Midterm Exam 2
Midterm Exam 2 Comm 4610
Popular in Health Communications
Popular in Language
This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Emily Fancher on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Comm 4610 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. So in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Health Communications in Language at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/24/15
September 24th 2015 News Media and Health News Media and Health Why is it important One of the functions attributed to news media is that of providing a public warning of possible dangers and risks Reason or justi cation for the disproportionate attention in news to crime violence disaster death and disease News Reports and Risks News reports are eventfocused Reporters are largely reactive Reporting on the facts surrounding a risk event after it happens Some types of risk events get more attention Catastrophic Vioent New novelty value Sensationa value ensures greater coverage Lack of source reviewmiseading information Journaistic independence Journalists as indpendent quotwatch dogsquot on society do not like getting their reports quotcheckedquot by experts Deadline NO time to get review from experts Daiies printed at 6 pm Time for copy editing Reporting Opposing views on risks Need for balance invites opposing views A healthy practice leading to informed decision making What about contradicting health information Ex caffeine and breast cancer Confusion Skepticism towards the news media and experts Defense mechanismscognitive negotiationsbiased interpretation Biased Attention Attention is skewed away from mundane causes of death disease and disaster Ex poverty More attention towards more quotdramaticquot but quotrarequot incidents Ex terrorist outrage plane crash killing all passengers The biased attention misleads audiences about which risks are moreless prevalent in actuality Underreporting Over reporting Varying roles of news media Least involved to most involved scale Level 1 lease involved Reporting existing information Level 2 In uencing the way an issue is portrayedframing Level 3 Selectively bringing an issue to public39s attention or restricting the coverage Level 4 most involved Proposing solutions to a riskrelated decision Factors affecting role choice In a crisis situation Start with reporting existing information ASAP level 1 More investigation on the topic more knowledge about the cause of the risk event 0 At this stage the issue can be framed differently or selectively covered Level 2 andor 3 The topic becomes mature enough Editors present opinions on resolving the situation Level 4 Ex antibiotic resistance Framing To select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text Death caused by asthma vs thrown away after death Essentially involves quotselectionquot and quotsaliencequot Seection implying that there39s omission the only aspect that you select will be presented Saience making a piece of information more noticeable meaningful or memorable to audiences Features used in framing News media frames issues by Using certain words phrases Ex had a quotred carpet momentquot Making certain contextual references 0 How rare this incident is in a certain context 0 Ex so called quotfriendsquot dumped her after she died of asthma Essentially involves quotselectionquot and quotsaliencequot Choosing certain pictures 0 The nature of the picture Ex quotdeath wish coffeequot 0 Angle perspective 0 Describing an incidental example as a typical usual incident September 29 2015 Health information on the Internet Abundance of health information on the web Approximately 1 million healthrelated websites in 1997 Now 80 million websites with health information 80x more More than 60 million US residents went online in search of health information in the past year Among those who use the Internet more than 70 report the health information they nd in uences a decision about treatment Advantages of online health information Internet has become a popular source of health information because Fast Easy Convenienthow and when to receive information Free Private anonymity Uptodate information Interactiveask questions request more information Brouoht some changes Consequences Greater knowledge and ability to discuss more speci c details of diseases with the physicians Patients increasingly bring up what they found on the Internet to physicians during their visits 0 Frequently needs to be quotreeducatedquot Acting upon health advice obtained from the Internet without any consultation with a physician 0 Natural remediesex Acne treatment using an onion Accuracy of online health information Who39s the gatekeeper here quotGatekeeping rolequot 0 A metaphor used to describe the process by which selections of news reports are made so that only factbased appropriate information can pass through the quotgatesquot of a news medium to the public Currently no governing body or authority acts as a gatekeeper of Web page publications ANYTHING can pass through the gates of the Internet Ex blogs about health topics Quality of information varies signi cantly Quality of information varies signi cantly Inaccurate Incompete Missing Question Have you seen any health information on the Internet that was completelyobviously untrue Youtube videos about anorexia Credibility of online health information Credibility of information Source credibility has 3 dimensions Perceived expertise Trustworthiness Attractiveness Toxoplasmosis disease you can contract from a house cat39s litter boxcauses birth defects in infants Google 1970000 searches last year vs 10100000 searches this year Guidelines on evaluating websites Content of the site Quality reliability accuracy scope death Design and aesthetics lncudes layout interactivity presentation appeal graphics Did the authors put effort into making it more presentable Should be used with caution Disclosure of authors sponsors and developers lncudes identi cation of purpose nature of organization sources of support authorship origin Ex lower risk of harm of ecigarettes Guidelines on evaluating websites Currency of information ncudes frequency of update freshness maintenance of site Authority of source Reputation of source credibility Attribution and documentation Presentation of clear references balanced evidence Contact addresses or feedback mechanisms lncudes availability of contact information contact address October 1 2015 Entertainment and health quotTried and untruequot formula for storytelling Genetic blueprint of successful movies include Action 30 Comedy 17 Good vs evil 13 Lovesexromance 12 Special effects 10 Plot 10 Music 8 Priority is NOT given to how accurate the portrayal re ects reality Entertainment and healthbene ts Sti Alice Medical drama Medical miracles Doctors are portrayed as quotallpowerful and allgoodquot CPR is usually administered to children and young adutssucceed in saving them recover in minutes 0 In reality CPR only saves 2030 of actual patients and usually includes older adults with heart attack Perpetuates myths about organ donation Organs are solid iegay Doctors39 preferential treatment to their favorite organ recipients People are allowed to die prematurely so that they can donate their organs Grey39s Anatomy 0 American Society of Transplantation quotFor the producers to suggest that a surgical team would not exercise due diligence before removing an organ is highly inaccurate undermines public con dence in the medical profession and raises unsubstantiated concerns about organ donationquot Realitv TV shows Programs that lm real people as they live out events in their lives contrived or otherwise as they occurquot Began appearing in 2000 Very costeffective House volunteers Rea unscripted noncelebrity Defining feature being quotunscriptedquot and casting quotnoncelebrityquot rather than re ecting quotreaityquot Recently criticized for providing a quotscriptquot Most people nd reality programming to be only somewhat real Reality TV effects Imagine Same plotnarrative portraying a healthrelated issue Soap opera vs reality tv shows Would the effects be different How and why JdenU cann Perceived realism Reality TV may have greater effects on perceptionsbeliefs about the health issue Bodv imaoe and Entertainment Media Cosmetic surgery makeover programs Body image and satisfaction 0 Exposure to idealized quotthin bodyquot images negatively impacts women39s body satisfaction 0 Ex quottop modelquot Low body satisfaction leads to quotBody dysmorphiaquot Preoccupation with the appearance of a certain part of the body Eating disorders ex anorexia nervosa Cosmetic enhancement treatments Cosmetic Surgery Makeover Programs Nabi 2009 studied quotI want a famous facequot and quotExtreme Makeoverquot Resu s Cultivation Theory Prediction o More frequent viewinggreater intention to undergo cosmetic enhancements Socia Cognitive Theory Prediction 0 Those with lower body satisfaction 1 greater identi cation with the program participants 2greater intention to undergo cosmetic enhancements Sex and entertainment Frequent depiction of sexual activities kissing sexual imagery 16 timeshr lrresponsibe portrayal of sex 0 Almost no mention of birth control Only 4 ofTV sex scenes includes verbal or visual references to safe sex methods 0 Very low incidence of STDs or unwanted pregnancies 42 of female teens give birth each year in the US Homosexualitv Tv industry in general has Been ignored Nonexistent in 1975 o In 2007 once every 35 hours Stereotyped Marginalized homosexuality When portrayed The gay character is typically played by a straight actor Marketed to a straight audience quotmainstreamquot Comingout story or quotqueer monsterquot script Entertainment and homosexualitv quotParasocial Contact Hypothesisquot Parasocia relationship 0 An imagined pseudofriendship between the audience and charactercelebrity formed through the mass media Parasocia relationship Contact Hypothesis 0 More positive exposure to theminority group members ess prejudice against the minority group members Stronger parasocial relationship 0 Less prejudice against the minority group members October 8th 2015 Six feet under HBO show about a family who owns and operates an independent funeral home in LA David Fisher gradually comes out to his family friends and church In love with Keith Charles Describes homosexuality in a more realisticserious way ex compared to quotWill Gracequot quotTelevision Studies Six Feet Underquot Students watched 10 full episodes over a 5 week period Resu s Overall reduced prejudice against gay men More gay contacts one reported 0 The lower the level of prejudice in support of quotcontact hypothesisquot Greater parasocial interaction with the gay characters 0 lower prejudice against gay men 0 in support of quotparasocial contact hypothesisquot Deceptive health patterns Appearing healthy without healthy life styles No exercise Unhealthy dieteating habits ex joey from Friends Overweight 645 Americans vs 6 men and 2 women Vioence doing little harm Pain suffering or medical help rarely follows violent acts Common health materials are rare Hardy anyone dies from a natural death Deaths usually result from dramatic unusual and traumatic life events Mental Health Stereotypical portrayal of mental health Mentally ill peopleportrayed as dangerous and violent Only about 11 of mental patients are violent Equivalent to the proportion of violent people in overall population In TV active confused aggressive dangerous unpredictable In real life passive withdrawn frightened avoidant Health Belief Model HBM Background To explain the quotfailurequot of health campaigns in 19505 Why do people fail to participate in healthy practices Extended purposes Expain people39s responses to diagnosed ilnesses Ex adherence vs nonadherence to medical regimens Guide health behavior interventions or campaigns Explain changes and maintenance of healthrelated behaviors HBM constructs Cognitive theory with quotcognitive componentsquot Health behaviors are determined by multiple quotcognitive componentsquot Perceived susceptibility Perceived severity Perceived bene ts Perceived barriers Selfefficacy Cues to action 0 All health beliefs Perceived susceptibility Perceived likelihood of being affected by a health issue Likeihood possibility probability estimate High susceptibility quotI will probably get sunburn if I do not apply sunscreen at the beachquot Low susceptibility quotIt is unlikely that I will be involved in a car accident even if I would send texts while drivingquot Perceived severitv Perceived seriousness of the consequences of experiencing a health issue Severity serious consequences High severity 0 quotSmoking will result in lung cancer which is deadlyquot quotGetting a u will negatively impact my performance in school and may result in losing a scholarshipquot Low severity quotIf I get the u I would have to stay in bed for a few days but it39s not a big deal at allquot Perceived threat Perceived threat perceived susceptibility X perceived severity in a multiplicative relationship Main determinant of health behavior High threat quotI will likely get the u which will bring serious consequences in my lifequot Low threat quotHIVAIDS is deadly but I will probably not get itquot quotMy chances of getting the cold is high but it39s not a big dealquot Perceived bene ts Beliefs that the recommended action is bene cial in reducing the health threat perceived health bene ts perceived nancial bene ts 0 Saving cigarette money by quitting smoking Avoiding missing a parttime job by preventing the u through vaccination perceived social bene ts quotlfl maintain a healthy weight I will become more popularquot o quotIf I quit smoking my girlfriend will enjoy spending time with me even morequot Perceived barriers Beliefs that the recommended action can bring about negative consequences perceived Physiological barriers quotgetting a u shot is painfulquot quotquitting smoking will have negative unpleasant side effectsquot perceived time barriers quotI would have to wait a long time in doctor39s of ce to receive a u shotquot perceived nancial barriers quotNicotine patch is too expensive for me to affordquot perceived social barriers quotMy friends will not hang out with me if I quit smokingquot Costbene t analvsis Weighing of the action39s expected bene ts with perceived barriers Likely to take action Bene t costgt 0 quotNicotine patch costs a lot but I will likely save more money in the long term by not having to buy cigarettes Unikey to take action Bene t cost lt 0 quotGetting a u shot will prevent me from missing my parttime job but I don39t think it39s worth waiting for a long time in the doctor39s of ce and experience pain Selfef cacy From Social Cognitive Theory Con dence in one39s own ability to successfully perform the recommended behavior Topicbehavior speci c Ex taking the stairs vs quitting smoking lmportant in potentially complicated or challenging behavior Ex cutting back on your favorite food If you don39t think you can do it you won39t Selfef cacy develops through Mastery experience succeeding in performing the behavior Need opportunity to actually try and succeed Vicarious experience observing others succeed in performing the behavior strengthened when the model is deemed similar to oneself quotIdentificationquot Verbal persuasion quotYou can do thisquot vs quotThere is no way you do this on your ownquot Improving physical and emotional states when relaxed and wellrested increase positive emotions and moodgreater selfefficacy October 15 2015 Cues to action Once you are ready to take action some cues may facilitate action Critical in triggering health behaviors in individuals who are psychologically ready to act based on ve health behaviors lnterna cues Bodily symptoms ex putting on more weight recently Environment cues Media ex media celebrities Social comparison 0 Social promotion at the gym Criticisms of HBM It stops at listing a set of variables that in uences intentions to engage in health behavior Does not specify any relationship among them 0 quotHealth belief model is more accurately described as a short list of variables than as a theoretical modelquot Extended Parallel Process Model EPPM Latest quotfear appealquot model Specifies interrelationship among threatrelated variables lmportance of both threat and efficacy Threat Perceived severity and susceptibilitythreat appraisal Efficacy Response ef cacy and selfefficacycoping appraisal Response ef cacy Perceived effectiveness of a measurebehavior that is advocated as a way to avoid the threatening situation How effective do you think these methods behaviors are in preventing health issues Fu vaccines Losing weight by using chopsticks Loca honey for pollen allergies EEPMVisual Model Threat appraisal precedes coping appraisal When individuals perceive the threat to be severe and likely to happen their efficacy beliefs will determine their behavior against the threat Emotional Abbeal Emotion Emotions are the primary motivational system for human beings Emotions play a central role in behavior changes or performance Two fundamental emotion theories Discrete emotions theory Cognitive appraisal theory Discrete Emotions Theory 10 core emotions fundamental to human beings Constitute primary motivational system for human beings REGARDLESS of ethnic or cultural differences These 10 fundamental emotions are DISCRETE Discrete different separate unconnected distinct Each emotion has unique motivational and phenomenological properties Ex facial expressions action tendency New Guinea Experiment ReaHy ls recognition of discrete emotions instinctive New Guinea 0 No Caucasian No mass media tv photographs People of New Guinea who have never seen Caucasian before saw the pictures of Caucasians portraying seven different core emotions They were able to distinguish among different emotions Bind children show typical facial expressions for these same core emotions Concusion these speci c emotions are innate Coonitive Appraisal Theorv of Emotion Cognitive appraisal theory of emotions Emotions arise due to cognitive appraisal interpretation of a given environmentsituation There are certain personenvironment relationships that activate discrete emotions quotcore relational themequot essential eliciting factor or quotcausequot Angg Core reationa theme Demeaning offense against me and mine Damage or threat to egoidentity Bame is directed at someone or something other than ourselves suddenly take away a toy from a chidanger you hear someone unfairly criticizing youanger Action tendency Attack on the agent held to be bameworthy for the offense Ex ght act with aggression physical or verbal Anxiety Core reationa theme facing uncertain threatquot uncertain about how dif cult nal exam will beanxiety possibility of getting a surgeryanxiety Hallmark of anxiety is quotuncertaintyquot quotperceived susceptibilityquot Action tendency Avoidance or escape as opposed to approachattack lnformation seeking to reduce uncertainty Molelook up on the internet 0 get tested for STDs Fear Core relational theme Facing an immediate concrete and overwhelming physical danger or threat to wellbeing Ex showing the signs of Alzheimer39s disease Action tendency Avoidance or escape as opposed to approach and attack lmpuse to get away from the obvious danger by 0 taking protective action against the threat mentally avoid thinking about it ex denial Anticipated sadness Sadness Core relational theme Having experienced irrevocable lossquot Losing someone you love failure of important life value or role loss of positive regard of another person
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