ARHI 3100 - Asian Art Pictures
ARHI 3100 - Asian Art Pictures ARHI 3100
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Dominique N. on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ARHI 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Nicolas Morrissey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 291 views. For similar materials see Art History in Art at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
(1-functional economic description of image "concise description" (what is it); 2-context (is it Buddhist image, Hindu image; 3-signiﬁcance (most important) what is its role in South Asia “Pashupati Seal” 1). This is the Pashupati seal discovered in Mohenjodaro, near modern-day Pakistan. This particular seal was made with steatite. 2). The seal is of a Vedic culture, but the person depicted if thought to be an anthropomorphic version of the Hindu God, Shiva (Shiva was in touch with animals; depicted in lotus position. 3). The indus valley seals are the only things (the seals) found in that region (from that time period [2500-1500 BCE]) that has written text. Has not been deciphered still. They are small (approx. 2 in.) Often found in agricultural and trade centers, etc; seals often had strong powerful animals (typically with horns) and sometimes the horns were anatomically in the wrong place (supernaturalism); Some seals had human representation (hence this one); Could be someone important depicted; possibly multi-faced man; in lotus position; may have been a form of identification; use is illusive; isolate the two broad spectrums - Could be shiva OR its a figure of significance to people of indus valley (A diff god, a king, etc.) “Durga Slaying the Buffalo Demon” (Mamallapuram) 1). This sculpture scene is the Goddess form, Durga, sleighing a demon disguised as a buffalo. It is located Mahisasuramardini, Durga Cave, Mamallapuram, Pavalla Dynasty, 7th Century CE. 2). This image is of the Hindu faith. 3). In comparison to the Vishnu Reclining sculpture of the opposite wall of the cave, this Durga sculpture is a complete success and is clearly sculpted by someone different (and completely under the instruction of Mamalla). In the Hindu faith, Durga is considered a defender of chaos. She is a form of divinity so powerful, more powerful than all the other Gods combined. “Lakshmana Temple at Khajuraho” 1). This is a 10th century Chandella temple in northern India that houses the deity image of Vishnu. The image was stolen from a temple they had previously destroyed in their takeover. 2). The temple is for the Hindu faith. 3). The Chandellas were an extremely minor dynasty during the pre 10th century; They rose to power after they assembled an army and completely dissolved, temporarily, the dynasty of their over-bearers (very rare that this happens as quickly as it did). Significance - foundation for patronage to Chandella dynasty 1 Marks reemergence of art and permanent materials after Vedic period; Sanchi Stupa 2; first ex. of Buddhist sculptural art; developed in a world before there was a specific Buddhist sculptural medium (before representation of Buddha); Depictions of nature; Foreign image motifs Indian Hercules; not dressed like a central Indian; lion has awkward representation so the sculptors probably didn't know this animal “Bhima Ratha” 1). This shrine is one of five other shrines built under Mamallapuram. It is of the 7th CE. (The 5 Rathas or“Carts”) 2). This is a Hindu temple. 3). the mamalla temples directly architecturally influenced later temples of the south: Chidambarma Temple and Srirangam, Tamil Nadu Dedicated to shiva Example of monolith indian rock cut architecture It is a replication of a wood version that preceded it is an ektala or single tiered oblong temple, with a barrel-vaulted roof and ornate columns. AND is reminiscent of Buddhist cave architecture “The Great Bath” at Mohenjo-Daro 1). This structure is the great bath at Mohenjo-Daro 2). It seems to have held water for bathing (possibly ritual bathing). 3). Even though the Indus Valley is very organized, there are no easily recognizable large, central structures (i.e. churches, parliament, stadium, etc.). Although there is one thing at Mohenjo-Daro. It is in the citadel – Mohenjo-Daro “Great Bath.” Stands out singularly. At all of the other places found in that area, there was a huge focus on water (water storage, indoor plumbing, water systems, preservation, etc); speculations of the importance of water. Did it symbolize purity? Ritual bathing? Indus Valley had a huge focus on water. “The Great Departure” depicted on the Eastern Torana of Sanchi Stupa 1 1). ca. 25 BCE - 25 CE. 2). Buddhist images using anionic representation. 3). The number 7 and depictions of thrones is important - the earth had died and been born 7 times already and had 7 diff. Buddhas for each and now they’re on the 8th. The Great Departure - the story told all over Sanchi Stupa 1 is the story of the 8th Buddha; aniconic - bizarre that the Buddha is not depicted at all on the entire stupa (even with narrative scenes about him); narrative representation was starting to become common at the Sanchi stupa; 1st data; Buddha not represented but constant effort to tell his story - not a point in time where you could physically/visually represent the religious figure Great expansion of stupa architecture; buddhist architecture developed and manifested “Descent of the Ganges Relief” Mamallapuram, circa 700 CE 1). Mamalla’s most singular achievement. 2). Hindu 3). Modern stone wall; tank of water below; middle cleft - snake deities (have a relationship with water); this was possibly to have a tank of water; conflation of several different types of mythical narrative. Bhagiratha (bodily penance - yoga) and Shiva > appropriation of asceticism; bhag. did this to separate himself from sentiment of the body > shiva is impressed and grants him a wish > he wishes for a celestial stream to protect the deceased. So all ancestors could be kept in the embrace of God. Diminutive tank of water; it is small, but central so when whomever used it they would have an audience of thousands. Yakshi Bracket Figure; Eastern Torana;; Sanchi Stupa 1, 50 BCE - 50 CE; This is an example from mature period of sanchi; East Gate - she grasps mango tree; she displays sensuality; she's very worldly, fleshy with bangles and elaborate hair. overt sexuality 60 ft. high torana gateway covered in relief with semi-divine beings conscious placement of yakshi’s - not just at sanchi - Yaksha @ Sanchi 25 BCE; and found at Bharhut 80 BCE role and significance of these figures in early Buddhist art? A yakshi is a female earth spirit, accepted as a symbol of fertility. She is usually portrayed as a wide-hipped, voluptuous woman, who can cause a tree to bear fruit simply by touching it with her foot [she’s hanging from a mango tree (very important fruit)]. female body that symbolizes the fertility of the earth. Sculptures of yakshi are often seen in elaborate architectural motifs on the façades of temples and stupas. Figures date back to the Indus Valley civilization (2500–1750 B.C.), the earliest known urban culture of India. At Ajanta; Buddhist rock-cut site; distinguish b/w 1st BCE-1stCE vs 5 CE; congregational area of worship and dorms for monastic communities Early monastic dorm; used as an example to show diff from later dorms after image of buddha was introduced; Provides a lot into early monastic residences bc all the other old ones were built over In early Ajanta caves, it was more of communal patronage (like at sanchi), but later In the 5th CE, small groups of wealthy people donated, but less wealthy avg. people could still donate little images and what they could afford (explains later elaboration) Ajanta Cave 26 Chaitya Hall - The caves at ajanta are artificial, man-made caves sculpted into a cliff-scape. They are at the perfect location for monastic community; monastics like to live in areas where they are existing outside the normal, social world; it abundant with water; has a regular rain cycle and an intersecting trade route The early cave were difficult because typically used wood so the sculptors were not skilled at stonework. There are 2 types of cave buildings: Dorms & Sanctuary area near stupa -New caves at Ajanta added during 5th Century (2 dozen added); some old ones were expanded and some were added; they were the same as old ones function-wise, but they were more extravagant (wealthy donors) Images/sculptures were sometimes 20 ft. were added to caves [ex. thousand Buddhas painting] -Ajanta Cave 17 Shrine was sponsored by a small # of incredibly wealthy donors (Upendragupta Portrait; Vakataka Dynasty - some independent donors sponsored entire caves or groups of caves Upen. donated the cave in memory of his brother (who had died) for his afterlife. If you donate an image of Buddha, every time it is worshipped, the person who donated the image receives a little bit of merit -There was also a prospect of future Buddha for the next world and if you pray enough you will be able to join him after you die; you will get reborn with him Past life of Buddha - Buddha gains knowledge that doesn’t awaken him in this life, but takes him a step closer for the next life Vishnu image (HINDU) at Dashavatara (meaning "ten incarnations”) Temple at Deogarh. Central India built in c. 500 AD (Gupta period). The temple is one of the earliest Hindu stone temples still surviving today. Has Gupta architecturally style along with sculpture and art style. Early hinsu temples typically dedicated to one deity. These temples allowed people to make contact with the gods they were worshiping. There are also many sculpted panels showing the myths and tales connected with Vishnu. This is on one of the 3 panels outside. Vishnu Creating the Universe/Cosmic Sleep of Vishnu is portrayed This image is at the first process of circumambulation the Vishnu is preserving order Good guys at the top -Shiva, Parviti, Indra, Brama Bad guys at the bottom (carrying a sword, and bow); role of antiheroes - opposite objective of the specific deity; Since vishnu is order, they are chaos These temples allowed people to make contact with the gods they were worshiping. There are also many sculpted panels showing the myths and tales connected with Vishnu. Sanchi Stupa 1, 50 BCE - 50 CE aka Great Stupa - Huge compared to Sanchi Stupa 2; shows maturation; approx. 8 times the size,but there is no relic inside (may have been taken); more circumambulation -60 ft. high torana gateway covered in relief semi-divine beings Yakshi Bracket Figure; Eastern Torana(reference pg w/ pic for more details) -the number 7 and depictions of thrones is important - the earth had died and been born 7 times already and had 7 diff. Buddhas for each and now they’re on the 8th -The Great Departure - the story told all over Sanchi Stupa 1 is the story of the 8th Buddha aniconic - bizarre that the Buddha is not depicted at all on the entire stupa (even with narrative scenes about him); narrative representation was starting to become common at the Sanchi stupa 1st data Buddha not represented but constant effort to tell his story - not a point in time where you could physically/visually represent the religious figure i.e The Awakening at Bodh Gaya - Buddha is not represented visually, but is alluded to (how do you represent something that doesn’t exist?) Led to Buddha getting visually represented (mathura and Sarnath; image varied upon region) conveys a figure of power and stance of authority Mathura Buddha, Kushan period 2nd CE seated on a throne; figure of distinction; tattooing; no jewelry; still powerful but not fearful Chandellas had many temples; were in extremely minor dynasty during the pre 10th century Assembled an army and completely dissolved, temporarily, the dynasty of their over-bearers (very rare that this happens as quickly as it did); located in Central India; ex. of destroy: Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho (houses deity (Vishnu)they stole from a temple they destroyed in their takeover) Vishnu Image, Lakshmana Temple Khajuraho (a copy because the original was destroyed) -Erotic/Tantric Imagery: Khajuraho 10-11th century CE; there was already a presence of an esoteric (obscure) type of religiosity; Use of ritualized forms of sexual behavior was offered to the goddess in return for power? Certain substances were favored as offerings - Male and female sexual fluids; Physically and mentally you are released of individual spirits through copulation (something about death); They were in a sense like tests ( can you take intoxicants and not become intoxicated; can you engage in sex and not become aroused); The Chandellas rose to power very quickly...it could have been because of these sexual practices (sexual/tantric offerings in exchange for power) THEY ARE HINDU Akbar Hunting at Palam or Akbar hunting in an Enclosure, Akbar-nama c. 1590 - Akbar had a violent streak, he organized extremely elaborate hunting escapades; encircled a large area to terrify the animals trapped and slaughter all the animals to show bravery and strength 7000 animals (on one given morning). Became an emperor at age 15; was an exuberant patron of the arts; favored the newly trained Indian artisans the created a hybrid style of manuscripts: ex. Sanghari-1 Balki and Lulu the soy, Hamza-Nama 1562-77 Personal interest of the emperor imposed limitation in art & architec. -Battle scene, Shahname, Iran, 16th CE, Century Safavid: Distinctly Indian; can distinguish indian miniature and persian miniature stylistically Persian tradition focused on illuminating books; Some huge size (they were made to be looked at while reading books) -painting initially in manuscript form; illustrating stories or historical chronicles; had to import artists bc it wasn't common in that area; Earliest productions of paintings in Mughal period were collective efforts of a hybrid of an imported cultural institution and indigenous tendencies and Persian paintings and Persian miniature paintings; has Indian flavors to it; illuminated manuscripts -Akbar was very actively involved in the development of the school to teach painting in the persian tradition -Akbar Military Campaigns; Hindu monarchs in Chittor were resistant to Mughals (aka akbar) led to Siege of Chittor, Akbar-nama c. 1590 >He put down the resistance; incredibly violent (extensive use of modern weaponry effectively); Had to emphasize his control and power effectively often because he was so young and needs respect Bichitr, Jahangir on an Allegorical Throne, ca. 1625, Paint and gold on paper - Jahangir (Akbar’s son) Throne is an hourglass being written on by angels; calls him the “Light of the Faith” (Nur-in-Din) Muslim cleric - is either giving or receiving a muslim holy book from/to Jahangir Sun behind him as a halo Translates that he is beyond the limitations of time King James the first is depicted (he sent in a portrait so they could put it in Mughal was so powerful even Britain had to acknowledge Would not have happened w/o painting guild traditions by Akbar Muslim ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT mathura Kushan buddha seated on lion - Buddhism; seated on a throne; figure of distinction; tattooing; no jewelry; still powerful but not fearful Different than Bhiksu Bulu Image, Sarnath 1st - 2nd CE: conveys a figure of power and stance of authority Introduction of Buddha must have been simultaneous (in the diff areas), but the styles of representation varied based on region Kushan Emperor Kanishka (78/128 CE), Dinar portrait; Kushan from Central Asia; great warriors; empire from central asia to north india; Favored iconic representation and often represented themselves on back of coins there would be a representation of that specific region’s religion >> led to impact of iconic representation is well received; Buddha was starting to get placed in narrative sculptures. Kushan Buddha influenced by greco-roman near Ghandara region; Known as Greco-Buddhist art. it is Post alexander the great and greco-romans came into the area and after images of buddha became acceptable, so when they created it, they modeled it after the sculpture style they were used to (greco Roman) -earlier Buddhist art preferred to represent the Buddha with symbols such as the stupa, the Bodhi tree, the empty seat, the wheel, or the footprints. But the innovative anthropomorphic Buddha image immediately reached a very high level of sculptural sophistication, naturally inspired by the sculptural styles of Hellenistic Greece. -stylistic elements of the Greek influence: a light toga-like wavy robe, the halo, the contrapposto stance of the upright figures, the stylized Mediterranean curly hair and top-knot and the measured quality of the faces, all rendered with strong artistic realism. Qubt Minar, Delhi 13th century; began in 1199 - Qur'anic Calligraphy; Minaret; Call to prayer occurs here; Indian influenced calligraphy ornamentation; Speak in poetic terms of the power of God, but also frequently allude to victory; Statement of victorious presence of the Sultan (new power) religiously and politically; Delhi was an ideal spot so it was constantly overthrown, destroyed and rebuilt. Mihrab - (what is its purpose); to physically direct prayers in the appropriate direction (towards Mecca); Main courtyard and western arcade, 12th century - columns built from taking the rubble of destroyed Buddhist and Hindu shrines and temples etc.; Basically destroying all non Islamic structures (Buddhism and Hindu mainly); When Islam reached India, they (islam) realized that religion was closely tied to kingship and wealth. Bc kings and wealthy people patronized many of the structures built; If you want to defeat an enemy, destroy their centers of power and wealth (strategy) Opened the door to other ambitious warlords Led to a series of violent displacements Begin to settle down towards the end of 11th century/beginning of 12th “Shiva as Lord of the Dance” Shiva Nataraja; Chola period ca 1000 CE - Lord of the dance; ring of fire - cycle of rebirth/transmigration; We are ignorantly caught in this circle of transmigration and Shiva is the person who can defeat the ignorance - his devotees can achieve salvation; Shiva is creator, preserver, and destroyer; the dancing motions make his hair wave around and look snake-like One pair of his arms balances the flame of destruction and the hand drum (damaru) that beats the rhythm of life while another performs symbolic gestures: the raised right hand means "fear not," and the left hand (gajahasta) pointing down toward his raised left foot signifies release from the ignorance that hinders realization of the ultimate reality. Shiva is shown perfectly balanced, with his right leg planted on the demon of darkness (apasmara), stamping out ignorance.
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