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Date Created: 10/23/15
Week 1 Monday September 28 2015 History of Design Hand craft vs industrial environment Social interaction from designer and object Artisan Traditional William Mortis Vs Displacement from the object created POSITIONING DESIGN What is Design Study of design is recent Term design comes from the Italian Renaissance o quotDise no imitation of the most beautiful things of nature most ideal elements organized representation involved the eye and hand described by Vasari I Giorgio Vasari wrote first biography on western contemporary artists published in 1550 0 Author Lives of the most Excellent Painters Sculptures o Architect artisan biographer and historian 0 His ideas were dominant in the 19th century Di Vinci 0 Self portrait and Lily an example of Disegno Accurate description from nature Vitruvian Man beauty through proportion Great Crossbow in Carriage and Head crossbow warfare fortification Salt Cellar for Francis I Shift from Monumental to Small 0 Renaissance artists have an idea of Deisgno in a range of tasks and many disciplines Graphic Logo attempt to formalize design 0 Signature of design 0 Knot Ornament 1495 0000 Primary Ideas of Design 1 elements of an object and the organization of elements elements are common in the study of design 2 conception state preliminary Frank Gehry Easy Edges Rocker and Nesting Chairs 197172 contemporary era 0 Cardboard model prototype learn from it and move on 0 Elements form economics are focused on during this era 0 Creating almost a brand or trade mark Gehry s architecture 0 Gehry does furniture and architecture 0 Guggenheim Bilboa Spain 1998 Paul Poiret modern designer of dresses fashion 0 Trade mark part of his work 0 Evening Garment 1911 Government sees design as an important social faction social and aesthetic roles o Becoming a designing society Designs are owned by corporations with a wide impact 20th century design in academics was over looked Process in the last 50 years to asses it The exception is the link to architecture history Britain Germany France all warn against production of goods for consumption Before WWII 0 History of decorative arts elements of interior design I Syon House 17605 19th century England 0 Interiors gardens furnishings 0 Providence the history of the object Who where and when was it made Linked to sales monetary value instead of academic or classroom 0 These elements still hold a lot of interest today 0 Built on art and architectural history Pioneers of Modern Design from William Morris to Walter Gropius book by Pevsner 19305 I Logical conceptual structure to say that design is of important in the modern world Because it is important the buildings hold a social importance impact environment and individuals I History effort to organize modern techniques I Walter Gropius the Bauhaus Desau Germany 1926 0 School on architecture to focus on materials and design areas graphic textile metal comprehensive an open ended approach to design and creation 0 Book used the Bauhaus to get accepted in the teachings of architecture arrived at a unified practice Wednesday September 30 2015 POSITIONING DESIGN continued Remember history of design is RECENT International style of architecture Seagram Building Mies van de Rohe NYC 1957 Mies was one of the last directors of the Bauhaus Bauhaus moves around to many directors Modern design at the peak during Pevsner s ideas Intended like a sculpture Skin of glass around the building seems to almost float in the elements POP MOVEMENT Also in the 1950s there is another change different from the modernist streamlining9 immergence of the independent group Immergence of idealized history of modern architecture and of pop culture and consumerism these ideas were not included by Pevsner in his book Independent Group helped developed the idea of Pop Art they were architects designers etc O O O 0000 OO O quotThis is Tomorrow exhibition London 1956 First group to publically frame the idea of public culture instead of high culture Disegno was the idea to create something uplifting in style almost perfection BUT here these designers shift away from this They see how important popular culture is This is signs graphics wrappers posters toys etc During this period design comes of age 1940s there is a consumer revolution and institutionalization more art schools and design education in US and Great Britian Focus on CONSUMPTION All of these things emphasis the way things around us in the world look Allison and Peter Smithson Golden Lane Housing Street Deck London 1953 I The way they present their project is elements from magazines catalgoes They have a cut and paste method I Reference pop culture Peter and Alison Smithson Sugden House I Nontraditional rationalism I Playful ness different from mies van der oh Independent group thinking trend was an extraordinary exhibition This is tomorrow 1956London I Really see the publics imagination humorous quality I Becomes infamous I 12 teams of artists and architects I Visitors walk through and experience an emerging future in the arts I References to posters and movies I Reproduction of Van Gogh s sunflowers referencing to fine art not the originals but to look at in a reincarnation It is placed alongside to publicity posters to a scifi movie makes the equivalent I Perception of the independent group on classical art is not stated but they are laid out equally with pop art this is their proposal that quotDesign is what culture does I Added what people might see as quottasteless details ex step on carpet for a scent Pevsner was thinking of art as an elite thing which is different from the independent group 19505 and 605 shift to consumerism 0 Art Nuevo was in the 1920519305 0 Now there is a visual culture that we are surrounded by design elements 0 Shift away from the antique renaissance principals 0 Just what is it that makes today s homes so different so appealing Collage 1956 by Richard Hamilton One of the most famous pop objects Cut outs from comic books and advertisements and body building publications Exaggerated Inflated the grossness Advertisement made funny and cynical Idea that design occurs in all of these objects 0 Lawrence Alloway an influential pop critic Part of the independent group It s not just things being designed but also words picture and music Thinks about advertisement jingles etc Modern consumerism is MULTIDIMENSIONAL Shift in idea of what culture is instead of reserving the word for the highest artifact it needs to be a description of what a society does criteria and premise of art is being analyzed The classical works were being shown in reproductions Duchamp s Mona Lisa 0 Why would it upset people to add a mustache What is the relationship between a reproduction and an original If the original is a great work of art what is the basis of that Isn t it the artist that determines what the art is Advertisement for Buick Roadmaster Better Homes and Gardens 1954 Richard Hamilton Homage to the Chryster Coporationd and She 1958 0 Oil painting to mix advertisements of cars 0 Form is referenced in a poster 0 Advertising font in the background and card design 0 Conflation and closing of the intersection of high art low art consumerism and fine art Pioneer Text Theory and design in the first machine age by Reyner Banham 1960 0 Britain in the 19605 design gains a government support 0 Britain becomes a design center with their contribution pop art design Friday October 2 2015 British Design in the 19605 British government sponsored new design schools and art schools that contributed to Great Britain becoming a center for pop art Major resource for the development of history of design in Britain Ceramics Room Victoria and Albert Museum London 18005 0 Originally called the museum of manufacture Important to the government giving approval to design schools You see a bunch of manufactured things represents of produced culture Modern exterior of the museum Holds extraordinary objects Italian sculpture porcelains etc all material evidence that function as models for contemporary designers Example of traditional Handcrafted Production John Linnell Armchair London 1760 0000 o Linnell house held 18th century objects commissioned by the Linnell family 0 Gilded wood 0 Focus on hand craft 0 Wealthy client cost is not an issue 0 What influence does contemporary designers might have I Thomas Chine Charles and Ray Eames Fiberglass dining chair and stackable chairs 0 Fiberglass was readily available in military stores economical Variety of colors but shape repeated Easy to reproduce and store They competed for the design of low cost furniture First to enter the MOMA in New York this was a big deal Speaks to development of modern art It was taken up for production by a couple Advertised by Chester Gould Drawing of Eames chairs in Dick Tracy comic strip 1952 I Makes fun of modern design but makes the awareness of how serious modern design was being taken I Cartoonist knows the viewer will get it 0 Also advertised by hip and cool guys sitting in it These two chairs are very different amp you would ask different questions about each chair 0 Design processes are very different 0 Facts easier to discover about the Eames chair the process itself can be know Johan Zoffany Blair Conversation Piece 1 786 0000000 0 Zoffany was good at recording elegant people 0 References to superb furniture 0 Reference to colonialism with the introduction of the child servant from India 0 Zoffany helps them show their status through his image 0 Furniture was as symbol of their power 0 Important non verbal que Charles and Ray Eames La Chaise 1948 o Longer extended seating 0 Earlier use of fiberglass o Curvilinear sculptures design 0 Though that Ray did this because she was a sculpture Charles and Ray Eames Eames House Pacific Palisades 1949 Eames Chair was constructed at the same time they were building their house The architecture is modern speaks to international design trends in the 1920s Influenced by Gropius Bauhaus Germany 1926 Window style similar stream lighting open to the exterior material palette o How did they arrive at the Eames chair Richard Neutra Philip Lowel House LA 1929 o Directly influenced by Bauhaus o Thinks about Corpusier o Streamlining architects Furniture by Marcel Breuer in Moholy Nagy House Bauhaus teacher s housing by Walter Gropius Dessau Germany 1927 0 Professor at the Bauhaus brilliant photographer color theorist etc 0 Furniture in this home is produced through the Bauhaus design by Breuer Charles and Ray Eams Storage Unit 1949 0 Furniture design based on the Marcel Breuer model 0 State of the art materials 0 Combination of materials in contribute to modern design environment Chairs by Charles Eams and Eero Saarinen at 1941 Exhibition quotOrganic Forms in Modern Design at MOMA NYC 0 Saarinen s designs have more of an organic flow to it that we see less in Eames furniture AlvarAalto Villa Maierea 193739 0 Finish architect that combined elements of finished traditional craftsmanship with modern design 0 Influences on Saarinen Alto s chairs Aalto Mount Angel Monastery Mt Angel Oregon 0 Language that become wide spread Charles and Ray Eames Leg Splint and Abstract Sculpture 1943 o Sculpture influence form Ray black 0 Eames firm designed leg splint Ray Eames abstract painting and sculpture 19405 0 Think in different medias and dimensions Ledwig Mies van der Roho Cantilever Chair 1927 Charles and Ray Emas Living Room their home 19505 0 Map of their imagination 0 Live in imaginative context 0 Crafted objects right new to contemporary design 0000 Week 2 Monday October 5 2015 Design and the Industrial Revolution 17701850 REVIEW History of development of design recent history look at it conceptually and theoretically 1 4 Study of objects through the change of the means of production hand craft to commercialism and production line 1936 Pevsner s publication of history of modern architecture important because he connected modernist architecture to the early traditions of design Statement of connectivity to modernist had limitations that were pointed out by Pop Culture and the independent group elite and valuable art comparted to Pop Art Industrialization as a key factor to how culture changed with mass production Roots of the industrial production design Industrial Design book by J Heskett design is a process of creation invention and separated from the means of production Many people are involved in the modern design process consultation with design factories specialists engineers and other specialists they are often conflicting This 3D form is a material reality capable of multiple reproduction by mechanical means This is criticizing the industrial revolution in relation to design as there is a lack of craftsmanship and one of a kind designs Process of separation between conceptualization and production is part of capitalism and the middle ages At the time of the Renaissance there is new trade and production within the national boundaries 14th century saw a rise in trade and mercantile cities Venice They had large workshops for the production of design too Trade importation copying of design 16th century specialization within these workshops developsPattern Book of Balthasar Sylvius Flanders 15005 This pattern book could be used by various disciples metal smiths furniture designers fabric design etc Pattern books were not intended for one object or field the ornamental design is simply made public to anyone The foundation of modern industrial design is the separation of design and manufacture This occurs over a long process of evolution The rise of empires begin at this time and luxury goods develop which are supported by the monarchy 16th 17th century 0 Starts with King Charles 0 Gobelins unicorn tapestries by Gobelines factory France 1602 by French King Henry IV I Important model of modernizing production of design I Illustrates the popular subject of the unicorn culturally very relevant I Tapestries were important in castles and great estates I They are heavy textiles that cut down on drafts and muffle sounds I Castles could be cold and drafty without these expensive tapestries I They were very practical and a valuable investment I Symbolic nonverbal appearance of wealth 0 Charles Le Brun court painter to Louis XIV assumes direction of Gobelines I Le Brun was painter by profession but got along with the king and helped influence many designs that occurred under the King Louis XIV Louis XIV invested a lot in national treasure He understand good design as a political tool Master French craftsmen are in demand Louis XIV was instrumental in establishing the French fashion industry made Versailles a fashion industry He used it to generate treasure for the nation Le Brun helped execute Louis XIV s ideas Vocabulary term cartoon 0 Created cartoons large scale drawings usually in chalk for reproduction Charles Le Brun s tapestries RLouis XIV Inspecting the Gobelines Factory 166375 Charles Le Brun is the most famous painter at the time constant experimentation and improvement of design Creation of the Royal Academy that is not mimicked in many countries the royal academy you had to have a high standard of artist Those that excel become professors etc Gobelins is an early example of modern production under constant research and renovation Interior of the Gobelins Factory engraving from Diderot s Encyolpedia 1770 0 One of the Principals of the enlightenment Diderot o Idea to make all types of information readily available to promote reformation of France 0 Tapestry used in an intelligent way 0 Porcelain works a symbol of improvement Most advanced technology was used in royal porcelain factories Advanced technology beautiful and expensive to produce 1St of these established by Grand Duke of Saxony at Meissen outside Dresden 1709 o Meissen is an important namebrand o How to create hard paste porcelain to take highly reflective glaze and be malleable could be created through raw materials that were available in the nation Importation influence by Chinese porcelain Korea Japan etc Porcelain become images within tapestries They are a priceless luxury Willem Kalf Still Life with Chinese Bowl 1662 Willem Kalf Still Life with Gold Silver and Porcelain Nicolas Verkolje Drinking Tea 171520 0 Tea drinking becomes priceless o Objects used for emerging fashionable taste 0 Directly toward emerging middle class 0 19th century impressionist painting was backdrop to the constant warfare unemployment etc fundamental stability emerges from the middle class and they become the market for these tapestries and porcelains sets a tone for luxury goods that are available maybe not affordable for them but well known 0 Taste and interest modeled by the wealthy and then translated to lower quality for the middle class I Jean Etienne Liotard Chocolate Server 174445 I Examples of Meissen porcelain German 0 Top German sculptors begin to design porcelains 0 Colors are brilliant Sophisticated and elegant vases collectables Incredibly expensive Wednesday October 7 2015 Important stages in the Industrial Revolution Meissen Porcelain continued Meissen Factoy Crinolie Group 1740 Johann Kandler Cockatoo 1734 0 Elegant fixtures S vres porcelain produced in France created in a more cost effective way but still look high end S vres was created not shortly after Meissen There is a rise of nationalism at this time Boucher figure group and Breakfast set 1764 o Francois Boucher was a French Rococo court painter court playfulness romantic quality with emphasis on charm favored by the French court 0 Under direct patronage to the mistress of the king most sophisticated woman in France Boucher was her favorite artist 0 Proves that highest quality was a national interest same quality of charm found in the figurines as well as paintings Next Stage of Modern Production development occurs in England 1St site of Industrial Revolution English court exerts less control compared to Germany and France 0 In England unlike Germany and France it is a monarchy I Monarchy is less involved in the manufacturing process Free enterprise flourishes small entrepreneurs respond to growing consumer demand for luxury goods 0 Entrepreneurs respond to the growing consumer market 0 Increasing separation between design work by trained designers and the folks who learned to design on the job on the job learning became dominant at this time Metal industry is among the first areas of reform Mathew Boulton is a leader of this reform Portrait of Matthew Boulton 1 762 English 0 Boulton revolutionized metal industry in England 0 Metal small delicate objects not large scale but still mass manufactured o Boulton brings about a change from the handcrafted elements of design 0 He takes over a small factory that was founded by his father in 1759 he designed buttons and buckles 0 He increases his production and sells more cheaply then develops new machinery ad uses new materials 0 Introduced new technology of water power in 1761 0000 O 1766 his factory employees 600 people In the 70s he partners with James Watt famous development of the steam engine Quickly uses the steam engine in his factory Key term Sheffield Plate developed by Boulsover I Fusing silver over a base of copper I This is a chemical bond I 1743 I Used in his buttons first I Cheaper than solid silversterling silver I Began to produce silver plate goods Boulton Factory Birmingham England print I Sometimes borrow decorative objects from friends to pattern or make molds of I Took note of popular styles and designs I He had house designers in his factory that would rework patters and make different ranges of ornament I There was a strict division of labor in his factory Page of Boulton pattern Book showing silver plate goods 17805 I Customer can chose a product out of a book and make modifications I This speeds up and brings cost down of production Boulton Tea Urns I Plated with metal I Replaced goods with good quality I More costly metals with ornament profit meter 0 dea from upper class affordable for the middle class I His name was known in the elite but he also did common wear Disassembles Boulton Tea urn I He separated the production of each part of the urn then another term would put all of the pieces together Boulton Candelabra I Same design principals but for different objects Transformation of English Ceramic Production O O 0 Example of traditional early Staffordshire ceramic prior to industrial revolution Slipware charger with Adam and Eve by Thomas Toft 1674 Joshua Reynolds Portrait of Josiah Wedgewood I Advancement of science and art at this time Wedgewood is leader of shift from craft to industrial production of ceramics in England revolutionized the production of cermaics I Born into a free modest family parents were potters I Worked in potteries I Went into business in 1759 I Began to produce green and yellow glazed object I When he died he was one of the richest men in England I He benefitted from the enlightenment thinking I Wedgewood tea pot and tea canister in green yellow glaze 17505 0 Mimic organic forms cauliflower and vegetable forms contemporary taste 0 Naturalistic forms o Responsive to tea and coffee importation o Expensive habit for people 0 These vessels were in recognition of the luxurious ritual 0 Salt glaze finish process literal salt is used to create a grainy texture o Brilliant green and yellow glazes Later Wedgewood made useful wears creamware 1770 look like porcelain but can withstand heat and cold looks expensive but is cheaper I Wedgewood s special focus I quotSpecies of earthenware for the table new appearance rich and brilliant glaze alterations of heat and cold manufactured with ease and consequently cheap I Tremendous appeal shiny I Durable can take shots of sudden heat and cold I 1765 this type was bought as a set by the Queen of England It then became popular to the upper end of society Friday October 9 2015 Wedgewood continued creamware 1770 look like porcelain but can withstand heat and cold looks expensive but ischeaper O O O O Wedgewood s special focus quotSpecies of earthenware for the table new appearance rich and brilliant glaze alterations of heat and cold manufactured with ease and consequently cheap Tremendous appeal shiny Durable can take shots of sudden heat and cold 1765 this type was bought as a set by the Queen of England It then became popular to the upper end of society He perfects a mechanical process that contrasts and by passes the hand thrown production that his parents used making pottery with a hand wheel I Perfected the new technique of repeating and casting molds of clay that then hardens into a durable material I He also adopted a way of transferring the printing for decoration someone else from Liverpool was involved in discovering this process decorative transfer by pass the hand painted process I Wedgeworth created a model that was successful economically and fashionable Easy to break down the steps into sections Labor process is divided up separation by skill design separate from molding and molding separated from decorative everything based on a set mold or standard design this becomes a popular way of production at this time there is really no connection back to the creative process I Huge contrast from the Renaissance artists which gave artist and writers a way to contribute as an intellectual thinker quotEthuriaquot Wedgewood s factory that opened in 1769 named this because he was influenced by the Etruscian s pottery he was inspired by antique pots I Wedgewood First Day s Vase 1769 o Produced at Wedgeworth factory o Commemorate dates with his name 0 Links what he is doing to the production of ancient pottery 0 Antique pottery was important to collectors because most of what we know about ancient Greece is from the studies of paintings on vessels 0 He associates his production line to these antique pots 0 Here Wedgewood evokes that red figure vases o Wedgewood used these vases as a model 0 Example Euphronios painter Attic redfigure calyx krater end of 6th century B C 0 He used pattern books that were distributed to retailers consumers can by particular place shapes and patterns 0 Showroom St James Street Square London 1809 print Invests in expensive real state but sees it as important for his business Filled showroom with his work Elegant bouncer at the door Need to be upper middle or aristocratic class People say what they want and then they go back to the factory to produce it for them make an order Resourceful and thinks outside the box he is an entrepreneur Learns from scientist and painters etc know what his parents did so how can he make it better Focus on ornamental wares materials such as agate and precious stones 0 Formed a partnership in 1767 with Thomas Bently Bently is from the social class that Wedgeworth wants to target ask him who is in fashion who are the leaders of society Partnership important to consumption Bently has a classical education comes from a wealthy family spoke French and Italian went on a grand tour only for the wealthy so he traveled around Europe with a tutor Bently was also a merchant in Liverpool Wedgewood and Bently understand Bolton s marketing approach Start of NeoClassical Learn toward the revival of classical art power of wellcrafted public image for design 0 Together they exploit the interest of the wealthy Portrait of Thomas Bently by John Francis Rigaud 1778 o Sends objects to foreign ambassadors o Wedgewood agateware vases 17705 Body made of ceramic illusion Clever development of glazing 0 Portland Vase 3020 BCE Perhaps the single most important vessel from Ancient Rome Made of glass in layers layers are cut down to expose figures in contrasting colors Known from the collection of Augustus 1780 sold to a Scottsman 1782 purchased by William Hamilton Hamilton s studies are a major influence on Wedgewood s design 0 Wedgewood cameo of William Hamilton 1779 0 Hamilton studies Greek vase painting 1778 Wedgewood commissions designs from leading artists in the neo classical style influence by Hamilton John Flaxman 0 Design for Wedgewood Pegasus Vase aka Apotheosis of Homer 1786 o Figuration subject matter and elegance are important to this piece 0 Based on the ancient model this is the contemporary world linking to the ancient past 0 Wedgewood case in Jasper ware based on Flaxman design Wedgewood Museum Barlaston England Greatest antique work of art known said wedgewood He was later allowed to copy it and produce it in a jasperware Jasperwarematerial like stoneware that is blue Neoclassical style is important reference ancient Rome Week 3 Monday October 12 2015 Wedgewood Review Wedgewood First Day s Vase 1769 E uphronios painter Attic redfigure calyx krater end of 6th century B C Napoleon also had influence from ancient roman imperials Reference antique with modern design 0 Reference material is like stoneware 0 He refers to it as Jasperwarehis process and technique 0 Jasper seen in wedgewood blue and sometimes black Borrowed objects from friends Wedgewood industry pattern book entrepreneurial aspect of his work 0 Display of his goods in the showroom on st James Street 0 Can also select from pattern books shape and design and make it into their own personal interest Wedgewood gains entry into the upper levels of society access to economically exclusive groups Formed partnership with Thomas Bentley Modern style of light ware was more appealing and combined with ideas from Greek antiques John Flaxman Wedgewood commissioned designs from leading artists Flaxman was one of the most important sculptures Flaxman used for elite runs of ceramics Design for Wedgewood Pegasus Vase aka Apotheosis of Homer 1786 0 Reference apotheosis of Homer on vase Wedgewood case in Jasper ware based on Flaxman design Wedgewood Museum Barlaston England Contemporary world links to the ancient past study of the classical and ancient in the Royal Academy Figuration subject matter elegance high culture based on the ancient model Scientists as Wedgewoods contemporaries Scientist made laboratory equipment Evoking the scene of a science experiment extraction of oxygen family and friends gathered to watch this science upper middle class private home Acts like this were taking place all over homes Bring in knowledge of processes and reasoning into their home promoted by the enlightenment French Revolution aristocrats to be avid amateur scientists Wedgewood participates in this dialogue He created specialized equipment for the scientists at their request Wedgewood is at the center of modern culture by seeing himself dialoguing with these issues Richard Wright of Derby Corinthian Main 1793 0 Derby processes subjects that he saw suitable for wedgewood productions 0 An allegory of western art 0 Young girl traces her loves profile on the wall of the house before he leaves 0 There is a connection between nature art and the wedgewood kiln that is shown in the image it appears hot George Stubbs Josiah Wedgewood and Family at Ethruria Hall 1780 0 Painting of animals 0 Wealthy had images of their favorite animals in their homes George Stubbs Haymakers 1 790 enamel on Wedgewood o Stubb s request Wedgewood also develops pottery plaque for painting in enamel o Stubbs was interested in finding medium that would last longer than oil on canvas Wedgewood Neoclassical design the simplicity of Wedgewood s Neoclassical design anticipates stripped functionalism of later modern design Wedgewood thinks about the materials he uses and the decoration he has a core design thinking that is very solid to his pieces Industrial Design and Printing Printing and Typography as an Agent Typography and printed materials have everything to do with the increase of information flow that parallel the industrial revolution Accelerated production of consumer goods Printing has to do with readability and the expression to the viewer Layout and spacing of letters really matter Conventional printing around 1770s 0 Advertisement news paper documentary painting 0 They layout and print are easy to read and set in columns like todays newspaper 0 Print is somewhat small with a lot of information Handprint Books vs mechanically reproduced books 0 Scene from story of blessed virgin douce apocalypse 1265 I Medieval illustrated manuscript I Hand painted and hand printed I Private collects and inaccessible to the average reader 0 Story of blessed virgin block book 1400 I Mechanically produced text combining illustration and text in a single woodcut block 0 Technical drawing of woodcut printing involved carving into the wood it is the surface left intact that is inked I Shifts away from the hand painted methods wood cut print allows production to speed up I Matisse Nude in Profile Large Woodcut print and detail 1906 I Matisse was a highly skilled artist I Cut out channels in the wood 0 Gutenberg published the first bible printed with moveable metal type in 1450606 0 Johann Gutenberg Bible 145056 I First time it was used for a biblical text I Movable metal type Wood cut technique vs engraving process 0 O O Gauged out passages in engraving is what is inked Raised portion is what is inked in woodblock Albrecht Durer Engraved illustration with typeset text 1525 I Engraving and printed text combined I Process sped up I Durable surface metal but it does loose resolution I Sharpest lines are from the earlier additions quality matters I Engraved printing allows for more detail approximation of lines I He explores all qualities of this I Durer was also interested in painting and the sciences I Interested in how you see things in different ways so it makes sense that he illustrates for others I Developed the camera obscure Turning point with the King Romans Typeface 0 00000000 Created by committee commissioned French King Louise XIV 1692 Kings Roman is the clarification and regularization of typography Different because it was not dependent on the hand crafted energy of cutting or carving This was a response sponsored by the monarchy Type set is based on a mathematical order Drafting instruments Clear and readable and adaptable typography Light and dark thin and sharp thick and thin types Moris said the engineer is replacing the art of the calligrapher it was a bad thing to him Wednesday October 14 2015 Industrial Revolution Typography and print continued 17th century powerful courts involve themselves I the realm of manufacturing including printing 0 00000 King Roman typeface Does not imitate had lettering Mathematical order proportional Strong contrast of thin and thick ink with an overall balance Fast to read and readily recognizable 19th century leader of arts and craft William Morris criticized it as evidence of the mechanistic engineer replacing the artistic calligrapher in the design process he wanted people to take their time reading rather than reading fast like this typeface allows Contrast the Rococo typeface I Ornamental quality Frame by Pierre Fournier le Jeaune From manual Typographique 1764 0 Text and the frame have a relationship There is a charm to this design and artistic trend that reflected the French court of Versailles contrasts the taste of Louis XIV Louis XIV style was more formal King Roman functions beautiful but Rococo is favored in a different environment 0 Depiction of a Rococo Interior suggesting the close connection between rococo design style and the intimate scenes of the shared written word Jean Francois de Troy Reading Molier 1 710 Interior of wealthy home Rococo elements Reading was enjoyable and this was a popular book to read together Increase of texts to read at this time People become more aware of political aspects and critiques Middle ages it was common to have a complicated story reduced to simple images similar to a cartoon in the mediapress o Engraved trade card for an English dealer in spirits 1750 Engraved text almost gets lost in the image It is a statement of style but it is not easy to read There are changes of scale and typography Dialogue between style and design that prior to this didn t have a platform but now more people are exposed to it There were advertisements for consumer goods but now they are different Approach to design in Rococo mirrors the design of Rococo furniture Typography is a platform for design it informs the day to day life 0 Rococo furniture was at the peak in France Looks like it will dance across the floor Rococo design becomes part of the everyday life Consumer culture and material energy of the modern world is informed by this style 0 Development of modern typography design crucial to Industrial Revolution Last third of 18th century introduced radical change in all ways printing flourishes in 18th century Diderot s 17 volume encyclopedia 0 Denis Diderot Frontispiece of Encylcopedia 175172 17 volumes published over 21 years 0 one of the most extraordinary achievements o Effort to publish the technical information and practical information 0 Provides a story of knowledge and the collection of knowledge it is a frame for thinking 0 Under enlightenment influence it presents a rational historicized understanding of knowledge 0 this only became possible because you can mass produce it o The text represents the important step of the printing process it was not just made once but made for a broad audience 0 objectified information it is how you think of it there are strategies for getting to understand how other people see things everyone has different experiences so this gave factual information to a wide range of people Friday October 16 2015 The last third of the 18th century Inspired by the ancient world s classical balance restraint away from Rococo decorativeness and toward neoclassicism Rococo was for the wealthy exclusive group turns into a new more legible type Typography gets to be more readable neoclassicism Elements of Legibility 0 Roman typefaces blank spaces standard measurements of letter size and harmonious fonts 0 This reduces distraction to the eye 3 people in reform of typography 0 Pierre Didot from France 0 William Caslon England 0 Giambattista Bodoni from Italy 19th centug Printing moves away from small deluxe printing because of their emerging forces Literacy and education are so important Literacy expands selfsupporting newspaper grows Printing technology advances allow for huge editions of newspapers magazines and commercial advertising called iobbing 0 Definition Jobbing posters printed for advertisements I Metal presses steam powered Pierre Didot Typography 17805 0 He uses the elements of legibility Giambattista Bodoni typography 0 Similar to wedgewood blank space is used elegantly o Wedgewood had blank space in his designs as this text does 0 Blank space is activated and frames the design 0 Roman typeface used mathematical space and scale Thomas Bewick WoodEngraving 17905 England 0 Illustration advancements 0 Medium stays the same woodblock but uses a fine grain textured wood 0 Medium can withstand repeated pressure 0 Between old wood block process and engraving 0 Fine graver is used to cut the design into the end grain of the wood this allows for finer detail Bewick s illustration for William Sommervilles s poem 1796 quotThe Chance 0 Text and image come together All Iron printing press development in England 1800 0 Advertising is being supported 0 Economic support of newspapers and magazines come from advertisements o All stages of process have to be done by hand 0 Production of metal presses 1St technological advancement I The page that is being printed on can be larger Steam Powered cylinder printing press Fredrick Koenig 1810 0 Moves paper automatically right over typebed o Inked with rollers 0 An automatic process is added not by hand like the iron printing press 0 Advancement in the amount of pages per hour printed begins to advance London Street Scene 1834 0 People are bombarded with the printing advertisements This is a generational change that shows how important literacy becomes Represents a transformation in the culture This is an example ofjobbing This is not intended for slow reading or concentration but used to capture your attention quickly Metal cracked over time when refilled various times so wood type became popular 0 First half of 19th century typical woodtype poster I This is a demonstration of the diversified posters Lithography is then developed 0 1796 developed by Alois Senefelder 0 Process is different from metal engraving and wood block because you do not carve into it Based on the grease and water Fine grade stone slab preferably limestone with semi absorbance surface Ink only adheres to greasy portion of the drawing Flat surface with paper laid on it and pressure transfers the ink onto the paper 1816 edition of Book Alois Senefelder Wilhelm Reuter Moses and the Brazen Serpent 1803 lithography I Give you more freedom that wood or metal prints I More of a drawn quality to it I You draw instead of carve sensitive medium 0 Gericault lithographs 1820 I Looks like a charcoal drawing I Shading of light to dark tones become possible Satirical prints 0 Common in lithography o Comicscaricatures become popular 0 O O 0 000000 0 Everyone can appreciate it and looks at it with their own expressions 0 Daumeir prints I comics to express the power of printing is a satirical way I Demonstrates the working class and words about the freedom of the press and the monarchy being knocked down by the power of the press Posters begin to be produces as street posters instead of an art piece Lithography is a major factor in the development of graphic art Printing materials responded to and stimulated demand for growing number of consumer goods Modern fashion is born fashion magazines allow people to be aware of this 0 Changing trends 0 1819 shopping mall opened in Paris near the Louvre 0 New department stores open in 1840 0 Before this it was common to go to specialized shops At the same time a new movement toward design reform emerges in the work of Schinkel Thonet and in Biedermeier furniture among others 0 Schinkel is a versatile genius o Biedermeier furniture becomes a reform to mass produced design 0 Furniture respond to changing political scene cheaper materials are used 0 Fashion illustration 18101820 suggesting proliferation of fashion trends and consumerism Papiermache Chair 1850 0 less expensive production for people who cannot afford the exclusive items 0 Papier mache is made from wood pulp pressed into a mold dried and decorated 0 Does not have solidity of wood furniture but mimics it and possibly gilded in gold Schinkel German cast iron Garden 1824 0 Used for a classical garden pavilion o Constructed from 4 cast iron units skillful union of material function and style 0 Clever line of production Michael Thonet Gilded Laminated Chair and steamedbent wood chair 184346 0 Sturdy elegant and affordable o Marketed in various ways posted advertisements o Steamed wood furniture with organize lines 1830 in Koblenz Germany Week 4 Monday October 19 2015 Beginning of Design Reform l GermanyAustria Shakers Pugin amp Great Exhibition People start to reconsider the design process and ask if it is good for society this is the quotpush back Industrial manufacture is the government choice Great Exhibition is a showcase for industrialized manufacturing but also shows smaller objects for private consumption High end fashion exotic furniture 19th century 0 O 0 Fine furniture design continues in France This is understanding he importance of image and how the government can help National Design through national academies Table leg references ancient cultures older middle eastern culture with animal like features Exotic fashion that is also expression in Gros painting High end furniture that was one of a kind artisanship Baron Gros Pest House at Jaffa 1804 0 Painting Baron Gros is a member of Napoleon s entourage important propaganda painter This image shows North Africa with Napoleon members are stricken by the plague 0 Visual reference ofJesus that educators would be familiar with o It is known in history that Napoleon would leave his men 0 For colonial French public it markets a certain view of exotic cultures 0 Invasion and taking over other cultures and stripping them of valuables Papier Mache Chair 1850 0 Latest trends shown through publications as part of the printing revoluation 0 Second tier production for example papier mache o Cants take too much weight 0 Used for display and being part of an economicfashion trend Reference to Karl Freidrich Shinkel s chair made of cast iron 0 000000 Show a timeless manner Better quality but still molded like the papier mache chair More functional and durable Does not stimulate earlier styles doesn t reference the past Does not use costly materials Pleasing and balanced in the hand of the designer He benefits from seeing others experimentation and then moves it forward with this material Michael Thonet Golded Laminated and Steamed Bent Wood Chair 18431846 0 O O O O O Responding to the unprecedented cultural environment is Thonet s begins in 1830 Thonet influences the art Nouveau movement 1851 Thonet s furniture was in the Great Exhibition Very durable furniture Has graceful lines organic form Very durable and comfortable Watercolor of Biedermeier interior 1828 0000 O O O O O O Biedermeier is the most simplified and functional furniture From Austria and Germany began in 18201850 Emphasis of materials comfort and functionality Durable simple and elegant Not as elegant but well designed All three production lines are directed to the middle class 0 They have nationalistic features German class Nationalistic culture moves away from foreign influence Neoclassical forms The United States 1 Furniture produced by the Shaker Movement 19th century trend Spirituality and establishment of utopian communities Tradition of Protestant 18th century group that started with the Camisards French These people though the end of the world was coming They went into trances when they worshipped where shaker came from 1774 they became to the US known as the Shaking Quackers They form communities in the NE and MidWest They have simple and elegant designs emphasis on beauty of material wood interior of the center family dwelling house Idea for this design came from a theology that seeks to illustrate a physical statement of the gospel they believed in Appreciation for color and grain of the wood Simple and beautiful Similar to Freegal style Small rocker 1840 Storage draws 1843 New Lebanon NY evokes elegant of proportion Shaker Bench 1830 0 Beauty of the essential lines o Curved line and straight line with emphasis on the wood 2 Furniture by America Capitalism Design Reform Ill Christopher Dresser and the Aesthetic movement Christopher Dresser is a significant figure in the design reform The Grammar of Ornament by Owen Jones major publication of the Design Reform movement 0 There are well thought out responses to industrial design Return to more ornaments and less of practicality Key element to Design Reform 0 0 Industrial trends 1840 Mass production of good with precise changes of parts Gun and clock manufacturing Precisely calibrated for use Specialized machines that create for master gauges to recalibrate machinery Decoration was minimal Sewing machine is an example o Critique expensive 0 Oceanic Tribal and Egyptian design from the Grammar of Ornament becomes international o Referential to earlier styles rather than using production means to come up with new styles 0 Echoes production line pattern books Wedgewood and Boulton Christopher Dresser 0 Turns to nature for the source of his design 0 Botanical drawings from Jones Grammar of Design 1856 o Unite science and botany 0 Looks closely at the boundaries of forms and individual designs and forms from nature 0 Pages from articles on art botany in Art Journal 185 758 I Unifies nature to design with their shape AND structure I Use of the microscope looking at sections and patterns 0 Different from Shienkle Shienkle looks at usage but Dresser looks more subtly to nature 0 The Art of Decorative Design 1862 I Referencing of nature almost looks like art deco simplified but based on close observation of nature I Strong public impact 0 Japanese Court at London International Exposition of 1862 I Fascinated with Asian especially Japanese art I Simplicity basis on nature organic forms I Includes folk art also an interest to Dresser all integrated to nature Academy of Fine Arts Philadelphia architect Frank Furness 1876 0 Important building 1st art academy in the united states 0 Institution for great American artists 0 Known for its school and galleries 0 Reference to ancient Greek and roman architecture 0 Intersection of adopted styles Contrast to this Unified elegance Dresser evening star pattern 1862 inspired by muted colors of plants at twilight Wednesday October 21 2015 Review two types of production in the US 1 Shaker simple and elegant focus on natural form 2 Industrialmanufacturing a Calibrating production of guns b Recalibration made possible by machines A confused design approach example of a pocket knife sportsman knife American from Crystal Palace in 1851 1851 exhibition has more examples like this 0 Lack idea of function and excessive ornamentation 0 Has over 80 blades and instruments 0 Highly ornamented 0 Shows parts of the exhibition in the ornament 0 Early version of the swiss army knife Sewing machine 1830 start of the Design Reform 0 Wedgewood and Boulton replaced by criticism of spiritual and social part of design and industrial production 0 Thomas Carlyle I Scottsman who was highly critical Wrote important history of French Revolution I Wrote quotsigns of Times 1829 I quotMen lost faith in individual endeavors and in natural force of any kind I Mechanized means really influences creativity negatively cost of mechanizing is grim o Augustus Pugin most important critic of art of the time I Worked forJohn Nash neoclassicalneogothic I Born in 1812 I Portait ofPugin in Youth Industrious and happy youth 15 he had significant designs I 1831 he worked on important design projects challous design and I 1835 he converted to Catholicism relates to his design theory not just his religion I His Goal combat decay of taste I quotarchitecture should be the expression not just a jumble of styles design approach should express the state of the moment I Argues that Gothic best fit the modern age this style is not an issue of fashion but a principal based on morality amp faith it becomes common to have a reasoning for design I Middle ages is an important point of reference there is a human quality and accessibility that is considered crucial to the reformers close connection between designer and the product more streamline approach from the renaissance is said to disrupt the inspiration of the designera way of living a natural creative life more community based I In the eyes of these critics the machine is a violent act that interrupts the natural process of design they want to include the earlier process back into design I Associated the medieval with healthy relationship between man and culture morality I He speaks to Romanticism proves a structure for the Romanic movement Salisbury cathedral 0 Landscape by John Constable 1831 Showcasing a building that is not in the foreground but is still the subject of the piece Showcase for the brilliance of gothic design At the heart of his painting View of the gothic is emotional visceral symphony of storm and light 0000 O O 0 Rich coloration with a rainbow and passing of storm clouds everything is at a high pitch Emphasis of feelings and relating to nature Cathedral is at the center of all these intense features 1836 Pugin Published contrast between architecture in the 15th and 19th century 0 O O O 0 Poverty of contemporary architecture and design in comparison to the 15th century Modern industrial environment is dull 15th century is rich and beautiful depicts community catholic town in 1440 compared to 1840 sterility of modern design compared to handwork and fantasy 1841 True Principals of Pointed Architecture 0 O This is the gothic Everything should have a purpose when added as an element essential elements based on the purpose and intent All ornaments should consist on enrichment of the construction of the building ornament is an expression of the essential elements Focuses on the inappropriate use of the gothic design in contemporary design superficia dangerous and looks like it could hurt you makes confused and cluttered environment he wants a different approach for design Sees flying buttresses on an armchair which is useless angles for no reason that creates sharp corners n Pugins designs for flat surfaces floors and walls and ceramics should emphasis the flat surface they should not have an illusionistic design of depth Examples from Pugin I cope worn by the clergy design by Pugin representing st Thomas 1840s I dinnerware design for manufactures purpose and shape of dinnerware is shownharmonious interaction I beautiful jewelry objects should express their functions in materials I Refectory Table St Mary s College Oscott 1838 strips away fashion to its elemental quality Line and construction is elegant and simple no very different from the shake because they both believe in elemental timeless qualities and expressing the material I Also design for high end people richer materials and more heavily ornamented I Design for small church st Giles both art architecture and metal work for liturgical things were designed by pugin material and societal and spiritual unity Pugin is no adverse to ornament but it should not conceal the structure or falsify the material Ornament should be appropriate for the piece and emphasize the means and balance 0 O O Willliam Moris was indebted to Pugin Moris was Pugin s lineal descendant Appropriateness and integrity of design Moris does not know why the machine cannot help Reform elsewhere England though to be falling behind in design Pugin s point of view 0 England was a foundation for the industrial process 0 Pugin influences government policy so in 1835 a committee develops that focuses on design this leads to new schools of design to be established I Cole part of design school reform and published children s book 1845 became part of the Grand annual exhibition of manufactures in London he becomes friends with Minton I Coles tea wear 1846 manufacturer exhibition graceful and modern simple glazing emphasized the shape He wrote about his work on the set goal create beauty and ornament with cheapness form and principal to not interfere with simplicity of the outlines cup is deep rather than wide to help keep the tea warm relates to Etruscan pottery in the design of how the tea will be poured he describes the innovative process of design to how the element will be used to help form these details 0 recall 1960s was the independent group proactive to design education which makes England a leader in design 0 Prussian design school unify beauty and taste with practicality and durability workmen are artists and artists are workmen FRIDAY S CLASS WAS CANCELLED
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