Lecture Notes from 10/12-10/23
Lecture Notes from 10/12-10/23 AVS 1500
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Edwards on Friday October 23, 2015. The Bundle belongs to AVS 1500 at Clemson University taught by Heather Walker Dunn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Exam 3 10232015 October 14 2015 Companion Animal Book 1 Urinary System same across the board monogastrics ruminents and hind gut fermenters a Kidneys 2 i In the average mammalian kidney there are over a million glomeruli per kidney 1 Glomerulus is a capillary bed there is an afferent and efferent section a High pressure bed of capillaries Nutrients get pressed out because of the high level of pressure ii Nephron is the function unit of the kidney million of them packed into one kidney 1 Bowman s Capsule molecules nutrients get pressed out of the capillary bed and get picked up by the Bowman s Capsule Nonspeci c moves solely based on pressure a Molecules move through structure i Proximal Convoluted Tubule PCT ii Descending loop of Henle 1 Only water is moved across the membrane iii Ascending loop of Henle 1 Only solutes can move across the membrane iv Distal Convoluted Tubule DCT v Collecting duct 1 A lot of these ducts put together form a section of the kidney 2 Once in this section everything will be sent to the ureters to be secreted out b Renal System Name for the kidneys and the organs that are accompanied with them i Renal artery takes blood into the kidneys ii Renal vein takes blood away from the kidneys iii Renal Hilum primarily where a lot of the blood vessels come together 1 More a region of the kidney iv Cortex outer area of the kidney hold the glomerulus structures v Midula middle reagion of the kidney c d Bladder 1 i Function holding tank for the urine ii Have the ability to stretch e Urethra 1 f Ureters 2 i Function connect the kidneys and the bladder ii Have the ability to stretch iii Epithelium cells are stacked together and have the ability to slide together and pull apart g Pg 157138 140 October 19 2015 1 Nervous System a CNS i b PNS i Sensory afferent 1 ii Motor efferent 1 Somatic skeletal musclevoluntary 2 Autonomic involuntary a Typically deals with smooth muscle i Organs cardiac muscle b Sympathetic i has to be in charge ii ght or ight c Parasympathetic i Daily activities digestion ii More of a signal coming from the skeletal and cardiac muscle lungs and liver 1 Skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle pump blood faster 2 Lungs need to help breathe faster 3 All other organs need to stop their funUons d Cannot function sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems at the same time 2 Respiratory System a Deals with oxygen exchange i Air exchange occurs because of pressure ii Think of the lungs as a balloon blow up balloon and close off opening Is the pressure higher inside or outside of balloon lnside If you let opening of balloon go air will come out because of the pressure gradient until the air is equal on inside and outside iii Its cold outside warm in here Cold air comes in warm air goes out trying to reach the temperature gradient b Deals with the lungs October 21 2015 Ruminant Anatomy 1 Respiratory System Cont a When an animal respires and they inhale the air is humidi ed and brought into the animal s body through the trachea and then travels all through out the branches b Pg 95 bifurcation is referring to the anatomical term meaning when a structure splits a nerve can splitbifurcate i Trachea bifurcates going to either the left lung or the right lung 1 When it bifurcates its called a bronchus 2 Then the bronchus bifurcates into the bronchiole 3 Then the bronchiole bifurcate into the alveoluscluster of alveoli and then alveoli c A developing fetus receives oxygen through the blood circulation in the umbilical cord i Right before birth a hormone is released in the developing fetus surfactant is released into the lungs causes the individual alveoli to pop open ii If born prematurely the surfactant doesn t have time to be released and the lungs are not fully developed or functioning d Lungs stay in ated through the help of the pleural cavity and surfactant i Can have one collapsed lung but not the other ii Pleural cavity surrounds the lungs surfactant is on the inside holding the lungs to the plural cavity 1 Surfactant holds lungs open and keeps them from recoiling Think rubberband 2 Pleurasy infection of the pleural cavity which can prevent effective breathing e If an animal s lungs are not healthy they are very heavy Filled with uid rather than air October 23 2015 1 Respiration cont a Boyle s Law The pressure of a gas in a container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container I ii iii iv V vi lnversely proportional means that the are opposites Bigger container means a lower pressure Smaller container means a higher pressure Lung is the container is decrease container size pressure increases If you exhale the ribcage moves down diaphragm moves up pressure going up bc smaller space If you inhale ribcage moves up diaphragm moves down pressure decreases due to bigger space Lungs are trying to reach an equilibrium of pressure with the gasses exchanged gas inside lungs vs outside b Dalton s Law Each gas in a mixture of gasses exerts its own pressure as if no other gasses were present The pressure of a particular gas is then called Partial Pressure C Partial pressure determines how fast certain molecules move across a membrane At the level of the alveoli and the level of the tissues we are moving gasses Not all gasses move across the membrane at the same rate Carbon Dioxide is a byproduct Not as fast as the exchange of Oxygen The Haldane Effect Increase oxygen causes a decrease affinity for carbon dioxide d The Bohr Effect If you increase the carbon dioxide in blood you decrease oxygen affinity in the blood This is how in respiration we can load oxygen on and dump carbon dioxide off Erythrocytes Red blood cells Proteins are bound up in a ball Globulins aka globins Globin is made up of two alpha and two beta chains In the middle of the molecule is an Fe molecule 4 oxygens can bind to the Fe molecule Fe in the globin would be called heme When it attaches with 02 it becomes a hemoglobin P P FP NE 7 Can it only hold 4 oxygens That one hemoglobin can only hold 4 but there s a lot of hemoglobins in an Erythrocyte so we don t know how many potential oxygens can bind total 8 If animal is de cient in Iron it is anemic a Side affects cold difficult breathing tired b Means they lack the Fe for the oxygen to bind to 9 Haldane and Bohr Effects has to do with the carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange and their levels of affinity 10 Carbon Monoxide has an affinity for hemoglobin that is so high that when it binds to a hemoglobin it wont let go a Carbon monoxide poisoning basically means that the person suffocates
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