Radio Unit - COMM 1301
Radio Unit - COMM 1301 COMM 1301
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Date Created: 01/14/15
Radio Trends 11415 950 PM Corporate consolidation means fewer owners Technological convergence means smaller share of advertising dollars to legacy media Great renaissance means less total advertising Public radio to private property Radio craze 19061917 and early 19205 Public interest programming by many small stations Early democratic use of airways by armatures Manufactured radio sets 0 Market saturated Sold advertisers access 0 Distributed content Big corporations used federal government and regulations to gain market control 0 Through nationalization US navy and FRC o The Great Depression Big business insiders 0 Capture legislatures and regulators Private radio spectrum for commercial radio Public sector ruled out Established firms use their market power to force competitors out of an industry and block new competitors from entering Key turning points 1919 GE wont sell vacuum tubes and alternators to American Marconi 1923 ATampT wont lease phone lines to radio group network 193335 AP limits radio newscasts 1935 RCA freezes FM development 1935 for profit industry defeats Wagner Hatfield Amendment to set aside radio spectrum 2000 NAB and NPR to to curtail LPFM licensing Democracy threatened Oligopoly gt oligarchy Hegemony Force ltgt Consent Market power 0 Own media oligopolies Media ownership 0 Dominant ideology Dominant ideology 0 Public acceptance andor public Inaction Demobilize publicmake you dislike government 0 Political power Political power 0 Lawpolicemilitary Golden Age of commercial radio 193040 0 Second national communication medium magazine 1 0 First broadcast medium 0 Radio originated 0 Genre model drama and comedy programming Still used in TV today Variety shows Live drama Live music a In house bands big bands crooners Recorded music Comedy shows Serials Soap operas Quizgame shows Newscommentary Alltalkcallin Handful of stations 0 Live music daily 0 Evening programs 15minutes 0 Most had single sponsor 0 19305 Amos n Addy most popular comedy Created idea of serial show Stereotyped black people as shiftless and stupid First TV show with entirely black cast Canceled in 1953 0000 Radio News 0 Created models for newsgathering and electo journalism Who benefits 0 Sell audiences to advertisers 0 Product is the audience 0 Deliver or sell consumers to sponsors o Bait for consumer 0 Most radio programs were Produced and controlled by sponsors a Except news and public affairs Used single sponsor Sponsor preference gt audience preference Because they have control Radio networks and TV 0 First time when established oligopoly corporations in one media radio industry create a second media industry TV 0 1930 invention stage 0 1948 entrepreneurial stage 0 1953 mass marketing 0 1988 maturity stage 0 0 Radio corps take over 0 Same oligopoly firms in radio and TV 0 Single sponsorship of commercial radio 0 Same program segments and format 0 Live shows 0 Sense of real time immediacy 0 Especially in broadcast news and sports 0 Continuing characters 0 Identification and attachment Broadcast news becomes 0 Dominant national medium 0 Radio 192648 0 TV 1953 ate 80 CH 4 11415 950 PM Advertisers switch to TV 0 Radio adapted to survive 0 Change content to compete Lost advertisers but gain in audience size To compete with TV for audience Alliance with music recording industry especially rock and roll National radio network programming In 1980 growth of TALK RADIO OOOOO Rise of Top 40 radio 0 Format radio for niche markets 0 Todd Storz 1949 music rotation 0 Gordon McLendon Top 40 formula 0 Formula driven radio 0 Created program log and day parts 0 End of single sponsorship Many advertisers short spot adsquot 0 Management controls programming Rise of FM 0 Expansion of FM in mid 1960s 0 Allowed room for experimenting Many independent owners Many independent music labels Experimental stations Progressive rock General classic rock Hard edged political folk music Albumoriented rock AOR Radio audience 19201960 vs 19802010 Listeners today unlike radio 0 Secondary or background medium 0 Peak listening times during drive time rather than prime time 0 Family oriented variety shows compared to targeted audience programs 0 Independent stations replaced by nation wide formula formats 0 Moving away from localism Shift in political spectrum conservative bias Radio Adaptations 0 Technology to compete Transistor radios Walkman 0 Bell Labs 1947 0 TI 1953 0 Sony 1957 Switch to FM technology in 19705 0 Higher quality HIFi high fidelity 20005 0 Internet radio 0 Satellite radio 0 Podcasting 0 HD radio Military radio 0 Largest share on spectrum Between 197090 0 FM audience grew 34 0 AM audience decreased 14 Hour listening 0 Peak 7AM 0 Mini peak 12 PM 0 Drive time 5PM Five trends 0 Tech convergence means smaller advertising share to legacy media 0 Great recession 0 Less total advertising revenue for all media so leg media forced to change content and business models shake outquot 0 Corporate consolidations means MampAs and bankruptcies fewer and fewer owners Oligopoly market power increased since 1996 0 Market power gt Ideological power Radio Audience Demo 0 2002 0 Time spent 93 hr week 0 Lowest listenership 65 years 0 Highest listenership 3344 0 Average 20wk 1864 0 2012 0 Time spent 70 hrswk 0 Lowest 1218 yrs Radio Advertising 0 Compromise 8 of media advertising 0 Industry ad Ownership from diversity to oligopoly 0 Telecommunications Act of 1996 lifted ownership restrictions from 777 to 202020 0 Clear channel Cumulus and CB 0 Dominate 50 largest markets 0 Own over 10 of all radio stations 0 Control about 12 radio industry 174 billion revenue 0 1500 radio stations Most widely distributed industry Non profit radio 0 Public Broadcasting Act 1967 o Corporation for public broadcasting CPB 0 Both NPR 34 m and PBS o More diverse format 0 Appeal to audience segment 0 Not profitable enough to attract advertisers More diverse news agenda 0 Unlike commercial news 0 Those who fund media control content 0 1994 Republican gains control of congress Cut federal grants More corporate sponsorship Less investigate coverage 0 Houston 0 KUHF 887 FM NPR o KPFT 901 FM Pacifica Network Radio 0 KTSU 900 TSU radio 0 Student run Rice University sold Alternative points of view 0 1948 Pacifica Network radio stations became pacifist left wing radical niche Low power stations 10 watt licensed 194878 LPFM 10100 watts 750 stations 0 All talk stations 0 Christians and social conservative 19905 0 Funded by evangelical churches and centimillionaires Micro power pirate radio 0 Satellite radio and podcasting Internet radio 2010 0 Mobile apps 0 Steaming websites Digital Tech more stations fewer owners 0 Satellite radio 0 XM and Sirius merged 2008 Sirius XM radio o Accessible through satellite radios mobile devices and cars with satellite band 0 HD radio 0 Enables multicasting by AM and FM broadcasters and provides program data 0 Internet radio 0 Broadcast radio stations now have an online and HD radio prescience 0 Online only radio stations like Pandora growing 0 Podcasting and portable listening Popular way to listen to radio style programs on computer or portable music device Payola manipulating playlist to manufacture sales fads celebrities and popularity 0 Record promoters paying deejays to play particular records Rampant in 19505 0 2007 four of the largest broadcasting companies agreed to pay 125 million to se 11415 950 PM Radio textbook 11415 951 PM Early Technology and the Development of Radio 0 Radio was not a mass medium until the 19205 Telegraph 1840 precursor to radio technology 0 Cons Complicated language code Unable to transmit human voice Ships could not contact the rest of the world 0 Samuel Morse 0 Electrical impulses from a transmitter through a cable to a reception point 0 Morse code Series of dots and dashes that stood fro letters of the alphabet o 1844 first telegraph line between DC and Baltimore 0 1861 telegraph lines run from coast to coast 0 1866 first transatlantic cable 6 words a minute between Newfoundland and Ireland along ocean floor Maxwell and Hertz Discover Radio Waves 0 James Maxwell Scottish physicist 0 18605 theory of electromagnetic waves Invisible electronic impulses similar to visible light 0 Showed that electricity magnetism light and heat are part of same electromagnetic spectrum Radiate at speed of light 186000 miles per second 0 Radio waves Theory that they can be harnessed so that signals could be sent from a transmission point to reception point Heinrich Hertz German physicist 0 18805 proves Maxwell s Radio Waves theory Created a crude device that permitted an electrical spark to leap across a small gap between 2 steel balls emitting waves First recorded transmission and reception of an electromagnetic wave Marconi and the Inventors of Wireless Telegraphy Guglielmo Marconi father of radioquot 0 1894 discovered that grounding connecting the transmitter and receiver to Earth increased the distance you can send signals 0 1896 Receives patent for the Wireless Telegraphy form of voice less point to point communication 0 Marconi Wireless Telegraphy Company British Marconi London 1897 Installed technology on British naval and private commercial ships 0 American Marconi Branch in US 1899 Sent first wireless Morse Code signal across English Channel to France 0 1901 first wireless signal across Atlantic Ocean saw media as point to point 0 Alexander Popov Professor of physics St Petersburg 1895 0 May 7 radio day in Russia 0 Russian Physicist Society transmitted and received signals over a distance of 600 yards Nikola Tesla Serbian Croatian inventor o 1892 invented wireless system overshadowed by Marconi o 1943 Supreme Court overturned Marconi s patent and deemed Tesla as father of radioquot Wireless Telephony De Forest and Fessenden Lee De Forest 0 1899 first PHD dissertation on wireless technology building on other innovations o 1901 challenged Marconi 0 Wireless Telephone Company 1902 Wireless Telephony wireless voice and music transmission competing with American Marconi o 1908 claimed to hold record for longest transmission 400 miles 0 Radio from novelty to entrepreneurial stage 1910 transmitted a performance of Tosca by Metropolitan Opera to New York with wireless receiver 0 Audion vacuum tube Triode Detected radio signals and amplified them Powered radios until the arrival of transistors and solid state circuits in the 19505 beginning of modern electronicsquot 0 1943 won 20 year court battle for Audion patent Edwin Armstrong was believed to be true inventor Reginad Fessenden Canadian Engineer Once the chief chemist for Thomas Edison 0 First voice broadcast 1906 Public demonstration sent voice through airwaves from base in Massachusetts 0 Broadcasting Came to mean the transmission of radio waves to a broad public audience 0 Narrowcasting Before broadcasting Person to person communication by this time wireless communication was moving to a point to mass medium of communication Regulating a New Medium 0 Issues affecting radio in 19005 0 Ship radio requirements and signal interference Wireless Ship Act 1910 o All major US seagoing ships 50 passengers Traveling more than 200 miles off coast 0 Equipped with wireless equipment with 100 mile range 0 Importance realized with Titanic able to locate and save 700 people with technology 0 Radio Act of 1912 o Addressed amateur radio operators cramming airwaves o Broadcasting was deemed a natural resource Interstate commercequot Radio waves could not be owned Collective property of all Americans Transmitting of radio waves would require licensing o Commerce Department Granted airwave licenses o Governed radio until 1927 o SOS Morse code signal 0 Natural resourcequot mandate Radio should provide a benefit to society education or public service Consequences a Public radio stations I Fairness Doctrine 0 Impact of WWI o 1915 20 American companies sold point to point communication systems mainly for ship to shore communication American Marconi Biggest and best company 0 1914 US questioned letting foreign controlled companies wield so much power GE and ATampT Capitalized on navy s uneasiness and undercut Marconi s influence 0 Wireless telegraphy Largest impact on military operations Navy sought tight controls on information o 1917 US enters war Navy closes down all amateur radio stations and takes control of key radio transmitters to ensure military securty o 1919 War almost over Marconi orders 24 alternators Strong enough to power transoceanic system of radio that could connect the world Franklin Roosevelt n Moved to ensure foreign companies did not have that much control Guided by Wilsons goal of developing US as international power 0 Formation of RCA Members of congress and the corporate community opposed legislation granting the government or navy a radio monopoly 0 Private sector monopoly GE s compromised plan private company has governments permission to dominate radio industry a GE broke off negotiations to sell key radio technologies to foreign owned companies limited their global reach 0 Radio Corporation of America RCA GE s new company 1919 Wireless patents from navy ATampT GE former American Marconi and other companies were combined to ensure control over the manufacture of radio transmitters and receivers n ATampT Sanctioned monopoly provider of telephone services manufactured most transmitters a GE and Westinghouse made most radio receivers Government did not permit RCA to manufacture equipment or to operate radio stations under its own name for several years Initial function to ensure radio parts were standardized by manufacturers and to control frequency interference by amateur radio operators 0 Government restriction No more than 20 of RCA eventually any US broadcasting facility could be owned by foreigners Later raised to 25 law in 1927 Rupert Murdoch Head of Australia s giant News Corp became a US citizen in order to buy TV stations and form FOX television network 1985 0 US had almost total control over the emerging mass medium of broadcasting Pooled more then 2000 patents The Evolution of Radio 0 Frank Conrad Westinghouse Engineer medium s first disc jockey o 8KX crude radio studio in Pittsburg 1916 that broadcasted news to his friends 2X a week 0 KDKA first commercial broadcast station First professional broadcast National returns from CoxHarding presidential election 1920 0 Charles Doc Herrold 1909 o KCBS One of the earliest stations 0 1921 US Commerce Department licensed 5 radio stations for operation 0 1923 600 commercial and noncommercial stations were operating 0 Some owned by GE ATampT and Westinghouse 0 Most owned by independent operators 0 End of 1923 555000 radio receivers had been sold 55 a piece 0 1925 55 million radio sets were across America RCA partnership unravels 0 ATampT 1922 Broke RCA agreement Began making and selling radio receivers o Claimed RCA had too much power 0 WEAF now WNBC First radio station to regularly sell commercial time to advertisers Toll broadcasting w Exclusive right to sell ads a Goal to dominate radio 0 1922 sold first ad to a New York real estate developer Retained rights to interconnect signals between 2 or more radio stations via telephone wires 1923 First network Cost saving operation that links a group of broadcast stations that share programming produced at a central location WEAF and WNAC o 1924 interconnected 22 stations to air a talk with President CooHdge Telephone Group later known as Broadcasting Corporations of America BCA 0 Radio Group GE Westinghouse and RCA interconnected stations WGY and WJZ 0 Had to use Western Union telegraph lines ATampT denied them usage of their product 0 1925 Justice Department redefined patent agreements 0 ATampT Granted monopoly on providing wires Long lines Interconnect stations nationwide Sold BCA network to RCA for 1 million Agreed not to enter broadcasting for 8 years extended to 19905 Sarnoff and NBC Blue and Red Networks 0 David Sarnoff o Closely involved in RCAs formation in 1919 o RCAs first commercial manager 0 1921 RCA general manager 0 1926 National Broadcasting Company NBC RCA 50 GE 30 Westinghouse 20 o 1929 deal with GM to manufacture car radios invented a year earlier by William Lear sold them under brand name Motorola 0 Merged RCA with Victor Talking Machine Company RCA Victor Terrier sitting next to phonograph Gave control of Victors records and recording equipment 0 1930 president and ran for next 40 years 0 NBC red network Formerly telephone group 0 NBC blue network Formerly radio group 0 NBC gains affiliates Signs contract to be part of a network and receives money to carry the network s programs 1933 0 NBC red 28 affiliates 0 NBC blue 24 affiliates Government Ends RCANBC monopoly 1923 Federal Trade Commission charged RCA with violations of antitrust Allowed monopoly to continue 1930 RCA buys GE and Westinghouse interest in NBC networks Federal marshals charged RCANBC with exercising too much control over manufacturing and programming 1929 with stock market crash the public become distrusting of big business 1932 government revokes RCAs monopoly status RCA buys out GE and Westinghouse shares in RCAs manufacturing business 0 Now directly competing with each other Mid 19805 GE buys out RCA for status and brand name CBS and Paley United Independent Broadcaster UIB o Pooled 12 affiliates 500wk for 10 hour airplay 0 ATampT denied them lines to link affiliates Colombia Phonography Company CPBS later CBS 1927 16 affiliate network William Paley 1928 bought controlling interest in CBS for their brand La Palina o Hired Edward Bernays to polish the network s image Option Time CBS paid affiliates 50 per hour for an option on a portion of their time Paley and Bernays 1933 90 affiliates o Raided NBC for affiliates and top talent Frank Sinatra Premier radio news network gt Carried into television 1949 CBS passes NBC as highest rated network Radio Act of 1927 1924 Herbert Hoover Commerce Secretary Ordered radio stations to share time by setting aside certain frequencies for entrainment and news and others for farm and weather reports 1926 court ruled Hoover could not restrict radio operations 1927 sale of radio sets decline rapidly 0 Legislation Licensees did not own their channels but could only license them as long as they operated to serve the public interest convenience or necessityquot 0 Communications Act of 1934 0 Federal Radio Commission FRC becomes Federal Communications Commission FCC Jurisdiction covered radio telephone and telegraph 1941 government outlawed practice of option time 0 FCC demands RCA sell one of its 2 NBC networks Sell NBC blue for 8 million becomes American Broadcast Company ABC mid 19405 The Golden Age of Radio 0 1920 First weather forecasts and farm reports on radio 0 1927 Regularly scheduled radio news analysis 0 HV Kaltenborn Reporter from Brooklyn Eagle Commentary of ATampTs WEAF 1930 first regular network news analysis on CBS 0 Lowell Thomas On radio 40 years Early Radio Programming 0 Variety show 0 Developed from stage acts and vaudeville o Eveready Hour 1923 WEAF Stars from vaudeville musical comedy and New York theater and opera made guest appearances 0 19305 studio audience quiz shows Professor Quiz Old Time Spelling Bee Dramatic Programs developed 1922 0 Clara Lu and Em first soap WGN 1931 o Guiding Light only radio soap to be successful in TV 0 Radio 1937 0 TV 1952 Radio Programming as a Cultural Mirror 0 Situation Comedy 192030 o Amos n Andy Most popular First serial show Blackface stage by 2 white comedians Charles Correll and Freeman Godson 193031 season played in more than 12 of all radio homes most popular radio series in history 1951 transferred to TV with all black cast a Civil Rights and NAACP protestors CBS canceled in 1953 The Authority of Radio 0 Mercury Theater of the Air Most famous single radio broadcast Adaptation of HG Wells War of the Worlds 0 Orson Wells Produced hosted and acted in 0 Halloween Eve 1938 Aired 1898 Martian Invasion Created panic that lasted hours caused FCC to call for stricter warning before and during broadcast Radio Reinvents Itself 0 Radio threatened sound recording in 19205 0 TV stole every national programming and advertising style from radio 19505 Transistors small electrical devices like vacuum tubes receive and amplify radio signals used less power and produced less heat more durable and less expensive tiny also revolutionized hearing aids lead to integrated circuits Bell Laboratories 1947 0 19605 became cheaper than conventional tube and battery radios most radio listening took place outside of home 0 Synonym for small portable radio 0 Texas Instruments Marketed first transistor radio 1953 0 Sony Pocket radio 1957 The FM Revolution and Edwin Armstrong 0 Edwin Armstrong 0 Developed and discovered FM radio 19205 and 19305 rendered alternators obsolete for generating power o 1922 sold super version to his circuit to RCA for 200000 and 60000 shares RCAs largest private stockholder 0 Electrical Interference o 193033filed 5 patents on FM FM frequency modulation offered static free radio reception ideal for music and accentuated pitchdistance between radio waves AM Amplitude modulation Stressed volumeheight of radio waves 1953 Sarnoff steered RCA to TV Wanted to protect RCAs AM empire High cost converting to FM 0 Closed down Armstrong s station FM 1941 FCC approves limited space allocations for commercial FM licensing 1946 and early 1949 commercial FM stations grew from 48 to 700 0 FCC moves FM frequency space to a new band on the electromagnetic spectrum Rendered 400000 prewar FM receiver sets useless 1954 FM stations at 560 19605 FCC opens spectrum space for FM New life into radio 19705 70 used AM radio 19805 FM passes AM in profitability 20005 75 use FM 3600 commercial and 2900 educational FM stations Top 40 Format 1938 live and recorded music accounted for 48 of programming Format Radio formula driven radio where management rather than deejays controlled programming 1949 Todd Storz Rotation Playing top songs many times during the day Mid 19505 Management control rock and roll Top 40 Format 40 most popular records in sales each week 19605 deejays made to talk in beginning and end of song to prevent dead airquot Program Log hot clock mid 19605 o In one hour 20 ads weather time and contest announcements 3 minutes of news 12 songs 0 Day part5 statistics for each time block determined how the program was ran 0 610 AM 0 103 PM o 37 PM 0 712 AM Resisting Top 40 0 Mid 19605 expansion of FM experimentation with classical jazz and non top 40 music 0 Progressive rock Alternative to conventional formats 0 Experimental FM stations Commercial and noncommercial Offered cultural space for political folk music and rock music that commented on Civil Rights movement and protested US involvement in Vietnam 0 Album Oriented Rock AOR 1972 85 of record sales became less political and played white post Beatles music The Sounds of Commercial Radio 0 19305 Prime Time peak listening hours in the evening 0 Today Drive Time 69AM and 47PM people driving 0 Formats allow ads to reach smaller target audience 0 10 of all stations switch formats each year 0 News Information and Talk Radio fastest growing in 19905 expensive to produce 0 1987 170 stations under this format appeal to adults over age 35 o 2010 1500 stations used this format most popular in nation 0 Music Formats 0 Adult Contemporary AC gt middle of the road MOR mix of news talk oldies and soft rock 82 of listeners 40 Variations urban AC hot AC rhythmic AC modern AC and smooth AC 0 Contemporary Hit Radio CHR gt Top 40 appeal to teens and young adults 0 Country 1700 station old roots in radio 1925 Grand Ole Opry WSM 19505 drove out by Top 40 19605 FM brings it back 0 Urban Contemporary popular dance rap RampB and hip hop First station for black listeners 0 Spanish Language Radio Latin American music styles fastest growing 1947 San Antonio KCOR first Spanish language station Nonprofit Radio and NPR Wagner Hatfield Amendment to 1934 Communications Act set aside 25 of radio for nonprofit stations 0 1935 amendment defeated 0 Today 3000 nonprofits operate mostly FM 0 Government Rulings Help Nonprofit o Pacifica Foundation Lewis Kimball Hill first licenses of a station not affiliated with labor religion education or civic group ran experimental public stations 1948 0 FCC approves 10 watt stations range of 70 miles 1978 stop 10 watt licensing 0 Public Broadcasting Radio NPR and Public Broadcasting Service PBS first noncommercial networks 0 Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 and Corporation for Public Broadcasting CPB required the 2 to provide alternatives for commercial broadcasting Satellite Radio 0 XM and Sirus merge 2008 o 180 digital music news and talk channels 0 Cars install satellite along with AM and FM o 2009 free apps on smartphones HD Radio digital technology allowing AM and FM broadcasters to multicast 23 additional compressed digital signals within their traditional analog frequency 0 Need radio with HD band CD quality digital signals 0 2010 31 have even heard of HD radio Radio and Convergence Internet Radio 19905 2 types 0 AM FM satellite or HD station streams simulcast version of on air signal over the web 6400 radio stations do this 0 Pandora Lastfm more control over listening experience 0 Younger consumers prefer IR 52 to Radio 32 0 Copyright Royalty Board est by Library of Congress 2002 Assess royalty fees for streaming copyrighted songs over the internet based on of each stations revenue 2007 proposed on a per song basis 0 Webcaster Settlement Act enabled Internet stations to negotiate royalty fees directly with music industry Podcasting and Portable Listening 0 Podcasting audio files on internet available for download to transfer to portable players 2004 0 Internet Radio no longer tethered to a computer Local and National Advertising 0 8 US spending on ads goes to radio 0 30 second spot ads 0 20 of radio budget goes to programming 11415 951 PM 11415 951 PM
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