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Week 11-14 Lecture notes - COMM 1301

by: Ailia Owen

Week 11-14 Lecture notes - COMM 1301 COMM 1301

Ailia Owen
GPA 2.9
Media and Society
Frederick Schiff

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About this Document

These are the week 11-14 lecture notes. Schiff is very detailed in his test questions. DO NOT STUDY GENERALITIES
Media and Society
Frederick Schiff
Comm, Communications, Media and Society, 1301, Schiff, notes, Lecture, UH, University of houston, detailed, outline, class notes
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This 34 page Bundle was uploaded by Ailia Owen on Wednesday January 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to COMM 1301 at University of Houston taught by Frederick Schiff in Spring2014. Since its upload, it has received 252 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Communication Sciences and Disorders at University of Houston.

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Date Created: 01/14/15
Advertising Industry Chapter 11 11415 952 PM During industrialization advertising grew 0 Large manufacturers produced 0 Excess local finishedconsumer goods 0 Brand name packaging gt generic bulk sales 0 Manufacturer trademarks set retail prices 0 Department stores gt General stores 0 Chemicals patent medicines gt drug stores O 0 First advertising agencies 0 More ad placements more revenue 0 National railroads ltgt national magazine ads Advertising in 1880519205 0 Farms and towns 0 Isolated self sufficient lowdemand 0 Retail stores generic products sold in bulk 0 National manufacturers railroads department stores and national magazine ads gt all increased domestic consumptionretail goods 0 Product differentiation based on a brand name or trademark 0 Claim higher quality 0 Packaged goods at higher prices Early Regulation of Advertising 0 Government Regulations 0 Food and Drug Administration 1906 0 Federal Trade Commission 1914 0 Voluntary Industry selfregulation 0 Better Business Bureau BBB 1913 0 Audit Bureau of Circulations ABC 1914 0 American Association of Advertising Agencies AAAA 1917 Advertising Social Change 0 Most influential in fully industrialized countries 0 Fewer blue collar workers more white collar consumers o Marginal technological advances mostly style changes Planned and forced obsolescence backward incompatible 0 7590 of consumer products fail 0 Less price competition less focus on technical characteristics 0 More perceived qualityquot competition 0 Product differentiation Addriven firms successfully increase sales of dominate firms 0 Advertised products at consistently inflated prices Shift focus to women as primary decision makers and to image value of products 0 Advertising both creates and partly satisfies desires and needs of consumer Modern and PostModern changes 0 Shift from agrarian and smalltown life to big city lives 0 urbanization gt suburbs gt mega cities Shift from production to consumption ethos 0 Production Ethos scarce durable products and hard work 0 Work ethic save money 0 Consumption Ethos surplus disposable products and lifestyle 0 Manufacturing center and domestic consumption shifting to 3rd world countries BRIC Asian Tigers 1 2nd and 4th worlds stagnant or becoming poorer Ads finance most mass media industries Ads worth 507 billionyear Media ads 152 billionyear Indirect payment from advertisers underwrite 0 Radio broadcast TV Internet 0 Mixed payment industries 0 Newspaper magazines cable digital Direct payment industries 0 Films recordings books That are not advertising supported Advertising continues to adapt 0 Traditionally driven by words and slogans 0 Ad copywriters 0 After 19605 increasingly based on visual design 0 European designers and graphic artists 0 Post modern image fragments 0 Mid 19805 TV ads based on MTV model 0 Rapid edits off center camera angle compressed narrative staged performances sampling hit songs Influence of Visual Design 0 19905 0 Advertising mimicked features of the Web with drop down menus 20105 0 Ads are more threedimensional and interactive 0 Design is simpler a5 ads and logos need to appear clearly on small screens of smartphones and more international for global audience Structure of Ad Aqencies Market Research 0 Both advertising and PR needs to know their target audiences or publics 0 To create messages test effective strategies frame issues and set the public agenda Mail and telephone surveys Focus groups Selfselected feedback from public Testimonials of entertainment sport celebrities 0 Use Social science Census data questionnaires polls focus groups data collection and data mining from cookies online social networks and credit cards 0 Types of consumers and audiences 0 Use psychographic characteristics Values lifestyles habits purchasing behavior motivation self concepts life goals life cycle status 0 Large increase in TV ad expenses after 19605 0 More ad revenue gt more research 0 New sales methods Direct mail inserts telemarketing point of purchase product placement zip code specific target marketing mobile advertising GPS specific local 0 Ad companies today Audit Bureau of Circulations 1914 Young amp Rubicam Gallup Claritas Scarborough Simmons Stanford Research Institute 0 Creative Development 0 Ads as a commercial art form 0 Media Selection media buyers 0 Corporate Management 0 Account management 0 Marketing integratedstrategic Communication Advertising account executive Public relations 0 Account Planners 0 Develops advertising strategy 0 Coordinated market research Used to assess the behaviors and attitudes of consumers toward particular products Demographics psychographics 0 Creative development 0 Ad writers and artists Outline rough sketch Storyboard TV Web sites flash games downloads and viral marketing digital 0 Neither creative nor strategic sides of the business can predict with any certainty which ads and which campaign will succeed 0 Media coordination 0 Media buyers Choose and purchase media based on suitability target audience and effectiveness ads Incentive clauses encourage saturation 0 Account and client management Account executives n Bring new business manage accounts Megaagency Advertising 0 Worldwide regional offices Fullservicequot agencies 0 Both advertising and PR 0 Agency s 1015 commission 0 In house cost 0 Often in house ad departments with radio and TV production studios Big ad firms buy boutique agencies 0 Big ad firms buy smaller PR firms Advertising Industry 0 Ad spending 2004 o 498 billion worldwide 0 266 billion in US 53 o 2012 o 507 billion worldwide 0 152 billion in US 3000 0 Mega agenciesglobal ad revenue 0 Shake out period since 2005 0 US ad spending dropped almost 50 0 Global ad spending remained flat Advertising is pervasive Saturation TV ads 0 Forced exposure in K12 schools Billboards Naming rights to public venues 0 Corporate logos on clothes 0 Direct to consumer prescription drug ads Product placement 0 Ads in movies TV video games comic books FTC and FCC 0 Petition to mandate warnings o Mandates rejected by FI39C 0 FCC proposed placement rules Who regulates 0 State Legislation captured by industry 0 ALEC American Legislative Executive Council 0 Federal oversight watchdog agencies 0 FTC FCC DOJ Professionalindustry associations 0 NAB RIAA NAA Federal Trade Commission 0 Deceptive advertising illegal Puffery exaggeration allowed 0 FTC can require advertisers to remove or change an ad or run a correction FTC can seek civil penalties cannot fine no criminal prosecution o 1971 TV tobacco ads annex o 1998 billboard tobacco ads banned 0 2013 JP Morgan hedge fund Consumer Rights Movement 0 19705 unsafe cars and nuclear energy 0 class actions asbestos breast implants tobacco Enforced product safety and corporate liability Unsafe at any speedquot and Silent Springquot 0 19805 corporate response complaints department exchange policies ombudsmen 0 1990s corporate response tort reformquot 0 limit corporate liability and dollar amount 0 Limit constitutional right to redress through courts 0 Limits individual and class action suits ALEC model lawsquot passed in most states by Congress Persuasive Techniques 0 To associate a product with a cultural value or image that 0 Famous person testimonial 0 Plain folk pitch 0 Snob appeal approach Bandwagon effect 0 Hidden fear appeal Dissociation Corollary 0 Irritation advertising Misidentification Handmade quirky authentic 0 Natural real Invisible stereotyping Missing demographic segments Narrative 0 Characters setting lot Plots with implicit conflict 0 Between characters or social values Negotiated or resolved 0 By using or purchasing the advertised product Common Elements 0 Attract saudiences Only programs that promote buying mood 0 Media sells audience to advertiser 0 Ads set scene familiar problems tensions desires conflicts Pitch buy X product gt solve Y problem 0 Suspend disbelief in Thursday Public Relations Framing 11415 952 PM Irving Goffman picture frame on stage frame Social frame everyday life and presentation of self are socially constructed language categories Media Frame events and issues put in context Conflict inherently draws attention Foreground protagonist grabs the spotlight Defines the issueatstake for an onstage audience Resonates with interests and identities of onstage background bystandersmobilized become partisans Ignore offstage others their problems existence Simulacrum Jean Baudrillard Simulacrum simulation of something without the original object ever existing Hyper real media images without a factual reality ex Disneyland Avatar Representation or correspondence 0 A word or phrase or concept refers to an object o Binary categories and characteristics manwoman black white Modern photo journalism vs post modern image reality Everyday lived reality vs mediated virtual reality Remember Big Ideas Age of mass reproduction mass consumption Commodification of culture cultural activities become cultural products for sale and for profit for profit culture Commercialization of everyday life Spectacles events created by media Framing structure of dramatic presentation Pseudo Events events staged for media Simulacrum a media image for which no original exists How does advertising differ from PR 0 Public relations promoting an image of a corporation institution policy program or individual 0 Promotes a company or client by creating favorable publicity to get free media coverage 0 Promote corporate images and strategies 0 Need direct access to top exec s and overall strategy 0 Advertising product differentiation brand or trademark based increasingly on emotive images and imagined gratification and less on technical utility and rational choice 0 Controlled paid publicity a company or client buys space or time in the media 0 Sells product 0 One department in a firm BOTH use market research 0 Park of marketing department or integrated marketing communication Social and Cultural Impact of PR 0 Help define relationship between business and their publics Rebuild corporate images 0 Helped subordinate the news media to corporate power 0 Reduced political decision making to media spectacle and politicians to media products PR as a Profession late 18005 Railroads used government lobbyists and bribed reporters to ensure good publicity 0 Utility companies used questionable publicity tactics to mislead public 0 Early press agents promoted and publicized clients 0 Promoters used stunts and existing media channels to shape myths Origins of PR I Arose in the era of industria robber baronsquot Accompanied power shift to a corporate society 0 Helped define the publicquot as consumers not workers Ivy Ledbetter Lee 0 Founder of modern PR 0 Advocated honesty and directness Realized all objective facts were open to multiple interpretations Clients included Penn Railroad and John D Rockefeller Standard Oil 0 PR from beginning worked for corporations Edward Bernays Former journalist Applies mass psychology and sociology Gained direct access to senior executives at major corporations GE GM PampG RCA American Tobacco Taught PR at NYU Developed propaganda during WWI 0 Master at manipulating public opinion Modern PR 0 Changed relationships between 0 Corporations 0 Politics 0 The public 0 Journalism The Rise of Public Relations 0 18151914 Britain and European empires rule the world 0 Late 18005 Social Darwinismquotjustifies domination by superior white men 0 Freud discovers the unconscious and mass psychology 0 PR professionals and new media allow elites to manipulate the masses 0 PR is response of corporate robber barons to counter act investigative journalism to limit populist protest o Elites ok with progressive reforms Radio and film new media extended access to the masses The magic bullet theory wrong media content has strong direct effects During WWI elites recognize successfully able to manipulate public opinion By 2005 global media oligopolies give upper class elites control of the means of mass communication Permanent securitysurveillance state allows government total control Special interest PR professionals outnumber public interest journalists Formal PR Education PR grown since 19805 in colleges and universities Journalism was downsized Courses in professional ethics and issues management Programs prepare student to be professional communicators to represent responsible corporate citizensquot and NGOs PR Firms Today Inhouse PR departments within companies and organizations Fullservice agencies often subsidiaries of larger advertising PR conglomerates Independent PR agencies 0 Not one of the megaagencies Boutique PR agencies PR activities PubHcty Media relations Press agents and PAOS contact to companies Newsletters Public affairs talk to larger public Lobbying amp government relations Issues management Financial PR stocks in public business 0 Community relations 0 Industry relations Minority relations 0 Advertising 0 Promoting Propaganda What is Propaganda Persuasive communication strategically designed and placed to gain public support for an issue program policy or person 0 To change attitudes or behavior 0 To change public opinion of the masses Writing and Editing Functions 0 Accessing aggregating and subsidizing the collection of information to distribute to the news media 0 Preparing 0 Public Service Announcements PSAs 0 Video News Releases VNRs 0 Creating brochures newsletters and annual reports Media Relations 0 Securing favorable coverage in the news media for a client or organization Involves arranging publicity Also involves damage control or crisis management 0 May involve paid advertising Crisis Management 0 ExxonValdez oil spill failure 0 Tylenol poisoning success 1982 WaIMart small town bankruptcies undersold products and put small businesses out Levi Strauss sweat shops 0 Kuwait false Congressional testimony baby oxygen death fake Apple diffuse fact iPod still made in Chinese sweat shops Coordinating Special Events Corporatesponsored festivals and events 0 Corporate sponsorship of charities and community activities Aligns company image with a cause 0 Shows company s commitment to the local community Market Research Both advertising and PR need to know their target audience 0 To create message test effective strategies frame issues and set the public agenda 0 Mail and telephone surveys 0 Focus groups 0 Self selected feedback from public Consumer Relations Many publics or stakeholders Involves building relationships between companies and their communities Mandate involvement of employees in community activities Charitable donations to local causes 0 Strong customer service and consumerrelated education Lobbying and Government Relations Candidate recruitment fund raising 0 Campaign consultants message control 0 Lobbying attempting to influence the votes of lawmakers to support a client s best interest 0 Monitor sponsor and write legislation 0 Iron Trianglequot or revolving doorquot among 0 PR lobbyist lawyers 0 Government officials 0 Big business contractorsexecs 0 Business round table top 200 corporation CEOs ALEC American Legislative Executive Council 0 GHP Greater Houston Partnership Tensions between PR and Journalism 0 A mutually antagonistic relationship and a mutually dependent relationship 0 How are they antagonistic and dependent at the same time o Journalists need them as sources 0 PR needs them to write favorable stories World Systems 11415 952 PM Types of world systems 0 Countries use unequal military power to gain economic benefits 0 Ancient and medieval world empires 0 One government many cultures many economies 0 Exchange tribute and trade in luxury goods spices silk gold jewels 0 World system of capitalism 0 One economic unit many governments many cultures 0 Exchange long distance trade of basic commodities New World Orderquot doesn t exist yet 0 one culture one economic unit maybe one government 0 exchange global trade of cultural and information products World Capitalist System origins Started 15505 in Netherlands food trade C Herring fishing fleet for PolishGerman oats barley rye wheat Displaced in 16005 by England wool and textiles 0 Putting outquot system piece work 0 Village within fiefdom inherited rights to use land and commons 0 Enclosure of the commonsquot fences to claim entire estate 0 Factory system 0 Division and specialization of labor gt more efficient product 0 Owners use higher technology tools to cut labor costs 0 Local workers couldn t afford and cant consume all production 0 Sales to elites and middle classes in local and domestic market 0 Covers production costs but superprofit from external marketsquot Trilateral trade 0 Raw materials from rural areas wool or colonies cotton sugar 0 Manufacturing products in citiesimperial countries o Surplus sold at dumping prices to comprador classesquot in colonies 0 Core countries richer gt peripheral countries poorer Seven Defining Characteristics of Capitalist mode of Productionquot Ownership of raw materials Ownership of tools factory production equipment Ownership of final product basic commodities copyrights Workers make product but don t own products once made 0 Indigenous workers cant pay for them 5 Longdistance export of surplus products to outside of the production area 6 Profit realized by sale to comprador sectors to consumer middle sectors at home and to foreign elites 7a Profit reinvested to expand scale of enterprise 7b Profit reinvested in more efficient technology P901 Hierarchy of Regions gt Rise of Nation states 0 Core countries high technology high wages and high capital investment 0 Periphery countries low technology low wages and low capital investment Semiperipheral countries regional economic powers and puppet military powers Iran Israel Pakistan 0 Outside regions conquered or integrated into capitalist world Africa since 1989 no more outside regions World Capitalist Systemsuper powers Competition among core countries for hegemony Dutch gt displaced by British 155016005 0 British rivals Spanish and French 0 British gt displaced by Americans 19141939 0 US rivals Japanese and Germans 19141945 0 Americans gt displaced by China 20002023 0 China rivals EU and BIRC Brazil India Russia Wealth and power in dominating rivals BECAUSE Governments always used to change market rules Puppet governments military or dictators always used 0 To take over natural resources Iraq Iran Guatemala 0 To force open consumer markets China Japan CAFTA 0 To suppress alternative models Chile Cuba Haiti Venezuela 0 To overcome national liberation movements internal opposition Statesponsored terrorismquot used against indigenous peoples in countries on periphery Algeria Guatemala Vietnam Palestine Iraq Largest corporations are US 0 Not because of better or cheaper products World Capitalist System stages Mercantile Capitalism 135017105 0 Italy Holland Britain France 150019005 0 Industrial Capitalism 0 1st Industrial Revolution 17605 steam engine 0 England France Germany US Japan Italy G7 0 239quotI Industrial Revolution 18805 electricity oil steel chemicals 0 Financial Capitalism 191419705 0 WWI military competition to become dominant hegemonic nann US becomes largest creditor nation no longer debtor nation 1st wave of MampA 1880s18905 gt depressions 2ncl wave of MampA 1920 gt 1929 crash 0 WWII as military competition to become Monopoly Capitalism globalization 197320205 0 100 countries freed 1960 0 OPEC monopolizes oil 1973 0 3rd wave of MampA 19732007 gt 2008 bubble burst 0 capital flight NE gt South gt maquiladoras Mexican factories gt 7 Asian Tigers major problem is outsourcing OOO World Capitalist System commodities Always seek to control four types of goods 0 Conquered for natural resources Americans panama Guatemala Iraq 0 Access to consumer market forced opening of Japan and China 0 Access to cheap labor outsourcing by moving to Mexico or Asia 0 Invest surplus capital at super profit rate Mercantile and Financial Capitalism Delayed 3rd world industrialization Industrial made richer Peripheral made poorer o Triangular trade raw materials from Americas go to manufacturing core then go to elites in overseas markets 0 Deteriorating terms of tradequot price of rare manufactured goods always inflated more rapidly then raw materials prices 0 Deeper and deeper in debt Argentina Brazil and Mexico had the fastest economic growth during 19305 and 19405 when native infant industriesquot grew US sponsored military in Argentine and Brazil borrowed at high interest rates in 19705 Debt crisis in 19805 and 19905 IMF and World Bank impose austerity to re finance loans WTO enforce old neoliberalquot policy including sell off stateowned utilities as bargain prices Four Market types 0 Perfect markets 0 Many buyers an sellers of roughly equal size 0 Ideological code words free marketquot anyone can sell at any price free enterprisequot anyone can become a seller free tradequot minimum government interference n lasiez faire Monopoly competition o Monopoly is illegal in US and Europe 0 A market with many differentiated but related products called network markets 0 In each niche market only a few oligopoly firms compete o Monopolistic competitionquot effectively limits the diversity of choices available to consumers and creates conglomerates Each oligopoly in each niche market raises prices tiers 0 European Democratic Capitalism Continuum of mixed capitalist societiesquot post property and major industries in private sector but some government owned big businesses Government firms own nationa natural resources Competition between private corporations and government owned companies in key industries state run companiesquot Strong regulation of big business anti monopoly laws enforced Private ownership of final product commodities copyrights Social contractquot with workers guarantees living wagesquot and socialized healthcare and free education system political unionism multiple political parties and parliamentary system political speech subsidized by access to media higher level of political knowledge education and direct participation people vote whenever a crisis over major policies socialized medicine and public mass transit III Industrial to Post industrial periods Postindustrial society based on surplus of more goods than are needed Top 20 no longer experience scarcity Surplus of production leads to cultivation of niche markets rather than largest markets Centralized mass production to decentralized global production Information storage and retrieval allows for just in time production and inventory on a global basis 0 Middle sectors have more disposable income and discretionary time to buy and use culture products and entertainment 1945 Us force Britain and France give up colonies 19605 UN create more then 100 new nations Super power hegemon dominates hegemonic countries 0 From imperialism to neo imperialism Core countries change 0 From direct military and administration control 0 To indirect economic and cultural control 0 Called neoimperialism and cultural imperialismquot Financial Capitalism impact media industries 0 Rise of consolidated media corporations multinational cross media oligopoly conglomerates Increasingly homogenized media products more product selection but copycat vanilla similarities Rise of specialized niche markets 0 Cross product synergy between divisions within MNC and branded advertising 0 Global end game under Triple Whammy US media succeeds globally 0 Media products sold at below cost of production 0 Large scale production cheaper economies of scale 0 Meet break even costs within large US market 0 Cheaper manufacturers move production off shore out of US Third World nations 0 American media products sold below cost Domestic consequences 0 Subordinate groups in core countries 0 Cooptation accept individual benefits and policies from elites o Ignore collective self interest and 0 Accept taken for granted ideology Expeditionary wars and convert Wealth redistribution 0 Peter Schumpeter business cycle are 11 year waves of creative destruction when invest in high tech product substitutes replace the saturated markets in maturing industries 0 1880518905 Gilded Age 0 19205 Roaring 205 o 1970520005 Information Age Chapter 13 PoliticalEconomy of the Media 11415 952 PM Documentary Told people invisible hand was a lie in economy 0 Promised to protect them 0 No matter what 0 Chaves o Critic of Us Friend with Castro 1998 elected wanted to rid Venezuela of free market Bouillon revolution believed globalization will destroy world proglobal self interested 0 weekly radio and TV show to directly talk to him wanted people to have access to government claimed war on Afghanistan was unnecessary and wrong 0 Private media strongly opposed him 0 Claimed he was mentally ill Grandpa was a revolutionary and killed people murderer vs fighter OOOO Venezuela 0 large oil supply Chaves pushed up oil prices for US 0 Rich opposed him 0 Believed he was going to instill communism 0 Poor encouraged people to read 0 Liked him because he was going to redistribute the wealth 0 Wanted to control oil 80 by the people not private business 0 Military started to oppose him after US expressed concerns Opposition and supporters gather around palace Snipers start shooting 0 Media manipulates to make it look like supporters shot at innocent protestors 0 Military stops supporting Chaves 0 Media is palaces only connection to public Ask for them to handover Chaves n Refused to resign 0 Military threatens to bomb the palace n Chaves hands himself over 0 Doesn t resign o The next day media basically admits to the army being the ones shooting in the crowd New press 0 Dissolved supreme court head general 0 Basically a dictatorship o Chaves supporters not allowed on TV 0 Inside guards get control of palace fro Chaves supporters 0 Previous cabinet members come back 0 Lower ranking military willing to help Chaves o Realized higher power was lying to them Coup News 11415 952 PM News is Record of daily events Miscellaneous collection of real time stories that are prioritized and selected information Marginalizing and censoring information Whatever he who owns the media says it is Stories told by the upper class agents of power The manufacture of consent The invention of reality Stories told by revolutionary working class printers News is Campbell A way of gathering information o From living people not from books 0 From primary source people in a position to knowquot 0 Through interviews and observation 0 From authorized sources authorities topdown government officials business execs experts A way of telling nonfiction narrative stories Factual and descriptive Information is attributed to publicly knowable sources Stories have an angle The rest of the story supports or elaborates on one factual point Stories develop in real time with an unknown outcome 0 The story narrative is often about conflict 0 The writing style is based on rules of objectivity 0000 O Competing models of Journalism Partisan Model owned by politicians or parties Frequent in Britain and Latin America Sensational Model competing market driven owners Wherever cities with competing newspapers Campbell story model Professional Model emphasizing describing events and issues from a neutral perspective Dominant in US Campbell information model Working Interpretive Model emphasizes interpretive analysis of happenings and journalistic advocacy Typical in Europe Class Printers as Partisans In Britain 1640516805 the fight for parliamentary supremacy self employed printers identified with self employed capitalists because bother were commoners In 1820518405 fight for manhood suffrage favored by both printers and workers Media owners become super wealthy In 1970520105 upper class struggles to redistribute wealth to the monopoly capitalists Working journalists join professional stratum 0 Identify with 20 most affluent Social class origins Nobles clergy commoners Feudal System 476 AD to 15505 three social classes or estates 0 Nobles or aristocracy large land owning military 0 Clergy Roman Catholic Church o Commoners master trade craftsman journeymen apprentices and peasants Local self sufficient farming Fiefdoms kingdoms and empire Tribute and exchange of precious luxuries Low investment low technology low wages Poverty ignorance disease war World Capitalist System Two new social classes 0 Bourgeois burghers or capitalists 0 Blue collar working clad Increasing division of labor 0 City vs Rural Manufacturing vs Agriculture 0 Core countries vs Peripheral region Food raw material metals technology 0 Increasing specialization of labor 0 More and more workers 0 Better technology in manufacture International exchange of basic commodities Formation and liberation of nation states Hegemonic core manufacturing countries Political Economy ltgt Social Classes 0 Social classes arise and disappear o Capitalist cass 15505 0 Blue coar working class 1760518305 0 White coar working class 1880519105 Revisionist History National unification o All the core countries created from a core region Unified through conquests and civil wars 0 Spain England France Germany Italy Russia Japan and United States 0 Create new nationstates Monopoly of military control of territory 0 Rise of new social class 0 Core coalition takes control of government 0 Upper class ethnic communities and manufacturing regions 0 Controls government the state Defines national identity the nation Hegemony Political Economy of NationState 0 To use of force or threat of force and the reproduction od dominant ideology to gain the willing consent or enduring inaction of the masses 0 Political Economy of the Media 0 Mass communication industries support Professional Journalists coincides with 0 Upper class owns big business trading manufacturing banking Employed blue collar working class 0 Rise of a new class 1880519205largest after 19705 0 big business bureaucracies need middle level staff 0 two strata middle managers professionals technicians clerical sales and security workers 0 Employed white collar working classquot Professional journalists PR actors Collective self interest of professional journalists 0 Conflict and confusion because they 0 Identify with the values and goals of rich owners and big business managers 0 TFG believe salary depends on individual merit 0 Accept professional status gt off the clock 0 12 hour days whatever it takes 0 But experience the standard of living and limited life chances of employed blue collar working class 0 Journalists part of the white collar working class 0 TFG Identify the public as consumers not as workers Two views of Society Pluralist perspective 0 US is classless society almost everyone in middle class 0 American Dream open social mobility anyone can make it financial success three generation melting pot o Wealth and corporate executives achieved merit and competition 0 Leaders reflect election public opinion public interest 0 US exceptionalism highest income best education and best health in the worlds 0 Critical cultural perspective 0 Most powerful upper class coalition has commend and control 0 The culture of the upper class becomes dominant ideology though taken for granted and routinely unnoticed background assumption 0 Plus a consensus exists on a narrow range of uses 0 Upper class rule of government is legitimate The Press as the Fourth Estatequot in England and American colonies 0 Only media activity necessary to democratic government 0 Only media industry protected in many national constitutions Freedom of the Pressquot 0 working class printers Theories of Media content 0 Media Influences many factors influence new messages Industries gt Messages 0 Media Effects media messages have effects on audience message gt Audience News 11415 952 PM Theories of News Content Enduring unanswered question in media sociology 0 Why are some stories given coverage and others ignored Influence theories of news content News Values objective natural factsquot 0 Standard of objectivity of natural facts or events Agenda Setting 0 News topics setting relevant subjects or issues 0 Geographic coverage local state national international Rituals and Conventions of media organizations 0 Rules of practices Political Ideology political biases Dominant Ideology Hegemonic Vs Oppositional Market Driven Journalism newsroom sacred cowsquot Corporate Ownership Organizational culturequot of company Communication Technology medium channel network News Values newsworthiness or news judgment Timeliness up to dates Proximity close to home Consequence Conflict Useful Information weather price of gas Unusualness 0 Novelty man bites dog 0 Deviance child porn ring busted Human interest emotional Prominence celebrities covered THICCUPP News values and criteria of what is newsworthy Flat mirror reflects reality About natural facts and daily events Observable by any unbiased rationa III person Professionals are supposed to use objective standards Agenda Setting issue domains 0 Hallins donut Daniel Hallin Sphere of consensus center 0 One POV 0 Issue domains perspective where elites agree to celebrate dominant culture Mai Lai everyone killed by US patrol Sphere of legitimate controversy 0 Issue domains perspectives where upper class elites disagree Tet offensive quagmire unwinnable Sphere of deviancecensorship 0 Things that do not get into newspapers 0 Issue domains perspective where upper class elites agree to censor subordinatealternative culture 1968 Upper Class agenda 0 Yankee liberal Democrats and Cowboy conservative republicans Media Agenda a Public Agenda Reporting 11415 952 PM Reporting Rituals Focusing on the present 0 Tell human interest stories 0 Getting good visuals Rely on experts and officials Balancing story conflict Acting as advertisers to government ad friendly reporting No editorializing Writing formula Inverted pyramid formula First lead paragraph only one sentence with 5 W s and H questions and attribution Short sentences short paragraphs present tense indicative mood Two sides to every story Attribute primary sources for all questionable facts to publicly knowable sources No editorializing and no unattributed interpretations SPJ Code of Ethics Seek truth and report it Minimize harm compassion Act independently of interests or ideology Be accountable to the public more than owners and advertisers Political Ideology Liberal vs Conservative bias Repeated nation wide surveys show that journalists are middle of the road and differ little from the public opinion 1971 1982 19922002 Slightly more liberal on social issues Slightly more conservative on economic and foreign policy issues Ultra conservatives within right wing of Republican Party successful campaign to attack and take over mainstream media funded by centimillionaires and corporations 1960520105 Part of declining trust in US institutions Professional Organizational culture Organizational ideology the assumption beliefs and practices that are taken for granted and routinely ignored 0 Ethnocentrism Responsible capitalism 0 Small town patriotism Individualism Dominant Ideology in news TFGs assumed routinely ignored 0 Leaders taking care of problems 0 Demobilize the public Portrays normality and conformity o Deviance and rebellion are dangerous 0 Middle classquot values are natural 0 Wacky if not materialistic consumerism Managerial point of View presented 0 Workers and little people voiceless o Worthy and unworthy sources Medium gt Content 0 Values of text vs Values of image 0 Text good for presenting ideas explanations consequences relationships abstract ideas numbers interpretations patterns trends 0 Images good for emotion action description conflict Informational values 0 Value of text newspapers consequence usefulness VS 0 Entertainment values 0 Value of image TV news prominence human interest novelty deviance timeliness BOTH conflict local From industrial to post industrial changing dominant culture Maw Weber o Protestant Ethic gt Spirit of Capitalism Thrift honest hard work gt saveinvest money 0 Horatio Alger myth self reliance hard work luck gt success 0 From production ethos work ethos scarce durable products and hard work 0 to Consumption ethos buying mood surplus disposable products and lifestyle 0 Post industrial society based on surplus of more goods than are needed 0 Top 20 no longer experience scarcity Surplus of products leads 0 To cultivation of niche markets rather than largest markets 0 Centralized mass production 0 To decentralize global production 0 Information storage and retrieval allows for 0 Just in time production and inventory on a global basis 0 Middle sectors have 0 More disposable income and discretionary time 0 To buy and use culture products and entertainment 0 Rise of service industries in store acts web hosting 0 Cultural products become commodities The Triple Whammy 0 Great Recession history esp long term 0 Dismantle social contract and labor unions 0 Private take over of government institutions 0 Convergence technology esp digital o Combining multiple media into a single digital platform Text graphics audio video and film 0 Consolidation economics esp corporate 0 Concentration or integration of ownership 0 Fewer and bigger big businesses 0 Called global cross media conglomerate oligopoliesquot Advertising Industry 0 Ad spending 2004 o 498 billion worldwide 0 266 billion in US 53


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