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Sociology Notes Education & Race (Chapters 9-10)

by: Julia Machuga

Sociology Notes Education & Race (Chapters 9-10) Soci 20213

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Sociology > Soci 20213 > Sociology Notes Education Race Chapters 9 10
Julia Machuga
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These are my notes from Intro Sociology on chapters 9 and 10.
Introductory Sociology
Michelle Edwards
sociology, Chapter, notes, 9, 10
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Machuga on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Soci 20213 at Texas Christian University taught by Michelle Edwards in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 03/24/16
Julia Machuga Intro Sociology RACE  Races: Caucasian, Asian, African American, Latino, Middle Eastern, etc.  What can we look at to determine what race a person is? – Skin color, facial features, style, hair style/textures, accent, cultural norms  Sociologists argue that race is not measured biological  Social Construction of Race: means that we construct what race means socially & that this construction is contingent on social & historical processes  There are different racial categories for different countries The Changing Legal Definitions of Race:  In the US, when segregation was legal & marriage between different races was forbidden, there were different definitions of “black”  Example: Kentucky = anyone with ¼ or more “Negro” blood was black… Louisiana = 1/16 of more “Negro” blood was black, etc.  Ethnicity: has to do with shared cultural heritage (ex. language, customs, views)  People often talk about one’s “origin” or “ancestry” as a way of referring to ethnicity  Race vs. Ethnicity:  Racism: belief that members of separate races (or ethnicities) possess different & unequal traits, can be overt or subtle, can result in prejudicial views or discrimination  Prejudice: an unjustified & negative judgment of a person, situation, or thing based on limited or incorrect information  Discrimination: act of unfair treatment directed against individual or group  Individual (“taste-based”) discrimination: when an individual intentionally discriminates against another individual or group of individuals (people identifying Muslims as terrorists)  Statistical Discrimination: when decision makers (often employers) use average group characteristics (or stereotypes) as “Rational” proxies to evaluate individual job candidates  Institutional Discrimination: denial of opportunities & equal rights to individuals & groups that result from the normal operation of society (aka institutional racism)  White privilege: white people have privileges because of their racial identity, including the privilege of not having to think about race much at all  White people typically pay no price for dismissing claims of racism because of power differences Why race continues to be important in the U.S…  White people typically have advantage of knowing that their perceptions of the world are the ones that define the norm for everyone else  White people tend to be treated as individuals. They don’t have to represent the whole group & can avoid being stigmatized by the actions of others who just so happen to fall within the same racial group EDUCATION What works? - Small classes - Professor accessibility - Access to online resources What doesn’t work? - Standardized testing - One-size-fits-all learning - Idea that everyone has to go to college - Online textbooks Education: process through which academic, social & cultural ideas are developed Theoretical perspectives on higher education: Functionalism: sees education as essential for an orderly & efficient society - Socialization & other functions, official & hidden curriculum - Manifest (intended) function: teaching reading, writing, arithmetic, job skills, etc. - Latent (unintended) function: socializing students to accept dominant cultural values (ex. be respectful, be on time) - Functions: encourage social solidarity, teach social rules contribute to the division of labor Conflict Theory: sees educational system as perpetuating social inequality - Prestige hierarchy of schools, cultural capital - Cultural Capital: symbolic & interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations (more capital = more power) o Examples: skills, tastes, posture, clothing, mannerisms, material belongings, credentials - Credentialism: 50 years ago, high school diploma was a minimum requirement for entry into the paid U.S. labor force. But, many argue that the minimum is a college diploma o Educational credentials are more important as status symbols rather than actual indicators or achievement of skill Symbolic Interaction: sees education as interaction in the social setting of the school - Labeling, self-fulfilling prophecy - How can we explain students’ educational outcomes? - Teacher-student impacts: how do teachers’ expectations of students impact their achievement? - Peer-to-peer impacts: how do students’ peers impact their educational outcomes?  Trends in education: increase in people graduating from high school & college, greater annual earnings from workers with bachelor’s degree of more  Inequality in education: whites value a college degree more and non- whites more commonly feel that it wouldn’t make a difference since they aren’t white


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