Internet and Video Gaming Unit - COMM 1301
Internet and Video Gaming Unit - COMM 1301 COMM 1301
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This 25 page Bundle was uploaded by Ailia Owen on Wednesday January 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to COMM 1301 at University of Houston taught by Frederick Schiff in Spring2014. Since its upload, it has received 285 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Communication Sciences and Disorders at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 01/14/15
The Internet and Gaming Text 11415 949 PM Internet superhighway 0 Cable liens wireless connections and satellite systems link and carry digital informational worldwide 0 Established 19605 not replace all media Lacks technological limitations on how large its database can be and how many people can connect to it The Evolution of Internet Origins as military communications network in 19605 0 Immediate 2 way connection and one to many communication 0 20005 multimedia source for information and entertainment 0 50 connected 0 2010 80 connected The Birth of the Internet 0 Military government project computer timesharing was its goal 0 19605 few room sized computers for researcher use 0 Defense Department s Advanced Research Projects Agency APRA o Apranet original Internet nickname the Net enabled military and academic research to communicate and distribute network system 0 Wired Network System users from multiple locations log in 0 Packet switching to prevent logjams in data communication broke message down into small pieces to easily route them through multiple paths and reassemble on other end 0 No one owns the internet and no one can switch it off 0 Email 1971 Ray Tomlin computer engineer 0 symbol location of computer user The New Widens Microprocessor 1971 miniature circuits that process and store electronic signals 0 Integration of thousands of transistors and related circuitry into thin strands of silicon which binary codes traveled along 0 Personal Computers PC smaller cheaper more powerful 0 National Science Foundation 1986 high speed internet communications network NSFNET link university research computer centers 0 Fiber Optic Cables mid 19805 thin glass bundles of fiber cable transmit thousands of message simultaneously laser light 0 Replaced older bulkier copper wire Web 10 first decade of web 0 World Wide Web Tim BernersLee CERN particle physics lab Switzerland initially text datalinking system 0 HTML hypertext markup language linking feature of Web for those connecting to Internet written code that creates web pages and links Common language compatible on OS s 0 Web browsers Mosaic and Netscape 19905 promoted mass medium 0 National Center for Supercomputing Applications NCSA Marc Anderson 1993 Mosaic window based browser to load text and graphics together in a magazine like layout attractive fonts easy to use forward back home and bookmark buttons Netscape 1994 Commercial Structure of the Web 0 Internet Service Provider 0 AOL 1985 bought Time Warner 2001 Dial up access 0 Broadband faster than dial up 0 2007 ATampT and Comcast surpassed AOL 0 Web Browsing 0 Mosaic first browser 1993 0 Internet Explorer 1995 overtook Netscape 0 Email free web based accounts ads in email pane Directories and Search Engines 0 Directories review and catalog websites Jerry Yang and David Filo 1994 organize favorite Websites into categories and subcategories 20000 sites at the time 2000 1 billion 2008 1 trillion 0 Search Engines enter key wordsqueries to locate related Web pages Yahoo Search in own catalogs 15 in 2010 Algorithmic Search Engines search entire Web for key words Google 1998 new algorithm that ranked a page s popularity In 2010 market share 71 of searched in US Bing 95 market share 2010 Web 20 more than just an information source more rapid and robust 0 Fully interactive and collaborative IM social networking and games 0 Digital Communication electronic signals represented as binary code ls and Os reassembled into precise reproduction of an image sound or text 0 Digital signals piecesbits Binary digits 0 Instant Messaging send and receive real time messages social 0 Today have voice and video capabilities 0 AIM Yahoo Messenger MSN Facebook chat 0 Texts surpasses IM today 0 2010 75 1217 year old own a phone 54 send texts 24 IM 11 email 0 Blogs popular with release of Blogger 1999 0 Journal like form updated frequently daily posts personal or corporate media sites photos graphics and video 0 2010 127 million blogs 0 Part of information and opinion culture of the Web give regular people and citizen reporters a forum for their ideas and viewpoints 0 Professional journalists informally share ideas Wiki Web Sites anyone can edit and contribute 0 Wiki quick in Hawaiian Wikipedia online encyclopedia o 3 million articles 270 different languages 0 2009 hacker defaces pages misinformation corrected 0 Claims that it was an invitation to inaccuracies and misinformation Encyclopedia Britain wiki only slightly less accurate 0 Overview of many angles of debate fro complex and controversial Issues Social Media Sites 0 MySpace 2003 first big social media site 0 Known for music listings 0 Online advertising 0 News Corp buy MySpace in 2005 0 Facebook 2009 started at Harvard 2004 0 Access originally restricted to college students Expanded 2006 o 2010 500 million users 0 Twitter micro blogging The Internet Today 0 Media Convergence text photos audio and video converge in one space and easily shared 0 On PCs user can access books movies TV music newspapers and magazines 0 Internet ready TV Video Console Xbox Wii Play Station Smartphones Blackberry first popular internet capable smartphone 2002 IPhone touch screen 2007 o 2010 150000 apps o 2010 iPad tablet sized computer more suitable for reading and watching TV and movies Web 30 0 Semantic Web more meaningful and more organized web 0 Layered connected database 0 Computer not human generates logical connections The Next Era 0 Speed and availability issues in Web future 0 Faster broadband connections and demand for wireless capability everywhere 0 National Broadband Plan 2010 o 100 million US homes to have affordable access to download speed of 100 megabitssecond in the next decade 25X download speed today Expansion of spectrum space and greater access to wireless broadband Video Games and Interactive Environments First games developed as novelties 19505 and 605 0 Ralph Baer German immigrant o Odyssey by Magnavox 1972 100 based on analog technology and used colored plastic overlays tennis skiing basketball and Simon says 0 Nolan Bushnell 0 Atari Pong first sound blip noises 1975 pong had dead with Sears for distribution 0 Chuck E Cheese 0 Sold Atari to Warner communications Folded in 1984 o Involve users in an interactive computer or online environment playing towards a desired outcome 0 Sweeping narratives multiple outcomes imaginative and exciting adventure sophisticated problem solving Online Gaming 0 Sega Dreamcast 1999 first console with built in modem 0 Games emerged as online multiplayer social activity 0 Counter strike Lexous multiplier originally scrabulous copyright issues Massively Multiplayer online Roleplaying Games MMORPG virtual worlds 0 Play through avatar online identity WOW 1299month 0 Now comic book series Sam Raimi movie 0 LOL Second Life set in real time use real money for virtual land and trade in virtual goods and services Club Penguin child market Disney Webkinz Consoles Handhelds and Convergence Xbox Microsoft 2001 0 Xbox Live 2002 online service 20 million subscribers Allows users to download new content directly to console PlayStation 1994 0 PS3 40 million users Wii 2006 supports traditional games Super Mario Bros 0 Wii Sports mimic full body movement 0 Balance Board interactive yoga Videogame Consoles 7th generation part computer part cable box 0 Can function as DVD players 0 Access to Twitter FB and Netflix Nintendo DS 2004 PSP 2005 o Converged gaming devices Apple 2010 Gaming Center The economics and Effects of Gaming 2010 60 households have videogame consoles Consoles and portables 95 of videogame market Computer games 5 Entire market 202 billion Entertainment Software Association game industries main trade group 0 Average game player 35 and playing games for 12 years 0 Women 40 o 50 years 25 o 70 of households play video games Advergames games for entirely promotional purposes The Future of Gaming More immersive and portable experience Wii interactive game play Microsoft s Connect System sensor camera Xbox Live interact in full video or avatar form Nintendo DS 3D without glasses Economics and Issues of Internet Telecommunications Act of 1996 overhaul communication regulations Ownership and Control 0 Security of personal and private information o Appropriateness of online material 0 Accessibility Google 1998 most popular search engine 0 Pay per click ad 0 Mapping email blogging browsing books 0 Google Apps cloud processing Microsoft merge of Windows OS and Internet Explorer nearly monopolistic 0 US Department of Justice anti trust lawsuit in 1997 Dropped case 0 European Union regulators 25 billion in fines against Microsoft through 2008 Yahoo 1994 dominated Web directory portion of Internet 0 Eclipsed by Google search engine 0 Overture and Inktomi 2003 key algorithmic search engines Facebook 0 Social networking 6 hours 43 minutes per day 0 Contextual advertising increase ad relevance Targeted Advertising and Data Mining 19905 ads shifted to search engines 0 sponsored linksquot Spread to social networking email and IM Foursquare checking in at locations and share information on FB 0 Consumer surveillance and data collecting database Data Mining unethical gathering of data E Commerce buying and selling goods online 1995 Amazoncom Cookies information profiles automatically collected 0 Actual purpose verify user is cleared for access 0 Illegal create marketing profiles of Web users to target them for Ads Spyware information gathering software secretly bundled with free download software 0 Pop up ads 0 Enable collection of personal dataaccount information of users plant click fraud program Federal Trade Commission 1998 fair information practice principles 0 Have to disclose data collection practices 0 Give consumers option to choose whether or not their data may be collected and provide information on how data is collected 0 Permit individuals access to their records to ensure data accuracy 0 Score personal data from unauthorized use Opt in policy favored by consumer and privacy advocates 0 Obtain permission from consumer to collect browsing history data 0 Opt out policy favored by data mining 0 Automatic collection of data user can opt out Government Surveillance 0 USE Patriot Act power to law officials to intercept online communications including email and web browsing data 0 Too vaguely worded allowing government access to personal records without probable cause originally for suspected terrorists o Wiretap intercept communication on a single telephone line 0 Internet surveillance all communications under one ISP Online fraud 0 Identity theft buy products online with stolen identity 0 Phishing fake emails from companies requesting private information Appropriateness 0 Communications Decency Act 1996 and Child Online Protection Act 1998 both judged unconstitutional Children s Internet Protection Act 2000 requires schools and libraries that receive funding for Internet Access to use software that filters and visual content deemed obscene pornographic or harmful to minors Access 0 Digital divide People with inter vs people without 0 Dial up vs broadband 0 Smartphones narrow divide Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations 1997 o 99 of libraries have internet access New goal to provide more computers 0 Many government documents medical information and other research exist solely online Alternative Voices Open Source Software in early days code writing amateur programmers developed software in a collective effort 0 Openly shared program source codes Microsoft 19705 turned software development into business Programmers still develop noncommercial software 0 Linux 1991 Linus Torvalds sophisticated software Operate behind the scene computer services Digital Archiving Librarians work toward nonprofit digital archives existing outside of any commercial system 0 Preserve tradition of open access to information Internet Archive 1996 ensure everyone universal access to human knowledge Open Content Alliance partner with IA to digitalize every book in public domain generally before 1922 The Internet and Democracy Most democratic social network ever conceived 34 of US linked to the internet Defenders of digital age argue that newer media forms allow greater participation than any other medium Mass Customization 0 Media companies allow individual consumers to customize their own webpage 11415 949 PM 11415 949 PM Internet lecture 11415 949 PM Convergence combining medium into a single digital platform Blurred boundaries Technological convergence 0 Digital media formats and platforms 0 Text graphics audio and video 0 Content from one medium into another medium Converging melding of content 0 One combined hybrid media channel Ownership consolidation 0 Concentration or integration Multinational global or transitional 0 Production dispersed on worldwide scale 0 Dis investment and de industrialization in US and Europe Trend Feudal o Aristocracypeasantsartisan 0 Local 0 Weapons 0 Oral 0 Village Social classes 0 Modern 0 Big businessblue collar working class World system Means of control Dominate medium Original complexity Metaphors for new technology 0 All territorial spatial maps 0 Road system metaphors 0 Frontier metaphors Pioneers 0 Space metaphors Cyberspace Predictions about social impact Utopian global village worldwide community Universal enlightenment total freedom of communication and everyone knowledgeable Misinformation hoaxes rumors gossip inherent problem Dystopian world prophecy in film video and games Loss of privacy as digital surveillance now normal Information overload cant process it all tune it out return to 12 hour work days False communities less face to face interaction Information gap unequal access to creating new inequalities and reinforcing privileges of upscale income Four stages of technological evolution Novelty invention Entrepreneurial innovation or adaption Mass consumption adopted by large group Maturity market saturated new substitutes Stage 1 Invention Binary code late 194005 and ls in 256 hexadecimal letters 10011001 US military government planning in 19505 goal for national securty 1969 defense department launches Arpanet for military contractors and research No central authority 1971 email file transfer bulletin boards and remote control access to government scientific research Stage 2 Entrepreneurial developmentinnovation 1982 national science foundation After 1989 end of cold war berlin wall falls ends satellite bloc End of military APRAnet involvement Rapid spread beyond government and academic worlds Stage 3 Mid 19805 fiber optic cable allows for broadband multimedia capacty World wide web 10 developed by Tim Berners Lee and CERN in late 19805 1991 hypertext creates web pages allows direct non linear links can be read by all computers connects different operating systems In 199394 Mosaic and Netscape browsers allow users to navigate cyberspace without a map From 19851996 America Online becomes widely accessible gateway as affordable Internet Service provider for flat monthly fee By 1998 36 million servers 2012 278 million people with internet access in US Companies try to turn users into consumers through ads Companies selling products and services to other companies Government non profit organizations send information Peer to peer sharing trading files 2003 government and for non profit corporations collect and mine personal data E commerce online shopping and advertising Tipping point 1998 holiday shopping season Online catalogs and auctions software books CDs and cars Compete against brick and mortar retailers Advantages 24X7 access discounts convenience no geographical barriers Disadvantages fraud ID theft learning curve lack of customer service Revenue 431 billion 0 Less than 5 of retail sales Mapping the internet five major World wide web 0 ICANN 0 Commercial ISP o ATF Comcast Browsers 0 IE Chrome 0 Web search engines 0 Google yahoo 0 Social networks 0 Email Gmail IM AIM MS VOIP Skype P2P files sharing bit torrent Social media Facebook OOOO Off the internet 0 Wire line connections Comcast ATF 0 Wireless amp mobile DBS A39ITlt Verion 0 Device manufacturers Apple Android Nokia 0 Console manufacturers Nintendo Sony MS Web 10 Bits binary digits 0 Html Browsers ISP AOL dial up 0 1985 flat rate Web 20 0 Blogs 1999 166 million in 2011 Wiki sites 0 Satellite radio networks and online radio programming 2002 0 Online music stores CDs file downloads streaming amazon iTunes 0 Online video stores rental and sales BitTorrent P2P file sharing transfer and hard drive sharing Dial up ISP connections largely replaces by broadband IM AIM MS Twitter Social media MySpace 2003 music listing newscorp 20052011 HD channels radio and TV 2009 Mobile phone and wireless access Why is digital networking revolutionary Data storage and retrieval 0 In revolutionary ways allowed just in time manufacturing Feedback audience produces and distributes content to masses 0 And not just received as passive consumers 0 Messages created and distributed cheaply and widely by individuals amateurs nonprofits NGOs Interactive 0 Receivers can respond to messages immediately User pull more than advertisers and program execs push digital gamers create unique virtual worlds Convert platform 0 Users can access store and deliver traditions media all digitally recorded for text graphics audio and video One Hybrid device 0 Everywhere Universal democratic uses VS Commercial corporate control Military invented no one owns Government and big data seeking total surveillance Ownership Vs Control of digital networks Corporations and gvts don t own internet Increasingly controlling More concentrated conglomerate owners Increase in centralized private power Corporations accumulate wealth forever Political and intellectual content censorship Control choke points 0 00000 0 Net neutrality the right of every website and every user to the same internet network speed and access End of Net neutrality different connection tiers and or per call fees Tiered access wealthier companies can pay more for more internet Popularity based on how much money you have Telecoms wireless and cable companies want higher fees for traffic Internet service providers A39IT Comcast Verizon denial of service letters Monopoly operating systems and search engines Portals aggregate content give away content for free without credit to content producers and undermine business model of legacy media Oligopolies over wireless networks wire line telecoms cable companies browsers cloud storage call phone manufacture Bundled service double playtriple play quadruple play Close down private p2p sharing RIAA suits Corporations buy out social media Embedded DMR chips All personal data stored by online payment and credit card agencies NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls and emails NSA and corporations track GPS location Chine Iran Israel and us close down sites and use cyber warfare Political dissidents labeled terrorists and assassinated by drones Economics and Organization Horizontal integration 0 Within one industry Vertical integration 0 Between stages of one industry 0 Cross media ownership 0 Between 2 media industries 0 Conglomerate ownership 0 Between different industries 0 Globalization 0 Between countries Corporate interlocks Joint operating venturespartnerships Time warner 144 JOVs and JOAs Interlocking shareholding Capital invested Interlocking directorships Inner circle Industry associations 0 NAB NAA RIAA etc Class wide institutions 0 Business roundtable of CEOs from 200 largest fortune multi national corporations MNCs council of foreign relations American legislative exchange council congressional advisory boards pro industry regulations Endgame for cross media global dominance 0 Control of emerging hybrid medium of digital mass communication 0 Specifications already known 0 Digital broadband DTV screen satellite linked hand held wireless cell phones 0 Last hurdles to wider use and lower prices 0 Broadband DSL done 0 No common industry wide standard still a problem 0 Cross media close Consumer electronics 0 Apple Sony Google Microsoft Nintendo 0 Media content owners 0 Time warner Sony CBS Viacom Retailer access owners Google yahoo FB Twitter 0 Trunk network owners Should the internet be governed Who should be in control 0 Should private for profit oligopolies decide the uses of content on the internet 0 Without government how can the public interest be protected and maintained 0 If government becomes big brother in a brave new world of Fahrenheit 451 can individuals stay free and will voluntary cooperative sustainable alternative communities be subordinated or suppressed Percentage of population using internet 0 US 786 0 Europe 632 0 Africa 156 Telecommunications Act of 1996 o Ended most cross media ownership restrictions 0 Accelerated wave of mergers and acquisitions among telecoms RBOCs TV networks and stations MSOs film studios and theaters radio networks and stations ISPs search engines social media computer and cell phone manufacturers FCC 2007 2012 considers lifting prohibition against newspaper and TV station in same market 0 FCC 2010 wire line broadband ISPs cable and telecom required to give full service access 0 Wireless mobile networks exempt helps them Corporate and Political Elites Deregulate Telecom Industry Pluralistic democratic ideal o Elites ltgt masses active enlightened Neo liberal neo conservative corporate upper class 0 Corporate persons gt human persons 0 Market dollars gt individual votes 0 Economic inequality gt political inequality 0 Yes consumer choicequot buy whatever you want 0 No consumer controlquot cannot influence cost availability or variety Within media industry we still have consumer choice but is restricted because we don t have consumer control Industries tell us what s available and we can choose from that D Digital Gaming 11415 949 PM Development of Digital Gaming 0 Industrial revolution 0 Leisure timedisposable o Disposable income in anonymous city 0 Export drive growth to foreign elites 0 Internal mass consumption 0 Digital games o Evolved from arcades dave and busters 0 Four major formats Handheld devices Gameboy Computers and consoles Xbox TV Internet Mechanical Gaming 0 Coin operated counter machines 0 First appeared in train depots hotel lobbies bars and restaurants 0 Penny Arcade 0 Automates phonographs gt jukebox o Kinetoscope gt movies 0 Bagatelle gt pinball machines First video games o Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device 0 Key component of the first video games the cathode ray tube CRT Odyssey 0 First home television game 0 Postmodern arcades 0 Many coin operated games together 0 Atari created pong o Kept score on screen 0 Noises with ball contacted with something 0 First video game popular in arcades 0 Home version was marketed with an exclusive deal with sears 0 Late 705 early 805 0 Games in arcade and cars 0 Asteroids PacMan and donkey kong Signaled potential as a social medium Joysticks and buttons PacMan featured the first avatar Consoles and Advanced Graphics 0 Consoles o Devices specifically used to play video games o The higher the but rating the more sophisticated the graphics 0 Early consoles Atari 2600 1977 Nintendo Entertainment System 1983 Sega Genesis 1989 0 Console makers home use 0 Nintendo Wii 0 Sony PS4 0 Microsoft Xbox and Kinect o Proprietary games only on one platform 0 Game publishers leading independents o Activision Blizzard 0 Electronic Arts EA 0 Zynga social gaming Rovio mobile gaming Home computers 0 Advantages over early consoles 0 Greater versatility o Faster processing speeds 0 Better graphics 0 Resurgence in PC gaming 0 Free to play freemium 0 Subscription games 0 Social media games Internet Transforming Gaming 0 Online connections now normal part of console games 0 Made live massively multiplayer online games possible 0 Enables the spread of video games to converged devices 0 Paved the way for social gaming virtual worlds Virtual Worlds and Social Gaming 0 Massively multiplayer online roleplaying games MMORPGs 0 Set in virtual worlds 0 Large groups of players 0 Online fantasy sports games 0 Actual sports results determine scores in their online games 0 Popular in social networking sites Convergence From Consoles to Mobile Gaming 0 Consoles become multi media entertainment centers 0 Multiple media in single gaming device 0 Added revenue streams for converging music film comic book and book content 0 Mobile gaming 0 Smartphones and touchscreen tablets compete with portable game players 11415 949 PM
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