Film Unit - COMM 1301
Film Unit - COMM 1301 COMM 1301
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Popular in Communication Sciences and Disorders
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Date Created: 01/14/15
CH 7 film 11415 948 PM Narrative films 0 Persistence of vision Lumiere Brothers in Paris shoot documentaries 0 Scenes of everyday life 0 Single continuous camera shot 0 French magician Georges Melies 0 First to create narrative films 0 Fairy tales and science fiction 0 1896 first movie theater in Paris 0 Becomes a mass medium 0 Used slow motion and animation 0 American cameraman Edwin S Porter created narrative structures and camera techniques still used today 0 Life of an American Fireman 1902 Close ups o The Great Train Robberyquot first Western Parallel plot structure back at the ranch Chase scene and suspense Moved camera varied distance Shot scenes of sequence Reassembled diverse scenes into coherent story Motion Picture Industry Monopoly 0 Created within one generation from 18941908 0 3 basic economic divisions 0 Production Camera and projector technology scripting casting filming o Distributions Marketing and delivering films to theaters 0 Exhibition The theater industry that delivers movies to the public 0 Extraction gt manufacturing gt wholesale gt retail Depending on media industry retail is called circulation fulfillment or direct revenue 0 Thomas Alva Edison o Inventor and entrepreneur Gained control over all three facets of production distribution and exhibition His strategy El El To control patents To use courts to tie up in lawsuit Accused other inventors of violating his patents 0 Motion Picture Patents Company First example of single company controlling entertainment industry The trust in 1908 as a patent pool Cooperative of leading US and French films production companies Dominated film industry from 19081915 How did they control the monopoly El El Controlled bus did not own means of production distribution and exhibition Excluded competing film studios from available technology Exclusive contract for film stock with G Eastman Why did it fail El El El El Monopoly could not meet product demand Independent producers bought film stock from overseas Independent producers attacked viewers with longer feature films and recognizable stars Independent distributors set up with film exchangequot distribution network 1904 and imposed blocking bookquot 19121917 Antitrust case in Supreme Court US studios distribute to Europe after WWII What the Supreme Court did El 1917 a Supreme Court orders MPPC to disband n Edison trust already failing due to challenges of independents a All federal judges become judicial activists 20 years after they are appointed old saying a Supreme Court changes common law precedent Allowed western union and ATampT monopolies 0 Not allow standard oil MPPC RCA Paramount Broke up ATampT but allowed 0 Long distance telecoms to recreate duopoly Allowed Microsoft monopoly o Robber Barons age of monopoly 18801900 a Penn RR a JP Morgan Bank a Standard Oil Company a US Steel CO I ATampT Monopoly Trust Cartel n One company or small group working in collusion Rise of Star system or Hollywood Studio system 0 19151948 0 From Monopoly to Oligopoly 0 Why did Oligopoly repace monopolies More durable 19151948 still survives More effective because w Exclusive contracts control talent pool a Choke hold over distribution a Copy cat styles define public preferences a Most of all not violate anti trust laws A monopoly in one industry is illegal An oligopoly in related industries in legal The Big Five and the Little Three 0 Big five Warner Brothers Paramount 20th Century Fox MGM Leowquots 0 Little Three United Artists Cmumbb Universal RKO owned by RCA 0 How did the Big Five gain control I El Production films Vertical Integration Produced 60 percent of all US feature Produced 75 percent of A films blockbusters year Each studio produced about 50 movies a WWI hurt European films Factory Principles Control over production 0 O 0 El Distribution Centralized assembly line production Divisionspecialization of labor Exclusive contracts control pool of talented employees Standardizing the product known as genre Selfregulating film industry Hayes Office and later rating system Jack Valenti 8 Studios collected 95 percent of all national film rental fees Trade practices effectively closed the market to films made outside the studio system Block booking Marketing US films in Europe U Exhibition Hollywood Formula Major studio ownership of theaters created a need for studios to produce films mutually beneficial synergy Paramount owned 300 theaters and buys 500 theaters from Publix chain 1925 Invested heavily in the building of theaters themselves especially firstrun movie palaces Studio owned theaters 0 Studio owned only 15 of US theaters but took 90 percent of the nations box office receipts First run movie palaces 0 Going to the theater was an event 0 Hollywood narrative tell stories 0 Same myths same style 0 Plot structure Story what happens to whom Discourse how the story is told 0 Continuity Editing A visual language 0 Focus on psychological motives and conflicts of individual characters 0 Classic mythic themes of good vs evil men vs women cowboys vs Indians O Conven ons Happy ending production code 0 Genre 0 00000000000000 Known by audience people know what they are viewing beforehand Categories with conventions about similar recurring characters scenes structures and themes Genres benefit industry by Production standardization Product differentiation Comedy Drama Romance Musicals Actionadventure Mysterysuspense Newsreel Western Gangster Horror Science FictionFantasy Film Noir dark ominous villains night time black Animated Double feature 2 movies 3 cartoons newsreel Author 0 O 0 Director as author not producer Although a cooperative effort director auteur of commercial film creates stylistic signature Themes or topics Cinematic style Particular genres Barriers of race and gender still exist for directors Alternative to Hollywood films 0 Foreign films increasingly important 2010s Art house theater 19601970 Documentary films and cinema variety 0 Half personal essay half citizen journal 0 Like 19th century 20th century sitcom o Rising millennial art form gt dominate form Independent film industry like sell out Indy music Online video filesharing by armature directors Cell phone films and vlogs 11415 948 PM 11415 948 PM Textbook Film week 7 11415 949 PM The Development of Film 0 Leonardo Divinchi late 14005 theory of creating a device that would reproduce reality 0 Magic Lantern project images painted on glass plates using lamp oil 17th Century Thaumatrope 2 sided card with different images on each side that appeared to combine the images when spun 1824 o Zoetrope cylindrical device that rapidly spun images inside of a cylinder appeared to make images move 1834 0 Eadweard Muybridge English photographer 0 First to manipulate images and make them move Multiple cameras Successive photos Image sequences very brief 0 1880 developed method to project photographic images on wall for the public to view 0 George Eastman o Eastman Kodak 1884 First roll film Paper backing that had to be stripped off during the film development stage 0 Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince Frenchman in England 0 First motion picture camera using roll film 0 Round hay Garden scene first motion picture film 2 second survive today 1888 Hannibal Goodwin New Jersey minister 1889 0 Improved roll film Celluloid Used this strip of transparent pliable material that could hold a coating of chemicals sensitive to light a Enables strip of film to move through camera and photograph in rapid succession Perfect for projection n Eastman battles Goodwin for patent rights Awarded to Goodwin Thomas Edison 0 18005 plans to merge phonograph technology and moving images to create talking pictures did not happen till 1927 o Vitascope Enables filmstrips of longer lengths to be projected without interruption 0 William Kennedy Dickson o Kinetograph Combined Edison s incandescent light bulb Goodwin s celluloid and Le Prince s camera to create another early movie camera Housed 50 feet of film that revolved on spools o Kinetoscope Single person viewing system 0 1894 first kinetoscope parlor 2 rows of coin operated machines On Broadway in New York 0 Louis and Auguste Lumiere o Cinematograph Combined camera film development and a projection system Allowed more than one person to view moving images on a large screen 0 Paris December 281895 Projected 10 short films 0 19005 Short movies become part of the entertainment industry in o Amusement arcades Traveling carnivals Wax museums and Vaudeville theater The Introduction to Narrative Narrative films 0 Movies that tell stories 0 Shift to mass media 0 Suspense of disbelief 0 George Melies 0 First public movie theater 1896 o The vanishing Lady 1896 o Cinderella 1899 o A Trip to the Moon 1902 Edwin S Porter First American to adapt Melies innovations 0 Editing to tell coherent story Shot out of order reassembled and edited 0 Life of an American Fireman 1902 First close up shot Ringing fire alarm o The Great Train Robbery 1903 Introduced western genre and chase scene 11 minutes The Arrival of Nickelodeons Form of movie theater whose names combines the admission price with the Greek word for theater 0 Douglas Gomery Claimed these small uncomfortable makeshift theaters were store fronts redecorated to mimic vaudeville theaters Flourished during great European immigration 0 Minimal investment secondhand projector and large white sheet 0 19071909 grew from 5000 to 10000 peak 1910 Hollywood Studio System 0 1910 movies a major industry 0 Motion Picture Patents Company 0 Thomas Edison 0 Trust 1908 Pooled both French and US patents to control films major technology Acquired most film distributorships Deal with Eastman Supply movie film to Trust approved companies 0 Hollywood California Film capital of the world Paramount Pictures Adolph Zukor Figured out ways to bypass the Trust 0 Fox Film Corporation Twentieth Century Fox 0 William Fox Nickelodeon operator turned film distributor both played a role in the downfall of Edisons Trust MPPC in 1917 0 Vertical Integration 0 Controlling film on all 3 levels Production making movie Distribution to theaters Exhibition playing films 0 Turned industry into Oligopoly Few firms control a bulk of the business Production 0 Famous Players Company 1912 competing against Edison Trust o Founded by Adolph Zukor sought to control movie production through exclusive contracts with actors 0 Mary Pickford Americas Sweetheart Key figure in raising the financial status and professional role of film actors United Artists broke away from Zukor and recruited Douglas Fairbanks Charlie Chaplin and DW Griffith Thomas Ince Triangle company 19205 0 Studio System controlled creative talent assembly line process for movie making actors writers director etc all under contract 0 Studio Head appointed producers to handle hiring logistics and financing easily supervised many pictures at one time Distribution 0 Film Exchange System movies companies supplied vaudeville theaters with films and projector in exchange for their short films between live acts and of ticket price 0 Edison s Trust control distribution by withholding equipment from companies not willing to pay Trust s patentuse fees 0 Block Booking gain access to popular films by agreeing to rent new or marginal films with no stars Adolph Zukor o Operators take 100 movies at a time Allowed studios to test the new market without financial risks 0 Outlawed as monopolistic Marketing in Europe WWI interrupts European film production only US can fulfill the demand for films in Europe 0 US leader in commercial movie business worldwide 0 Mid19205 foreign revenue totaled 100 million Exhibition 0 Edison Trust control exhibition by controlling flow of films to ensure movies theaters had to buy a license from the Trust and pay whatever price they asked OR they were locked out of the Trust 0 Flow of films from independents and foreign films enable theater owners to resist Trust s scheme Zukor s Paramount sought to dominate exhibition by buying up theaters 1921 owned 300 theaters 1925 merge between Paramount and Publix Major Studios MGM 20th Century Fox and Paramount only needed to own first run theaters premiered new movies 8595 of film revenue Movie Palaces full time single screen movie theaters want to attract middle and upper middle class 0 Strand Theater first movie palace 3000 seats New York 1914 0 First mechanically air cooled theaters Mid City Movie Theaters convenient locations near urban and mass transit stations attract urban and suburban middle class Multiplexes multiple screens Big Five Paramount MGM Warner Brothers 20th Century Fox and RKO Little Three Columbia Universal and United Artists did not own theaters Achieved vertical integration and turned film making into a complex and expensive business The Studio System s Golden Age 1915 innovations in feature length narrative film in the silent era DW Griffith first star director 0 Refined narrative techniques from Meiles and Porter and used all of them in one film from the first time Varied camera distances close up shots multiple story lines fast paced editing and symbolic imagery Birth of a Nation 1915 first feature length film 3 hour epic and first blockbuster 2 per ticket 0 Seen as racist glorified Ku Klux Klan stereotyped blacks leading to protest by NAACP Feature films standard in 19205 Silent Era introduced technical innovations established the Hollywood star system and cemented the reputation of movies as a viable art form The Introduction of Sound 0 Bell Labs ATampT research facility produced prototypes of loudspeakers and amplifiers Warner Brothers Studio 0 The Jazz Singer 1927 starring Al Johnson silent film with songs and brief dialogue 354 words spoken o The Singing Fool 1928 200000 to produce brought in 5 million 0 Fox premiered sound film newsreels 5 months before Warner o Movietone newsreel company first film footage with sound of the takeoff and return Charles Lindbergh o Photographed sound directly onto the film running it on a narrow filmstrip that ran along the larger image portion of the film Superior to sound on record system 0 Movie Attendance 60 millionwk 1927 to 90 millionwk 1929 o 1931 85 of movies accommodated sound 0 1935 talking films commercial standard Development of Hollywood Style Narrative 2 components 0 The story what happens to whom o Discourse how the story is told 0 Structure uniform across all genres Recognizable character types protagonist antagonist romantic interest sidekick Clear beginning middle and end flashbacks and flash forwards Plot by main character solving a problem 0 Inventions computergenerated imager CGI and digital remastering for an IMAX 3D Experience 0 Genre category in which conventions regarding similar characters scenes structures and themes grouping films is a way for the industry to achieve 2 related economic goals product standardization and product differentiation 0 Comedy drama romance action mystery gangster horror and film noir o Musicals artificial styles popularity peaked 19405 and 505 0 Horror appeals to younger audiences carries anti adult messages or does not appeal to most adults 0 Film Noir black film low lighting techniques few day scenes bleak urban settings called neonoir Author auteurs directors form cinematic style in particular topics 0 Dennis Hooper Easy Rider 1969 and George Lucas American Graffiti 1973 Combining news or documentary techniques and Hollywood narratives showed how mass media borders have blurred o Statue of directors grew 19605 and 705 Women directors still rare n Kathryn Bigelow Hurt Locker 2009 won academy award Outside the Hollywood Star System International films documentaries and independent films Global Cinema American films 90 of market Foreign Films 2 German Expressionism psychological moods Soviet social Realism positive view on Soviet life Italian neorealism everyday life of Italians European newwave cinema experimenting with language of film Studios dubbed some popular American movies in Spanish Italian French and German Art House Theaters rebirth of interest in foreign films 19505 and 605 Home Video market late 19705 people stay home for movies 0 19661990 foreign films dropped by 23 300 to 100 Blockbuster 1990 and Web based stores Netflix 2000 0 US audiences willing to watch subtitles foreign films Documentary 0 Interest films Britain compiled footage of regional wars political leaders industrial workers and agricultural scenes with fiction shorts Newsreels England and France weekly ten minute magazine style compilations International news services supply theaters 1911 regular part of movie experience Travelogues Record daily life in various communities around the world Moana 1925 inspired term documentary 1926 review by John Greirson Scottish film producer Genre that interprets reality by recording real people and settings Educational noncommercial form required financial backing of industry government and philanthropist Canada s National Film Board sponsor documentaries because they are an alternative to Hollywood cinema Cinema Verite truth film portable cameras allowed filmmakers to go where camera could not go before and recorded fragments of everyday life unobtrusively Rough grainy look and shaky handheld camera work Drew and Associates Robery Drew Primary followed 1960 Democratic Presidential primary race of Hubert Humphrey and John F Kennedy Willingness to tackle controversial or unpopular subject matter The Rise of Independent Films Indies independently produced films 0 Shoestring budget and show in campus auditoriums and small film festivals o Decreasing cost of portable technology smaller digital cameras and computer editing o Rely on real life situations stage actors and non actors crews of friends and students local nonstudio settings 0 Audience in college and art house theaters o Netflix promote work outside studio system 0 Sundance Film Festival independent film festival Some films generate industry buzz and garner major studio distribution 0 Tibeca Film Festival SXSW Telluride Seattle International Important venue for discovering new talent 0 Major studios buy independent film companies or develop inhouse indie divisions The Hollywood 10 1947 after Cold War congress investigates Hollywood for subversive and communist ties Film Executives angry over labor union strikes and outspoken writers eager to name names 0 Jack L Warner suggested film writers that made fun of the wealthy or Americas political system or were sympathetic to Indians and colored people were engaging in communist propaganda 0 Sam Wood said communist writers could be spotted because that portrayed bankers and senators as villains HUAC subpoenaed 10 unwilling witnesses 9 screen writers and one director 0 Refused to discuss membership or identify communist sympathizers Charge with contempt of Congress 1947 When released they were blacklisted and boycotted in Hollywood The Paramount decision HUAC investigations caused government to increase scrutiny on aggressive business practices Justice Department demands 5 major film companies Paramount Warner 20th Century MGM and RKO to end vertical integration o 1948 Supreme Court ruled against film industry and orders them to divest of theaters 0 Never challenged the Oligopoly structure of Hollywood Failed to challenge control over distribution 0 Created opportunities in exhibition drive ins Moving to Suburbs Transformation from wartime economy and surge in consumer production had impact on movie going 0 Americans cash in war time saving bonds and buy household goods and new cars Discretionary income went to suburban homes lower tax base 0 Home ownership doubled 194550 TV changes Hollywood 0 19481949 high point in radio listening offered inexpensive entertainment alternative to movies 0 TV displaces both radio and movies 0 Movie content shifted to more serious focused on subject matter that TV did not encourage 0 Shift began with Film Noir and commercial movies 0 Explored social problems like alcoholism racism anti sematism mental illness drug abuse and sexuality 0 Motion Picture Production Code restrict film depictions of violence crime drug use and sexual behavior 0 Movie business was lowering moral standard of America 0 Motion Picture Association of America ratings system Technological Improvements 0 Technicolor MIT scientist 1917 draw people from black and white TV 0 Cinerama Cinemascope Vista Vision wide screen images Hollywood adapts to Home Entertainment 0 50 domestic revenue for movies is DVD rental and sales internet downloads and streaming 20 from box office VCR 1970 lawsuit claiming recording movies violated copyrights Blockbuster bankrupt 2010 Economics of Movie Business 0 Since 1963 1 billion movie ticketsyear 2009 142 billion tickets sold 0 Gross revenue from box office 108 billionyr 0 Rental and sale and digital streaming and download 20 billionyr Making Money on Movies Today 0 8090 of new movies fail to make money at box office offset losses on other films 0 2009 major film 1032 million to produce 37 million for domestic marketing advertising and print costs 0 Studios get portion of box office revenue 40 20 of revenue 0 3D on 4 release but 11 of revenue 0 4 months after theatrical release DVD rental sale and download 50 domestic film income 0 Redbox wait 28 days after DVD release 0 DirecttoDVD no theatrical release 0 Pay per view On demand premium cable and syndication TV market 0 Foreign Markets international box office 3X of US 0 Merchandise licensing and product placement Theater Consolidate Exhibition 0 Handful of companies control 90 of theaters o Regal Cinema AMC entertainment Cinemark USA Carmike Cinema Cineplex Entertainment Rave Motion Pictures and Marcus Theaters 0 Megaplex 14 screen 0 Upscale concession luxurious screening rooms with stadium style seating and digital sound IMAX combat home theater 0 Screen nonmovie event sporting concerts classic TV Movie Studio Players Big 6 Warner Paramount 20th Century Universal Columbia Pictures Disney Expansion into TV programming print media sound recording home videoDVD cable and computers electronic hardware and software retail stores theme parks Management Strategy heavy advance promotion and synergy sale of a product throughout subsidiaries of media conglomerate High Tech Vertical Integration control production of electronic equipment consumers buy for homes and production of content that runs on that equipment Convergence 2006 iTunes sells movies 2008 iTunes rent movies 399 Hulu NBC Universal and News Corp divert attention from YouTube ad supported streaming Steamdownload movies on smartphones Promote through FB YouTube and Twitter Alternative Voices Digital Video shift from celluloid 0 Replace bulky 16mm and 35mm film camera Less expensive lightweight See camera work instantly Capture additional footage without high cost Impact on Independent film cheaper to make a movie Preserving Digital Content Celluloid last 100 years Digital lost when storage fails and equipment becomes obsolete OOOOO Popular Movies and Democracy Consensus Narrative Cultural level cultural products that become popular and provide shared cultural experience Speak to central myths and values International Level American films influence local custom and culture 11415 949 PM 11415 949 PM
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