Cattell s legacy 0 Trait theory solidly based 0 Foundation based on systematic research efforts 0 16PF continues to be widely used in applied settings I work exerts little impact in contemporary personality science 0 16 factor approach is not parsimonious simple short 0 based his theory on measurement which is risky Hans Eysenck 19161997 I Took factor analytic method further 0 3 factor model I emphasized biological foundation of personality I secondary factor analysis 0 used to identify a simple set of factors that are independent not correlated with each other 0 creates independent factors because factors might be too general and overlap 0 he called them superfactors I extraversion U organizes lower level traits such as sociability activity liveliness and excitability I sociable lively active assertive sensation seeking trait levels 0 all related in a way so they can be put together to make a superfactor I record habitual response level and specific response level I neuroticism U emotional stability vs instability I organizes traits such as anxious depressed shy and moody I anxious depressed guilt feelings low self esteem tense irrational shy moods emotional trait levels I psychoticism I abnormal qualities including aggressiveness lack of empathy interpersonal coldness antisocial behavioral tendencies D aggressive cold egocentric impersonal impulsive creative tough minded antisocial unempathetic people can be divided into types on the basis of 2 general personality dimensions introversionextroversion O emotional stabilityinstability O introvertunstable moody anxious rigid unsociable quiet pessimistic reserved sober melancholic instabilityextroversion touchy restless aggressive active excitable impulsive changeable optimistic choleric stableextrovert sociable outgoing talkative responsive easygoing lively carefree leadership sanguine stableintrovert passive careful thoughtful peaceful controlled reliable calm even tempered phlegmatic Eysenck developed simple self report items designed to tap each of the factors 0 Included lie scale items yesno response format 0 Do you sometimes laugh at dirty jokes 0 Did you always do as you were told as a child Objective measures 0 The lemon drop test Introverts and extraverts differ in amount of saliva produced Suggests a biological basis to individual differences Introverts are believed to produce more saliva because their arousal levels are higher which make them shy away from interactions Individual differences in introversionextraversion U Introverts more cortical arousal 0 Too much arousal pull away and avoid it D Extroverts less cortical arousal Twin studies suggest heredity accounts for some differences in extraversion Psychopathology O Neurotic symptoms biology environment 0 Majority of neurotic patients high neuroticism and low extraversion scores 0 Criminals and antisocial people high neuroticism extraversion and psychoticism 5 factor model the big 5 Evidence based approach focused on individual differences Costa and McCrea 1992 Individual differences 0 How do people differ from each other 0 Is there a set of of basic human individual differences Research evidence 0 Factor analysis of 3 types of data I Trait terms in the natural language I Cross cultural research I Relation of trait questionnaires to other questionnaires OCEAN O Openness to experience 0 Conscientiousness O Extraversion O Agreeableness O Neuroticism Cross cultural research 0 Are the big 5 universal Yes 0 Methodological issue translation I DiBlas and Forzi 1999 replicated in Italian I DeRaad and Peabody 2005 cross lingually recurrent NEO personality inventory 0 NEOPIR personality inventory revised Many NEOs Measures 5 factors and 6 facets Good reliability and validity Agrees With other big 5 instruments 0 Correlates With Eysenck s inventories and Cattell s 16 factors 0 O O 0 Integration of theories Eysenck s extroversion and neuroticism are virtually identical to extraversion and neuroticism dimensions of the big 5 Eysenck s psychoticism corresponds to combination of low c and low agreeableness NEOPIR relates meaningfully With Qsort The Big 5 Continued 10292015 Costa and McCrea The Big 5 are more than descriptors Each factor is a universal structure Everyone has each psychological structure in varying amounts Psychological structures causally in uence psychological development Factors have a biological basis Differences linked to the big 5 determined by genetic in uences on neural structure and brain chemistry The 5 traits are not in uenced by the environment 0 Strongest nature position possible Self concept 0 Self schemas 0 Personal myths External in uences 0 Cultural norms 0 Life events Situations Characteristic adaptations o Culturally conditioned phenomena 0 Personal strivings attitudes 0 Objective biography 0 Emotional reactions 0 Midcareer shifts behavior Problematic issues How to link personality structures to personality processes 0 Details are to be claimed by other theorists Claim that traits are not affected by social factors o Sociocultural changes over time increased peoples reported levels of anxiety 0 Extraversion increased over time in groups 0 Five factor theory claims everyone has all 5 factors Growth and development longitudinal research 0 Evidence of stability of personality over long periods of time 0 Signi cant correlations among repeated measures 0 Change evident despite stability 0 Greater stability in adulthood than in childhood Traits o Openness Higher in younger adults Lower in older adults 0 Conscientiousness Lower in younger adults Higher in older adults 0 Extraversion Higher in younger adults Lower in older adults Agreeableness a Lower in younger adults a Higher in older adults Neuroticism a Higher in younger adults a Lower in older adults 0 What accounts for differences across the lifespan Personality change Cohort effects The 6 factor model Big 5 model had been consensus since the 19805 Suggested 6th factor honestyhumility 0 Individual differences in the tendency to be truthful and sincere vs cunning and disloyal are a reliable 6th factor 0 Validated across 7 languages 0 Not yet incorporated into theory or research Trait theory evaluation Database excellent Systematic Cattell yes Eysenck sort of Costa and McCrea not really Testable yes Comprehensive yes and no Applications yes for predictions no for clinical usefulness
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