Week 1-5 Lecture Notes - COMM 1301
Week 1-5 Lecture Notes - COMM 1301 COMM 1301
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Date Created: 01/14/15
MampS 116 Week 1 11415 951 PM 1162014 Four Models of Mass Communication 1 Linear Model of Communication A process of producing and delivering images to large audiences Mass communication viewed as COMPONENT SYSTEM COMPONENTS OF LINEAR MODEL In uences sources SENDER Codesencoded MESSAGES GATEKEEPERS ie editors okaying or changing your story CHANNEL Regulators filters Decoded ie radio decoding electronic impulses broadcasted Receivers ie mass audience and their effect mass audience HAROLD LASWELL PROPAGANDA MODEL Who says what How What style format amp channel To whom With what effect MALL various components he put together FEEDBACK LOOP AND RELATIVE POWER STRONG MESSAGES AMPLIFIED from central source WEAK FEEDBACK from a dispersed and disorganized masses Elites have high access to masses Masses have low access to elites MEDIA DISTORTCONTENT PROMOTED OR MARGINALIZED by sources senders gatekeepers channels filters regulators MEDIA NOISE static in signal coding pack journalism everyone turns to the same story lots of info pseudoevens media spectacles hyperreal simulacrum things that haven t really ever happened but seem so real that they could have ELITES OWN AND CONTROL MEDIA CORPORATIONS That produce and distribute content 2 USES AND GRATIFICATIONS MODEL read about in book 3SELECTIVE PERCEPTION MODEL MANY LEVELS 1 select mediaTV on all day but not necessarily watched all day 2 selective attention 3 selective prior knowledgeyou already know something about it 4 selective interpretation of meaning 5 selective recallyou only remember part of it 6 selective use of info 4 FRAMING MODEL COMMUNICATIVE ACTS are structured STRUCTUREFRAME FOREGROUND STAGE of interaction inside the frame see book for more TWO MODELS OF CULTURE 1 CULTURE AS HIERARCHY HIGH CULTUREFINE ARTS narrow appeal artistic merit enduring classics sets standards of what is THE true THE good and THE beautiful LOW CULTUREPOPULAR CULTURE broad appeal consumer culture styles with short life spans appeals based on what is enjoyable fun and sexy The upper class has tried to define what is art class 2 CULTURE AS A MAP Cultural tastes needs and interests are complex Each cultural expression or message can have MANY MEANINGS and can be interpreted differently Many ALTERNATIVE MEANINGS do not fit into a vertical hierarchy of the GOOD TRUE OR BEAUTIFUL Weird funny scary MAPSgt EQUAL CULTURES HIERARCHIESgt SUPERIOR CULTURES COGNITIVE MAPS connect expressions and acts into meaningful patterns and narratives ie we differentiate by children young adults middle age older vs Thailand have many different degrees of ages METAPHORS Many quotmapsquot challenge one hierarchy MULTICULTURALISM challenges DOMINANT CULTURE ie SAMENESS of cultural phenomena that are CONVENTIONAL RECOGNIZABLE STABLE AND COMFORTING NEWNESS of cultural forms that are INNOVATIVE UNFAMILIAR DESTABILIZING CHALLENGING AND EXCITING CULTURAL PERIODS AKA Spirit of the timesquot Worldviewsquot Stages of world history Dialectic of intellectual history SHIFT FROM MODERN TO POSTMODERN CULTURES INITIALLY IN ARCHITECTURE MODERN SHOWS STRUCTURES AND REFLECTS FUNCTION POSTMODERN SURFACES HIDE UNDERYLING STRUCTURE IN OVERALL CULTURAL THE MODERN BROKE FROM TRADITION THE POSTMODERN SAMPLES AND RECYCLES traditional and modern cultures indigenous ie NYC buildings vertical lines re ecting steel quotquotMODERN STRUCTUREFUNCTIONquot NOWADAYS both MODERN and PM cultures industrialized and postindust period COEXISTING IN SAME PERIOD started in architecture spread to plastic arts lit social sciences ie HOUSTON SKYLINE ex of PM VALUES OF MODERN PERIOD Based on scarcity of resources and productive work IN ARCHITECTURE STRUCTURE FORM REFLECTS FUNCTION 1 REIECTING TRADITION beliefin MORAL PROGRESS especially inevitable TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS new Jerusalem is civilizing mission of white Christian men 2 INDIVIDUALISM celebrated ie marriage arranged based on convenience vs nowlove 3 RATIONAL ORDER belief in reason and science 4 WORK ETHIC defer gratification and EFFICIENCYmeans to ends ie use what you have to make more of it VALUES OF PM PERIOD Based on SURPLUS AND CONSUMPTION EDLS and image In architecture SURFACE NOT REFLECT STRUCTURE 1 Opposing hierarchy CELEBRATING SELFCENTERED PERSPECTIVE NO ONE TRUTH small town pastoralism imagined POPULISM ie selfies at a monument 2 SAMPLING MIXING amp RECYCLING CULTURE diversifying and blurring genre factfiction artcommerce ie infomercials infotainment docudrama from different historical periods countries styles or traditions 3 Questioning INSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY and SCIENTIFIC REASONING NOSTALGIA FOR PREMODERN tradition mystical supernatural pagan gothic retro ie tattooing media organized religion zombies ie politicians claiming true sciences aren t true within each of us put in social situations and generations were in the midst of a change what are the forces patterns 4 EMBRACING PARADOX people like the irony strange contradictions differentness WHICH GROUPS CONTROL amp OWN MEANS AND MECHANISMS OF POWER 1 Means of physical forcemedia weapons and organization ie suicide bomber harder to control now bc of our weaponry 2 Means of productionmedia resources tools and wealth 3 Means of communicationmedia symbols and channels ie who owns film libraries channels They control what is aired what content is produced Political economy of the mediaquot MAINSTREAM MEDIA VS ALTERNATIVE MEDIA MAINSTREAM MEDIA reproduce established cultural patterns and supports STATUS QUO inst s ALTERNATIVE MEDIA offer cultural forms to COUNTER the dominant patterns of DOMINANT CULTURE Mainstream ie Houston chron ABC NBC FOX TV TIME TEXAS MONTHLY PEOPLE 002 AVATAR JAMES BOND 740 AM Alternative ie Houston free press democracy now al Iazeera the nation weekly standard the Texas observer sicko passion of Christ KPFT 901 FM NPR 887 AGENTS OF POWER VS AGENTS OF CHANGE MAINST MEDIA legitimate controversy within restricted range from left to right Top down point of view of executives officials and experts ALT MEDIA Portrays marginalized or censored topics sources and peoples Points of view from the bottom up not top down UPPER CLASS imposes a dominant culture in every society Consensus among competing elite factions SUBORDINATE CLASSES AND INDIGENOUS GROUPS coexist and create alternative cultures 121 Week 2 11415 951 PM MampS 121 MEDIA CONVERGENCE produced in one medium and redone redistributed in another form copied stored ex audio books readers digest 4 different platforms 1 audio 2 video Ownership quotCONSOLIDATIONquot Centralized big businesses through mergers and acquisitions CONCENTRATION or INTEGRATION Multinational or transnational corps HISTORY OF PUBLISHING Technology of writing materials cave walls 1000032000 BC pictographs pyramid walls 3500 BC Egyptian hieroglyphics clay tables 3500 BC Sumerian cuneiform papyrus 2400 BC Nile reeds into scrolls Parchment skins of sheep goats calves Paper 105 AD China Woodpulp paper 1830s Computer screen HISTORY OF PUBLISHING Technology of Book Production Wood and bamboo strips 1000 BC China Codex parchment 350 AD Rome Printed book Diamond Sutra 868 AD China Chinese block printing c 1000 AD Chinese movable type c1000 AD didn t last very long made of wood Korean block printing c 1200 AD Manuscript GUTENBURG REVOLUTION Book fairs and trade in book manuscripts in W Europe during late Medieval period 10501350 AD hand printed books in Europe Monks and scribes 10000 copyists in Paris and Orleans 14521456 Johannes Gutenberg developed reusable removable metal type and printing press 1 Interchangeable Parts and Mechanical Reproduction 2 Machine TechnologyMeans of Communication GUTENBURG GALAXYquotPRINTING REVOLUTIONMarshall McLuhen Medium of Perception quothotquot printmovies vs quotcoolquot TVcomics changes our perceptions and relationships according to McLuhen FIRST MASS MEDIUM Printing Press The demand for books existed in W Europe in late Medieval period 10501350 AD Renaissance spreads through W Europe ohannes Gutenburg 13971468 Germany Master crafttradesmen Medieval guild had masters j ourneymen and apprentices in each shop PRINTING MASS PRODUCTION AND MASS MARKETING 3 NECESSARY ELEMENTS Interchangeable parts and Mechanical duplicationreplaced slow hand copying Rapid duplication produced may copies less expensive affordable to more people not just elites FIRST PRINTED BOOKS Incunabula 145051500 AD In English 1474 William Caxton printed Troyquot and The Game of Chessquot1474 Germany Sayings of Philosophersquot and Chaucer s Canterbury Talesquot 1477 England Manuscript Culture vs Book Culture Libraries the sum total of all human knowledge Early civilizations Alexandria library in Egypt Aztec library of ropes Earlier renaissances Carolingian and 12th century Library of Congress 23 million volumes State library of Russia 40 million volumes Fez Morocco University of Al Karouine Library UH Anderson Library 2 million volumesacid based paper destroying books STORING PRESERVING ACCESSING KNOWLEDGE Formats manuscripts books digital Libraries the sum total of all human knowledge Many alternative ideas side by side 2 5000 free public libraries f Andrew Carnegie 3500 US library systems 4500 US university and college libraries GUTENBURG PROJECT wwwgutenburgorg 28000 public domain books TRANSFORMATIONS SOCIAL AND CULTURAL Printed books were cheaper So read by shopkeepers and craftsmen in growing towns Ideas crossed geographic borders spread rapidly Printing press invented in middle of renaissance 43509145291550 and helped its spread Produced an enduring record spread of Renaissance after Roman and Greek classics rediscovered Direct access to sacred texts like Bible allowed for direct interpretationquot of the word of God Martin Luther 1517 AD initiated the Protestant Reformation Each individual can read and learn and equally able to reason challenged traditional authority religion Gave individuals the means to achieve social rank Rise of Philosophers of Democracybased on rational individual selfinterest Led to first democratic revolutionsin Holland US France and Haiti Gave rational men access to nontraditional ideas All knowledge in printed form 9French Encyclopedists 1751 AD Spread ideas of rationalism and scientific method Idea of technological progress and moral perfectibilityquot as inevitable Led to Scientific Revolution based on rational sentient individual selfinterest ProfArgument printing press led to scientific revolution BOOKSFIRST MASS MEDIA IMPACTS ON POLITICAL CULTURE Transmission knowledge beyond local communities 9 challenged local authorities and customs Spread of records 9centralized administration Spread of texts new technical knowledge Printed books in vernacular languagescommon language of an areanot Latin Led to discovery of national cultures 9knowledge of common language folklore history customs beliefs the quotfolkquot of the quotnationquot IMPACTS ON SOCIAL CLASS Rapid spread of knowledge and literacy 9emergence of selfemployed middle class Rise of business owners as new class Merchants and manufacturers became wealthy Heute bourgeoisiequot displaced the nobility Petite bourgeoisiequot became quotliberalquot commoners Peasants displaced are moved to factories Rise of bluecollar workers as new class Later emergence of whitecollar working class employed professionals managers technicians clerks and sales staff Key ideas old class new class blue collar white collar TRANSFORMATIONS ENLIGHTENED PUBLIC Printed books in vernacular languages So led to discovery of national cultures common language quotfolkquot culture history customs beliefs Rise of nationalismrevolutions to create nationstates Selfeducation autodidactic learning 9compulsory education of masses Reading and writing at home 9emergence of uppity educated women 9 growth of women s market for books Rise of publishing professionals AMERICAN BOOK PUBLISHING Colonial print shops biblical lit novels 1640 The Bay Psalm BookS amp M Daye Cambridge 1744 Pamela and Clarissa Benjamin Franklin 19th century cheaper technology and marketing Machinemade paper from wood pulp Paperback books 13 of all books Dime novels Maleska EampI Beadle Streampowered rotary presses Linotype machines Halftone printing pictures first printed Offset lithography photo plates gt metal casts Pocket books Robert de Graff Instant books FDR and Warren Commission International Copyright Law 1891 If book was published in US by foreign writers they had to pay fee Put international and American authors on same level 123 Week 2 11415 951 PM PUBLISHING HOUSES Identify and produce works of good writers Increased division of labor within industry into three phases 1 Acquiring 2 Publishing 3 Marketing books Usua11y manufactured by independent 0 4 Contract printers 0 Increasing number of selfpublished books 19th Century houses Harper amp Bros gt Harper amp Row gt HarperCollinsgtNewsCorp Owns Houghton Mif in GP Putnam Scribner s EP Dutton Rand McNally Macmillan 20th Century Houses Simon amp Schuster Random House 18000 US Publishers ECONOMICS OF PUBLISHING Paperbacks 18705 dime novels pocket books 1939 increased sales and the number of new titles Book output peaked in 1910 13000 new book titles cultural assimilationquot Book output declined during the Depression and WWII GI Bill of Rights paying people to go to college college textbooks for working class First mass universities Book output increased 1997 and 2006 chanced count 2010s new titles 170000 WHY THE FALL AND RISE OF BOOK SALESREADERSHIPTIME SPENT 95 billion in book sales 1992 279 billion 2010 2 290 Book titles 1996 68000 9 114000 20019177000 2011 Average person spends 94yr on books 68yr on music 33yr on movies Total hours reading books per person per year DECREASED BOOKS 101 hrs 1995 84 hrs 2004 17 less Net book sales by type of books 2010 total 279 billion 0 Trade 0 Adult 0 Juvenile 139 billion 50 0 Religious Massmarket paperbacks Textbooks 10 billion 36 Professional 37 billion 13 81 billion 29 31 billion 11 14 billion 5 13 billion 4 El Hi 55 20 College 45 16 Reference 875 million 3 University Press 191 million 1 Textbook Hard Copy Ebooks Author Royalty 12 15 17 Editing paper 33 9 printing Marketing amp Management Shipping Return Bookstore payroll operation Bookseller Revenue Bookstore Profits pretax Publisher Revenue Publisher Profit aftertaxes Total retail price World s 10 largest trade book publishers Top 3 publishers account for more than 50 of all sales PearsonUK Read EslevierUKNLUS Thompson ReutersUS Top 5 trade book publishers Market Share retail sales TRENDS IN PUBLISHING INDUSTRY make sense of all numbers above quotquot Largest commercial publishers are all subsidiaries of crossmedia global conglomerates Least concentrated mass communication industry most international Demand subsidiary rights from authors Authors dependent on advances Top 3 or 5 have largest marketing budget to select and promote blockbusters High dollar marketing pays for access to talk shows appearances signing tours dumps displays of books near the front door authors pay for shelf spacequot Private censorship of unpopular ideas and unknown new authors Selfpublished with epublisher59 more oblivion DECLINE 0F RETAIL SALES All retail brickandmortar bookstores Independent bookstoresdeclining1410 2010 Book Clubs 1926 and mail order BooksAMillion and Literary Guild screen and recommend Direct Brands inc consolidated offers books dvds and music Shopping mall stores like crown books Superstores1980like Crown books Borders and Waldenbooks681 stores bankrupt 2011 Barnes amp Nobles and B Dalton General retailers big boxquot discountwal mart target Costco Amazon BOOKSELLING MARKET Large corporate conglomerates buying out and acquiring other outlets Chains superstores and big box retailers threaten small specialized independent bookshops 0nline booksellers threaten retail book stores Ebookstores fast growing share A few special niches for independents used and rare books religious book stores MARKET SHARE 0F HARDWARE INTERDEPENDENT RELATIONSHIP VISUAL AND PRINT CULTURES Book ideas made into films and TV shows TV shows promote books ex Oprah Celebrities entertainment sports politics write make blockbuster books films Oprah s talk show and book club Children s books on TV and digital media are increasing DIGITAL AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA Blurring of print and electronic cultures Advent of graphic audio and digital books Online reference books databases and searches Digitized books Reading tablets pads readers mobile phones Book industry using computer technology lower costs word processing desktop photomanipulation pagination Reduced costs but increasing prices why Some ideas are It is cheaper to make a book so why haven t the prices gone down High cost makes up for any low sales the store may have Not enough competition to need to lower price ex school textbooks if you have to have it you will buy it for any price Basic economics KEY TERMSHOW TO STUDY FOR THE TEST WORDS a way to identify specific details remember ALL key terms ALL TERMS AT THE END OF EVERY CHAPTER 130 Thursday 11415 951 PM CHAPTER 8 NEWSPAPERS Rise and decline of professional journalismFall and resurrection of newspapers 0 What is news Schiff s definition A handcrafted perishable commodity produced on an industrial scale and schedule 0 1 News monitors government and business 0 2 News documents daily like and ordinary experiences 0 3 News celebrates common experiences 0 4 News prioritizes public concerns 0 AGENTS OF OPPOSITION o Balladeers ramblers commercial correspondents broadsides billboards doggerel cheap poetry 0 First newspaper 1622 in London 0 Tradesmen master craftsmen and pressmen were part of rising social class of selfemployed business owners who had wealth to compare with aristocracy for power 0 In 16005 journeymen had higher levels of literacy than until the 18005 0 Aristocracy outlawed church and public schools for workingmen o In 18305 Chartist movement manhood votequot largest paper was the working class Northern Star with 12 million circulation o Parliamentary supremacy Con ict b w Catholics and Protestants 0 FIRST NEWSPAPERS 0 First books in English 1477 Broadsides 1500 First English paper 1622 First colonial paper 1690 0000 First regularly printed paper 1704 by 1765 there were about 30 newspapers 0 Colonial newspapers in Boston Philly NY southern California FREEDOM OF THE PRESS 0 Benjamin Franklin Pennsylvania Gazette 1729 political party subsidies John Peter Zenger NY Weekly journal 1733 Refused to print with stamp Published by authorityquot of British King Said Gov Wm Cosby quotincompetentquot Popular party opposed British rule 00000 1734 Zenger arrested for I Seditious libel U seditious seditious writing language tending to incite rebellion against government U libel a statement that damages a person s character or reputation COMMERCIAL AND POLITICAL PAPERS O O O Responded to British rule and mercantile capitalism Partisan Press politically bias argued from one perspective Commercial Press served interests of business and economic leaders LIMITED READERSHIP IN 17005 O O Readership primarily elite and educated men WHY I Low literacy rate COLONIAL PARTISAN PRESS O 0000 Stamp Act of 1975 duties on newspapers paper advertising commodities tea Colonial press became more partisan and more revolutionary PartisansSupporters for struggle of independence First national liberation movement Represented adult white men of property born in the colonies without noble title WORKING CLASS PRESS 1600518005 0 To compete newspapers used to be politically partisan identified the public interest represented collective selfinterest point of view of class ethnic and regional coalitions Newspapers supported the most important 19th century social movements I 1 To abolish slavery I 2 To enfranchise women right to vote I 3 To establish right to unionize 8 hour day the weekend health benefits a living wage OSHA Selfidentity of journalism as a calling Printers and j ourneymen were partisans and activists English civil wars revolutions in US France and 3rd world ERA OF THE PENNY PRESS 18305 0 Industrialization Revolution 9 Maturity England Us Decolonized and industrialized 3rd world 100 new nationsquot 0 BENAMIN DAY MY Sun 1833 ltltknow year steam powered presses technologies machinemade paper Iames Gordan Bennett NY Morning Herald 18351924 Horace Greeley NY Tribune 1841 0 Mass Circulation 1 cent and sold on the street Content changes to attract workingclass readers Appealed to factory workers and immigrants in cities Street sales gt subscriptions 0 Penny press changed STRATEGIES and CONTENT Lowered cost to one penny per issue Focus local events scandals and crime Ran serialized stories cowboys Human interest stories Celebrity news society gossip Ran fiction jokes moral essays fashion notes Independent of political parties U separated news and editorial U neutral towards advertisers Penny paper innovations U Revenue base shifted from political party subsidies to advertising and circulation U Insufficient circulation revenue So each newspaper is produced at below the cost of production dependent on advertising revenue ECONOMICS OF MEDIA INDUSTRIES o 1 Direct Revenue from audience circulation subscriptions or point of purchase 0 2 Indirect Revenue advertisers pay for audience access 0 3 Political amp Individual Sponsors o 4 Government subsidies 0 Revenue Distribution for US Dailies I Advertising revenue 80 U Display ads retail ads 40 U Classified ads 28 devastated by online ads U National ads 12 I Circulation revenue 20 U Street sales gt subscriptions El El 0 WIRE SERVICES 0 6 NY newspapers set up cooperative arrangement to gather news over long distances 0 In 1848 founded The Associated Press Subsidized the construction of telegraph lines and became biggest customer Gathered stories from Halifax and relayed news stories around the country Arranged exclusive contracts 242014 Tuesday laterainy day 11415 951 PM ALTERNATIVE NEWSPAPERS Antislavery newspapers Urban African American papers 0 Pittsburgh Courier 0 Amsterdam News 0 Chicago Defender 0 Houston Defender Ethnic or minority newspapers many different communities of immigrants races nationalities languages WORKING CLASS PRESS 1600518005 To compete newspapers used to be politically partisan 0 identified the public interest 0 represented collective selfinterests point of view of class ethnic and regional coalitions Newspapers supported the most important social movements in 19th century 0 1 To abolish slavery o 2 To enfranchise women 0 3 To establish 8 hr day the weekendquot health benefits right to unionize Self identity or journalism as a calling Printers and journeymen were partisans and activists English civil wars revolutions UPPER CLASS TAKES OVER 0 Press became industrial shift to mass scale and cost of presses Required more capital to invest 9 Rise of first chain of newspapers Shift economic dependency subscriptions advertising Shift papers sold at below cost of production Sell audience to advertisers audience becomes commodity Changed content to create buying mood 0 Information news values 9Entertain news values 0 Human interest 0 Sports 0 Crime 0 Sex 0 Fluff amp cutesy Business Office Must BOM Do NOT offend local downtown business elites or advertisers Shifted to neutral independents EFFECTS OF MONOPOLY AND OLIGOPOLY IN US NEWSPAPER INDUSTRY Monopoly on local ad rates 9 High Profits Before and after great recession and quotCOMMERCIALquot ADVERTISINGSUPPORTED PRESS COMPETING 1830519605 quotOBJECTIVE JOURNALISM became dominant model in 20th century in US Reporters strive to maintain a o FACTUAL DISPASSIONATE UNBIASED ATTITUDE Separate news stories from editorial items YES tend to be adversaries of government NOT business NOT supposed to be advocates of any one side Tends to focus on con ict with narrow range of issues Tend to assume only two sides exist Tends to focus on extreme opposites professional NORMS RULES OF OBJECTIVITY FOR PROFESSIONAL IOURNALISTS NO editorializing Facts and only attributed interpretations Limited use of adjectives and adverbs Allow right of reply protect sources be compassionate Reporter not part of the story Invisible wall between news and business side H H Separate news opedquot and advertising Facts assumed to be the same to all men who are rational nonpartisan and Common sense ObSBI VBI S INVERTED PYRAMID A model for news and reporting values 0 Clear concise factual accuracy based on publicly known sources of information 0 Lead paragraph concentrated in main details WHO WHAT WHERE WHEN often omit WHY HOW as too subjective 0 Initially to ensure that primary elements through telegraph transmissions 0 Less partisan to not offend mass audiences and member newspapers 0 Lead angle means each story takes a point of View COUNTERCULTURE in 19605705 and NEW IOURNALISM attacked OBJECTIVITY amp PROFESSIONAL IOURNALISM Advocacy journalism Literary journalism Investigative journalism THIRD MODEL INTERPRETIVE IOURNALISM Rise of radio commentators newspaper columnists and most recently bloggers In 19305 to help public to better understand complex events and issues A style of reporting that puts issues and events in broader social and historical context 0 Explanatory or interpretive analysis labeled News Analysis reporter as expert TV news does little reporting TV entertainment news QampA with print reporters TV news pretends to predict the future rather than describe or explain recent history WALTER LIPPMAN MODEL OF RESPONSIBLE IOURNALISM In 19205 Lippmann re5pon5ible journalismquot 0 In 19405 CORPORATE PUSHBACK MARKETDRIVEN IOURNALISM NEWSPAPERS TV NEWS AND ONLINE ARE CONVERGING USA TODAY 0 used color and vending boxes that looked like tv sets 0 mimicked broadcast news in the use of brief news items color quotes and descriptionquot Online journalism redefines BUSINESS MODEL OPTION SCHIFF INTERPRETATION Pay walls and new online products joint ventures with chains and online companies Buy outs by internet companies Public radio and TV focus on local news National fund for local news Newspapers a5 nonprofit entities and cooperatives Support from wealthy universities Universities become news organizations 262014 Thursday 11415 951 PM CHAPTER 9 MAGAZINES ADAPTING BY SPECIALIZING SEGMENTED AUDIENCES FRAGMENTED MEDIA TARGETED MARKETING HISTORY OF MAGAZINES The word magazine comes from French magasin meaning storehouse or collection A magazine serialized same theme or style A newspaper serialized different themes or styles A book IMPACTS OF MAGAZINES Exposed rural public to urban culture showed country people what city people were doing First national mass medium unlike local newspapers Raised broad social issues to a national level Promoted newly industrialized manufacturers Introduced national advertising 0 Put consumer goods on continuous display Dominant family medium in 19th century Educated housebound women who did not work Magazine Legacy Consumers Average reader examines 6 magazines a month 90 of adults read at least one mag a month Avg household buys 6 mags a year 0 Avg magazine is passed along to 4 adults Avg mag is kept 17 weeks shelf life Avg page is viewed 17 times Mag readers are increasingly upscale and older Avg reader is married homeowner and employed full time FIRST MAGAZINES 17005 In Europe mags served as channels for political commentary and persuasion In American colonies 1741 0 Philadelphia Andrew Bradford s American Magazine and Ben Franklin s General Magazine and Historical Chronicle Characteristics of early magazines 0 Most republished articles from other sources o Often included poetry political essays 0 Less timely than newspapers Slow but steady growth 0 High rate of failure 51 odds of surviving economically Saturday Evening Post 0 First generalinterest magazine appealed to more people Founded 1821 Philadelphia Longest running magazine in US history O O 0 Original stories and republished articles 0 News poetry essays reviews Boom in magazine readership 182 51850 0 Increases in literacy more public education 0 Improvements in rail service enabled shipping 0 Better broadcasting New women s magazines 0 Ladies magazine 182835 I First mag targeting women I Sarah Iosepha Hale merged with o Godey s Lady s Book 18301898 I Played role in educating working class women Enduring magazine subjects 0 Political and social commentary 0 Literature and the arts Specialized topics in 18005 0 Women s issues 0 Religious large readerships 0 Occupational target marketsquot farmers teachers lawyers doctors Largecirculation magazines Postal Act of 1879 lowered mail rates for printed material Increased circulation and ad revenue Improved rail transportation for shipping Improved rotary printing presses Machinemanufactured pulp paper Resulted in lower prices So more accessible to working classes KNOW DEFINITIONS OF MIDDLE CLASS MAGAZINE ADVERTISING Industrialized manufacturers increase output Capitalism inherently expansive workers in local market cannot consume commodities Expands market beyond local production area Bought ad pages to attract consumer attention Appealed to women consumers Interactive new industries 6 9 new magazines Changes consumer goods national marketing New venues for selling consumer goods 0 Department stores dime stores drug stores grocery markets 0 Pointofpurchase sales alternative to hoe subscriptions 1880519205 SET THE CONTEXT MODERN POLITICS AND MASS MEDIA Fully industrialized large bluecollar working class Large number of Italian and Jewish immigrants Monopoly robber barons and city machine bosses Dispersed complex large corporations Growing professionalmanagerial staff Failure of POPULIST PARTY 18761896 0 Rise of oppositional coalition almost displaced Democrats 0 1 White and black share croppers and tenant farmers o 2 City workers and rural farmers o 3 Northern cities and southern rural areas Progressive or Reform era 1896 1920 Magazines in the Progressive Era o Muckraking journalism crusading for social reform on behalf of pubhcgood 0 Yellow journalism emphasized sensational stories including exposes of corruption 0 Social movements against poor living conditions working conditions and unregulated medicines 0 Magazines more than newspapers gave greater depth than newspaper coverage Investigative magazines McCIure s Magazine Lincoln Steffens 1903 6part series The Shame of the Cities Led to quotprogressivequot reform of city governments Ida Tarbell s 1904 19part series about Standard Oil Co led to Supreme Court breaking up monopoly in 1916 CRUSADING MAGAZINES AND NEWSPAPERS SUPPORTED PROGRESSIVE REFORMS Advocated o 1 Women s suffrage 1919 2 Alcohol prohibition 1919 3 Reform of corrupt city bossesquot 4 Regulate big businessquot robber barons OOOO 5 Regulate agencies as 4th branch of government they can create rules ex environmental agency enforce rules act as judges when rules are violated o 6 Proregulatory policy environment 1890s1970s MONOPOLIES more than half of the market is controlled by one company in railroads banking petroleum steel food processing telegraph telephone radio film 0 LAWS o Sherman AntiTrust Act 1890 0 Clayton AntiTrust Act 1913 0 Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 0 Meat Inspection Act 1906 I Upton Sinclair quotThejunglequot 1906 0 Regulatory Agencies 0 Interstate Commerce Commission 1887 I Railroads first federally regulated industry 0 Federal Drug Administration 2 1906 PROGRESSIVE REFORMS 1 Initiative recall impeachment referendum the people can act or change a law 2 Long or Australian ballot vote for judges DA sheriff RR commissioner dog catcher etc 3 Grand Juries 4 Atlarge city council districts so white middleclass majority able to outvote ethnic minority wards 5 Nonpartisan local elections take away party 6 Honest businessmen city managers replace mayor 7 Jim Crow Laws poll taxed literacy tests voter registration 19081970s 8 Merit civil service exams gt patronage 10 Income tax federal reserve banks Monopolies broken up film oil created radio allowed ATampT banks railroads Prohibition against alcohol and drugs 1880519205 IMPACT OF RULES FOR MODERN POLITICS AND MASS MEDIA 1 Lowered voter turnout of white workers Catholics blacks and immigrants non voting voters not only 30 to 50 adults 2 Nonpartisan elections gt political parties 3 Atlarge majority of whites and middle class gt wards with minorities and working classes 4 Direct upper class rule quothonestquot business politicians 5 Downtown business coalitions gt machines replaced machines 21114 Tuesday 11415 951 PM INVENTION OF PHOTOGRAPHY Louise Daguerre and Joseph Niepce first public demonstration 1839 released patent Accepted quickly and completely in US 1850 3 million photos year Coincided with efficacy of largescale manufacturing rationalization Promoted detailed description and control of the visual worlds in science and art PHOTOIOURNALISM Invention of halftone photography in the 1800s to print pictures New photo magazines used visual and graphic material to tell stories PHOTOGRAPHIC REALISM New photo mags promoted idea of photographs as exact copies of reality called photo realism Set new standard for accuracy and truth about nature 0 Science and art assumed to be exact correspondence between picture and reality Representation or mimesis in art and literature Assumed to be precise detailed copies of reality Truth and accuracy became natural facts Objectivity as exclusive form of true knowledge 00000 The ONLY way of seeing not one way of seeing exclusive unappealeable universally recognizable o Supposedly first universal language 0 Ignored cropping angle emulsion and manipulation GENERALINTEREST MAGAZINES BOOM 1920819508 Saturday Evening Post Readers Digest Time amp Newsweek Life amp Look 0 Fall of general interest periodicals Collier s Women s Home Companion Life largest possible passalong audience Look 0000 WHY 0 Was it what the public wanted Really 0 Sold at below the cost of production 0 Marginal change in consumer tastes 0 Falling ad revenues gt circulation revenues o LOWER COST PER THOUSANDquot AUDIENCE cpm WHO SURVIVED o Smaller formats 0 Lower quality photos and paper 0 Relied on supermarket sales rather than subscriptions 0 Controlled circulation magazines vs paid circulation 0 Women s magazines 0 Specialized magazines RISE OF TV GUIDE 0 Established 1953 by Walter Annenberg s Triangle Publications 0 Small format supermarket sales strategy 0 Tapped into rise of tv 0 Regional editions tailored to local channels 0 Bought by Rupert Murdoch s News Corp Ltd In 1988 THE AGE OF SPECIALIZATION From mass marketing to niche marketing Niche an animal or species lives in a place where temp food ecosystem is perfect for them that s the idea for a media niche Product marketing and content strategy 0 O O 0 Either largest possible audience Or niche audience Either general interest content Or specialized interest content Trend to specialization quotTARGET MARKETINGquot OR quotNICHE MARKETINGquot 0 O O O 0 Advertisers prefer small discrete audiences that could be guaranteed Development of regional editions and demographic editions Tailoring both content and ads to segmented demographic audiences Based on reader surveys and public opinion polls Called marketdriven journalism DEMOGRAPHICS Segmented Audience o Dividing consumers into categories based upon age sex occupation socioeconomic class politics geographic location religion lifestyle interests hobbies FRAGMENTED MEDIA Many many more media outlets aimed at communities of readers that share values interests and social identity Magazines organized around jobs age race ethnicity and lifestyle Elite magazines politics and literature 0 Hegemony Antonio Gramsci o The use of force and reproduction of a dominant ideology to gain the willing consent or enduring inaction of masses 0 Dominant Culture reproduced by media industries present ONE version of truth beauty justice and morality COSMOPOLITAN MAGAZINE 0 Critical cultural analysis of media I Mainstream defines standard of beauty I Cover picture white models body shot tall thin long hair solid color background etc homogeneous content I 19642007 only 6 black models I 19902007 3 Hispanic models I Nonwhite magazine editorial staff 6 I Nonwhite US population 30 I So didn t really represent women of society just one type I So hegemony dominant through BOTH force and content U Nationstates replaced kingdoms D Upper class business owners gt nobility often called elites U Nation defined by core coalitionquot of social class ethnicity regions E State a unified territory where a government has a monopoly of force I Media industries are hegemonic U Dominant culture national culture displaces cultures of others U Dominant narrative creates our dreams nightmares boogeymen celebrities U Demonize other peoples as typical or stereotypical U Idolize portrays the way quotwequot should act as if we actually acted that way U Invent reality selectively presents news stories and fictional stories U Takenforgranted background assumptions tfg s U Agents of power supports upper class executives and government officials U Manufacture consent for government policies U Tacit consent persuades voters attentive to the media U Demobilize and disenfranchise working class ethnic minorities and alternative cultures as elites are portrayed as active I WHO IS LEFT OUT WHO IS STEREOTYPED UNFAIRLY U DOMINANT Super wealthy Corporate executives White Anglos Christian Protestant Men North and both coasts Industrialized countries U SUBORDINATE Workers and employees quotPOP MUSICquot BECOMES COMMODITY TO SELL From a cultural activity to cultural commodity Appeals to Largest Possible Audience LPA or to demographic sub groups Appeals to popular tastes and styles not highbrow KEY CHARACTERISTICS RECORDING INDUSTRY 0 Competes with local groups able to create own homemade music tell stories and make speeches 0 So repeatedly adopts more oppositional stance to dominant culture O 0 More internationalized Products are more diverse and less homogenized Banned music and dance forms O 0000 0 Late 1700s European Waltz 1890s Argentine Tango 1920s American Iazz Charleston 1950s 60s Rock and Roll 1970s 90s Punk Grunge 1980s 90s Hiphop Rap Growing market for music 0 O O Vaudeville touring variety shows comedy juggling drama skits Sheet music and the piano craze from 1880s mass market Victrola pictograph 1910 furniture In 1915 30 million phonograph records had been sold Record music boom 1915 1923 Music was played and consumed individually at home Jukeboxes 1933 RISE OF POP MUSIC O 0000 0 Record sales dropped off in 1924 due to the rise of radio Radio 192 32 5 annual license fees ASCAP established music rights fees for radio by 1925 Electric record players 1925 Birth of jazz in New Orleans fusion rhythm amp blues and gospel into swing bands 1930s 1940s Popular vocal stars harmonies and crooners CHANGING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RECORD AND RADIO Advertisers and audiences abandon radio after rise of TV after 1953 Rock n Roll in the 1950s 0 O 0 More than a fad Created a youth culture Only a youth market endured Cooperation cheap music for radio Cheap advertising for record studios O O Royalties issue arose again with music streaming RECORDING AND RADIO INDUSTRIES 1920s Early exploitation and con ict 1930s Courtship between industries 0 1950s Marriage and scandal 0 2000s Maturity and decline Battle of the Speeds 0 Standard format I Vinyl album 78 rpm revolutions per minute 0 CBS William Paley Peter Goldmark I LPs 3313 rpm 1947 0 RCA David Sarnoff I Singles 45 rpm 1948 0 Stand off and falling sales 19481953 0 Agreed on industry standard 1953 0 Historical pattern I Duopoly a monopoly with two companies U Led to technological delay U Sales decline from 19481953 Technological innovation U Depends on owners and investment I Technological progress is inevitablequot FALSE BELIEF ROCK AND ROLL Fused traditions of country RampB and Pop Merged music of black and white cultures in the South No music style ever had such widespread impact Linked and transformed Blurred and broke boundaries 0 Campbell critical cultural analysis Black and white Chuck Berry Elvis Masculine and feminine little Richard Elvis North and south Urban and rural Sacred and secular Ray Charles Jerry Lee Lewis OOOOOO High and low culture FOLK MUSIC 0 Folk music traditionally songs performed by amateur musicians and passed down through oral traditions Bottomsup celebration of everyday life struggles Folk songs were largely forgotten in most of 20th century Grassroots activists like Woodie Guthrie brought back folk music then popularized in live concerts and by radio Mobilized mass movements labor antiwar and social justice Helped change the status quo 19608 COUNTERCULTURE CIVIL RIGHTS ANTIWAR AND FOLK ROCK Acoustic singersongwriters made folk popular Byrds electrified folk in early 1960s to invent folk rock Rock and folkrock celebrated the creation of a youth culturequot of 1960s generation Baby boomers came of age in 1960s Youth marketquot became mainstream in the 1970s Produced a quotdialecticalquot reaction counterculture in 1960s ReaganBush conservatism in 1980s and evangelical Christians and neoconservatives in 2000s Youth culture NOT NOT youth market 21314 Thursday test day 11415 951 PM ALTERNATIVE MAGAZINES Supermarket tabloids Comics Nonprofit online magazines Blogs Zines self published magazines Webzines MAGAZINE INDUSTRY 0 Magazines as organizations 0 Administration and finance 0 Editorial content 0 Advertising and sales 0 Production and technology 0 Circulation and fulfillment 0 Economics 0 Small staffs few editors lt freelance writers 0 Controlled circulation free and bulk delivery 0 Regional editions and international editions content 0 Splitrun editions advertising 0 Demographic editions upscale zipcodes I Who is interested in this magazine River oaks ppl 0 Regional printing centers satellites o Selective edits supplements inserted o Gimmicks scent popups microchips holographs 0 Rate cards often give 25 50 discounts off I what they are supposed to charge and what discount they have 0 High returns like books reduces profits News Hole what is left over 0 Magazines adopt to Eeditions o Epads and etablets suitable for longform stories 0 Online glossy picture format reproduces size and sensation of hard COPY 0 Websites produce replica editions 0 Value added video audio sound tracks back catalogs interactive virtual fitting rooms immediate purchase ID and tracking 0 Advertisers as clients 0 00000 0 Deep decline in advertising spending Shift in ad spending to online Many more businesses allows low budget ads and selfpromotion websites Replaces junkmail yellow pages and local newspaper ads Consumer ratings feedback Anonymous subscription sites no access Auctions and bulletin boards Standalone 0L classifieds ads user pull I Replace newspaper classifieds jobs cars real estate GPS targeted advertising MARKETING MODEL 0 GOO 000 0 Distribution platforms etablets amp epads Evergreen subscriptions auto renewals Controlled circulation Magalogs combining glossy mag and retail catalog to market to employees and repeat customers Mobile phone purchases Electronic surveillance and interactive ads sites 3D ads AR augmented reality Brickandmortar showcasing 0 What drives music fads O O O 1 Audiences prefer newest music most I popular music bandwagon effect 2 Audiences prefer traditional favorites 3 Artists inherently driven to create new and reject old 4 Locals youth and indies always resist nationwide established vanilla music 5 Forprofit companies advertise and promote new styles celebrities because market saturated with old formats Schiffs opinion 0 Mainstream lt gt Alternative 0 O O O Sexually provocative role models and lyrics Danceparty music with heavy beat Audience riots Crosby Sinatra Presley Beatles Stones etc Rebel identity juvenile delinquents antiwar radicals civil rights protestors psychedelic drug use gangstas o Segregation dance halls radio stations charts MTV used to be 0 Cover music I Original black singer songwriters 9 white pop stars I RampB hits cross over into pop charts I Major labels contracts copyrights payola white DI s I More radio time more records more profitable Sequence of format switches 0 Example shows historic pattern I From cassettes to CD S I Better product or more products 0 MARKET STRUCTURES 3 TYPES o 1 Monopoly market one seller many buyers 2 Oligopoly market a few sellers many buyers 3 Perfect market many sellers many buyers 000 Law of supply and demandquot I ONLY true for a perfect market 0 Free marketquot and free tradequot I ONLY true for a perfect model 0 Oligopolies and monopolies are NOT free markets 0 Oligopoly market control 0 A Zerosum strategy rugged competition I Buy up patents resources I Below cost of production competition I Exclusive contracts illegal practices I A few firms survive 9 most go bankrupt o B Winwin strategy oligopoly truce I monopoly competitionquot I Slow innovation U planned obsolescence I Price fixing or price leadership I High stable profits 0 Recording industry 0 Three companies control I 90 of American music market I 80 global market 0 Indies o Criterion to define an oligopoly or monopoly Global Oligopoly 0 So what 0 Causes Inevitable capitalist market trends 0 Consequences Music labels still dominate the industry Alternative voices 0 Indie labels More viable Use internet as low cost distribution and promotional outlet Social networking and video sites used by signed and unsigned artists More artists selfpublish Many unsigned artists remain largely unknown in the noise of so many websites Making selling and profiting from music 0 Making the music Labels are driven by AampR artists and repertoire agents Recording industry as a business 0 Often con ict between Artistic expression Business demands 11415 951 PM
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