Popular in European Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Josiah on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PS 324 at University of Oregon taught by Mehmet Celebi in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see European Politics in Political Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/24/15
Oct 1 Europe as a Cartographic Problem Geography Europe as a Political Problem Symbolism Greece came up with three continents Africa Libya Asia and Europe Greece didn39t include itself as Europe they saw them more as barbarians Romans used the term for administrative reasons Christendom rather than Europe Renaissance Emergence of continents as the default world map Europeans resisted to see America as a continent for decades ruins the cross idea Europe39s boarder remains vague as there are no obvious physical barriers and bottlenecks that divides Europe and Asia Enlightenment Swedish Geographer Philip Johan von Strahlenberg suggests current boarders of Europe Became default way to define Europe in primary education Modern Maps of Europe Borders between Europe and Asia is the Ural Mountains Intellectuals had always been wary of the obviously arbitrary nature of this border Europe Europe is not a landmass like other continents Yet it is the archetypical continent the entire reason of the invention of the continental scheme Medieval Christendom A network ever competing Christian states and microstates cities noble and royal families connected through the Catholic Church as opposed to loosely administered centralized empires that rise and fall dominant in Eastern Asia Indian Subcontinent and Muslim World From Christendom to Europe A secular perception of the world emerges With the completion of Reconquista on Spain Christianization of Lithuania and Islamization of Anatolia the borders of Christendom approximated to those of ancient Europe Protestant Reformation The religious unity of Christianity was shattered Secularization Europe as Secular Civilizational identity instead of Christendom which was entirely Religious Enlightenment The duality is no more between Christendom and Islam instead civilization against barbarity progress against backwardness amp freedom against despotism 19th Century Concert of Europe Europeanness becomes a diplomatic status Europe becomes a system or network of states A network of states which enjoys somewhat equal diplomatic privileges and recognized as equals on a ceremonial level whereas states outside of Europe are conceived as territories to colonize Cold War The geopolitical fault line is now in the middle of Europe The duality is now between the Communist East and the Capitalist West US is now the dominant power Sovereign Statehood as diplomatic equals is extended to all countries under united nation39s umbrella CONCLUSIONS Europe is not a thing From the perspective of physical geography it is not a useful category It was invented for political and cultural purposes But the cultural unity it implies does not exist either As a political term as all political terms both its meaning and its borders are contentious and negotiable Oct 6 A European World Its economic model capitalism is triumphant Its state model the bureaucratic nationstate is ubiquitous Its political values liberal democracy is hegemonic When did Europe become so significant 10th Century Demographically economically and technologically backward Start catchingup on 13th Century 15th 16th Century Takeoff in technology and economy but still on the defensive against the Ottoman Military Machine China is probably still the most prosperous By the end of 18th Century its technologically and economically superior to its adversaries but its advantage is still relative 19th Century The Age of Europe The Eurasian Advantage Crops livestock and germs travelling easily in a large area Easy to move east and west on the same latitude Culture Economic Institutions Culture Greek GeniusRationalism JudeoChristian understanding of free will Roman Law Tradition which emphasize individuality and private property Protestant Work Ethic RenaissanceEnlightenmentScientific Method European Culture was superior because it values and rewards individuality hard work curiosity freedom Economic Advantage Proximity to Americas and incentives to look for new trade routes American Silver monetized the economy hereby laying the ground for capitalism Demographic changes created a surplus of workforce laying the ground for capitalism Availability of coal and livestock Discovery of America made gold and silver abundant in Western Europe Western European powers used this money to build powerful armies and used the armies to plunder the riches of the rest of the world nstitutions Atlantic trade interacted with a number of institutions and made them particularly open to growth Private property capitalist enterprise banking and insurance nationstates Why was Europe poor and China rich for the Entire Medieval Ages Theoretica Premises Two sources of power Economic Wealth Capital Decentralized bottom up logic Concentrates in cities Military Might Coercion Centraized top down logic Concentrated in states What happened in 1516th Centuries Europeans gained access to new naval and military technologies American Silver monetizes the economy promotes production for market War and survival more and more expensive Three alternative models Empires CityStates NationStates Coercion Intensive Typical example is Russiaother parts of Europe with limited access to commercial cities or where states trumped merchants Countered the challenges of modern warfare Making aristocracy dependent on state Used dependent aristocrats in mobilizing armies Making peasants dependent on the aristocrats reducing them to serfs Ultimately weaker than Western European forces because of lack of capital POLAND TRIED TO DO THE SAME FAILED DISAPPEARED FROM THE MAP FOR 150 YEARS Capital Intensive Typical example Venicepowerful cities on main trade routes andor benefitting from Atlantic Trade Countered the challenges of modern warfare by nvesting on powerful navies to secure traderoutes Relying on merchants to obtain financial resourcescredit No large population to raise a powerful land army rely on mercenaries Ultimately weaker than England and France because of lack of reliable land army Netherlands survived by forming a largeish confederation and gaining access to largeish militia force Capitalized Coercion Typical example England France to a lesser degree Prussia Spain and Austria Countered the challenges of Modern warfare by Access to both cities and large populations Made the aristocracy partially dependent on state Had access to credit and tax base that can finance war efforts nvented modern bureaucracy modern taxing and armies Ultimately became the dominant state model Nation States What became dominant is not Europe but one particular institution developed in Europe The NationState with centralized bureaucracy and national army lt developed as a reaction to the flow of quotAmerican Silver and technological developments which made capital abundant and wars expensive This institution developed in Europe because unlike other parts of the World with similar development levels Europe was always divided It only developed in certain European states which has access to both capitalrich cities AND large rural populations Oct 8 List differences between Europe in 1780 and Europe in roughly 1900 Smaller world Trade triangle Industrialization Manufacture was gaining more importance than agricultural Large middleclass People are smaller More free trade Gold standard Slavery abolished Monarchy is no more the rule Great divergence Life in Europe Known world is much smaller Population density is much lower 187 millions Average height is around five feet for males Demographic boom but life expectancy still in 3039s Travel is still very expensive outside of main trade routes Agriculture is the main economic activity around 9097 percent of the populations lives in rural areas 7085 percent in Northern Italy In cities most people spend more than half of their earnings on bread Small peasants are unfree everywhere they are partially better off in some parts of Western Europeall they are asked is money not contribution in kind and forced laborbut still 3rd class citizens Agricultural productivity is growing but so does the population Industries are slowly growing but fortunes are not made there Merchants trading in agricultural surplus of Americas and slaves are making fortunes Scientific revolution 17th18th Century Siecle des Lumieres Europeans intellectuals are confident of their future things will be better tomorrow they believe in progress and freedom The Industrial Revolution This is the real game changer What made 19th century the century of Europe was its self sustaining economic growth everything before it was reversible It changed every aspect of life in Europe within 2 generations in the almost entire world within 4 What is it The beginning of selfsustaining economic growth The creation of a specialized economy which is not dependent on agriculture Creation of new organizational forms of production that increase the output beyond imagination The beginning of sustained and constant technological innovation process When Controversial sometime between 1720 and 183039s Fact its full force began to be felt in 183039s Whenever the revolution has started it created industrialized societies in 183039s Key sectors Textiles Metallurgy Railroads Where Slave trade Lancashire Liverpool Manchester Birmingham London Why Britain Not demographic boom centralbureaucratic state technological innovations scientific progress other countries were equal in these regards Other Western European countries were pretty much in the same boat France was in a better position yet they had to emulate British techniques later Enclosure movements The monetized economy led to 0 Big landowners expelled peasants from their lands to produce woolno small market oriented peasants 0 Rapid urbanization mass of the people on cities looking forjobs o A potent yet preindustrial textiles sector based on wool Capital labor and knowhow British Hegemony Britain won 4 of the 5 wars it fought against France the one it lost American War of Independence hurt France more than it did Britain financially The Crown is free to push for markets and raw materials dominates the slave trade Result Available capital labor and knowhow Available markets and raw materials An economic conditions that greatly rewards even small innovations in production techniques Outcomes Immense growth in production output Sustained technological development Unemployment bad working conditions unmoral actions social and income inequality Two Crises 1 Social crisis for the working class the quality of life did not improve became worse 2 Environmental crisis which will be problematized in 20th Century Oct 13 Nationalism Van Rompuy from the UKIP on EU39s President Belgium is a nonCountry EU is assassinating democracy and the nation state Democracy and the nation Nations are natural units of politics Anything above it is illegitimate Democracy can only work in a NationState because only nation is a real community What about Belgium then What criteria do we have to distinguish between countries and non countries Are nations natural entities Nations sharing the same language but fought bloody wars anyway USU K GermanyAustria PeruEcuador many more A language is a dialect very heavy accent with an army and a Navy Cornish Catalan Breton MultiLingual nations with consistent national identities Switzerland India Pakistan The glue that holds nations together Religion strong relationship between nationalism and religion Ethnicity Culture Economy markets brought people together History Political Boarders Education Wars Common cultureidealsgoals Impossible to find All nationstates have a narrative of common values and history bonding its people together and a narrative celebrating its glorious past In each case those narratives are making tremendous differences invisible as well as shameful moments in their past Primordia or Modern Primordial Natural from time immemorial Modern Even the term is novelty Nationaism and nationstates came before nations Nationaist intellectuals and states worked to build nations as coherent identities States actively and aggressively pursued policies to establish one standard language at the expense of competing local dialects which can as well be conceived as competing languages quotWe made Italy now its time to make Italiansquot Nations are constructed NationStatePeople French Revolution France is notjust a random territory a dynasty has authority on but a natural entity The legitimacy of the French state is grounded on popular will not divine will or feudal rights People living in France constitutes theone and indivisibleFrench Nation Who qualifies as a French As understood by the French Revolutionaries nation is a political unity not ethnic linguistic or culturally The legitimacy of the French state is grounded on popular will not divine will or feudal rights People living in France constitutes the one and indivisible French Nation Two competing models of Nationalism FrenchCivic Bond by soil Revolutionarydemocratic Sovereign citizen people GermanEthnic Bond by blood Ethnic and linguistic Weldefined community Principle of Nationality The idea that each state should represent a nation that there should be a correspondence between political and cultural units in Europe The idea of national sovereignty triumphed Each state should represent a nation But what a nation is isn39t really defined What were the dynamics of democratization before the World War 1 Oct 15 What does Suffrage mean European Regimes in 18th Century Absolutism Divine right of the kings Nobility and Clergy enjoys a privileged position middle class represented on uneven terms Parliaments exist but they are mostly defending the rights of the privileged impotent outside of England New ideas are emerging Liberalism and Democracy Liberaism What does the term mean in the United States In the US it is more associated with democrats opposite of conservatism What does it mean in general In general it is a political ideology derived from Locke In the European context its socialism Liberaism vs Democracy Liberalism An economic doctrine Free enterprise and free markets A legal doctrine rule of law Representation for accountability Main goal Protecting individuals from the government The ideology of the rising bourgeoisie Democracy Poitica EqualityUniversal Suffrage for men Nationa Will The Laws should be the reflection of the sovereign people39s will Main goal Participatory and inclusive government A radicalrevolutionary idea French Revolution 0 Constitutional Monarchy between 17891792 0 Universal Suffrage between 17921795 0 Restricted Suffrage after 1795 o Became a personal dictatorship under Napoleon I after 1799 o The Genie is out of the Bottle French revolution showed how liberalism is moving forward Ideals of 19th Century 0 Liberal Constitutional Monarchies o A gentlemanly democracy Upper and Middle classes are represented in Parliaments o Monarchies and Nobility keep their privileges restrict the power of Parliaments 0 Upper and even middle classes fear democracy 0 Uneducated passionate masses are unable to understand the common good 0 Mob rule lead to excesses and violence Pariamentary Politics in 19th Century Conservatives against Liberals o Conservatives try to limit not stop the expansion of rights and defend traditional values and institutions 0 Liberals are more progressive want to promote values and institutions that leads to economic development defend economic freedom rule of lawnot necessarily democracy 0 Liberals are the ones with an idea bourgeoisie is the rising class quotSpringtime of Peoplesquot 1848 Failed o Fails to establish Democratic Regimes with the exception of France 0 The French Democracy didn39t survive for long Louis Bonaparte establishes quotThe Second Empirequot a quotplebiscitary democracyquot the people elect the president and the president has absolute authority 0 Napoleon III The same man wins every election thanks to his support in rural areas and the state machinery Kind of like a Putin Faiure of Democracy 0 Most of bourgeoisie fears democracy 0 Nobility opposes it o The peasantry is not enthusiastic about it have a traditionalist outlook is content with paternal figures 0 Working class and Radical Petty Bourgeoisie is defeated in 1848 Yet Democracy still makes advantages 0 A teleology The idea that progress inevitably leads to democracy 0 Nobility39s economic relevance diminishes 0 Class mobility 0 Education becomes widespread 0 Mass Conscription Revolutionary Wars showed the effectiveness of large loyal citizen armies o Liberalism does not have an ideological defense against democracy quotAll men are created equalquot 186039s to 1914 o The franchise gets wider and wider everywhere 0 Starting from 190039s women39s start to gain the right to vote a much more radical step Yet this is a slow movement 0 Limited Power of Parliaments 0 Upper houses controlled by upper classes 0 Additional votes for the educated and propertied o Gerrymandering 0 Open Ballots o Clientalism Give positions to people that have supported you 0 Complex registration Laws 0 Even with widening franchise politics is still mostly a gentlemanly endeavor 0 Democratic Politics is mostly a competition between liberals and conservatives Enter Mass Movements 0 Religious mobilization Germany Austria Netherlands 0 Nationalist mobilization Habsburg Empire Ireland 0 WorkingClass MobilizationThe real game changer happening all over Europe The Origins of Three Major Ideologies Socialism Liberalism Conservatism o The difference between socialist and communist is not settled yet 0 The extreme right is yet absenteven though antisemitist ultranationalist mobilization shows some potential 0 Greens will appear in the political arena after 196039s The ruling classes were not alarmed o Repression is still an option the state and the army is loyal o Conservatives and moderates tend to benefit from universal suffrage as long as they can control rural votes 0 Democratic politics tend to quottamequot the revolutionary impulses of the Working Class 0 Belief in Progress Time is the ally of liberals Until 1917 that is Lessons 0 Liberalism and Democracy are not necessarily complementary one does not necessarily lead to other 0 Democracy developed very slowly in Europe 0 The leading democrats were petty bourgeoisie and the working class 0 The Mass Movements transformed the political scene in early 20th century Oct 20 The working class and Socialism Putocracy elites and government rule the society Socia Democracy Still works in frameworks of a democratic nation but social needs are given working class movements Sociaism Everyone is equal and the government provides benefits working class movement Communism Classless society under government controls Under the Russian Revolution in 1917 socialism and communism are two different stages Changing class structure Industrial Revolutiongt o The importance of landowners peasantry and agriculture is diminishing o The economic power of the bourgeoisie capitalist bankers increasing 0 A new class Industrial Workers the Proletariat is emerging Working Class 0 Nothing to rely on but selling labor 0 An urban phenomenaconcentrated in cities easy to organize o Horrible working conditions 0 Very low incomes o Deprived of politicalworking rights Working Class Radicalism Working classgtMiddle class petty bourgeoisiegtArmygtGovernment gtBusiness men and kingsgtCapitalism Marxism o Marx was a prolific writer not particularly clear in his writings his views evolved over time Young marx was a humanitarian older marx was more of a constructionist 0 Open to many interpretations o Struggled to unite the Working Class in his own lifetime without great success 0 Marxismsrather than Marxism A few basic tenets o The working class is the rising class destined to change the World for the better 0 Capitalism creates polarization Ultimately only two classes will remain miserable and populous working class vs wealthy bourgeoisie 0 Progress Capitalism was inevitable So is the Communists Revolution 0 The struggle of working class is international 0 Workers of the world unite Social Democratic Parties 0 Social democratic parties began to gather steam in 189039s and especially 191039s 0 They still own the Karl Marx museum 0 Overthrowing capitalism was still the ultimate goal 0 But started to play the game of democratic politics tried to develop a concrete program and improve the conditions of the Working Class 0 Internationalist and AntiMilitarist opposes Imperialist Wars Problems Capitalism is not as fragile as Marx expected Working Class is more nationalist than internationalist Working Class expanded but became neither a numeric majority nor homogenous Three Ideological Alternatives 0 Orthodox Marxism The collapse of capitalism is inevitable Meanwhile socialists should build powerful organization 0 Leninism Socialist should take the matter into their own hands and work for the revolution 0 Revisionism The Revolution is neither inevitable nor the only alternative Socialist should work to reform capitalism Socialism can be built in a piecemeal fashion After the first World War 0 Socialist Revolution overthrows the regime in Russia build a economy based on state ownership 0 Many Socialist parties find themselves as the party with largest support in many European Countries other become major actors o The tensions between Reformist and Leninists rise separate communist parties emerge o Fascism rise as an alternative gather support from the terrified bourgeoisie Strategy of Social Democrats 0 Espouse Nationalism 0 Leave the antimilitarist stance 0 Supported the WWI o Crossclass alliances instead of narrow class struggle cross class alliances means taking power by uniting with the peasantry 0 Since then social democrats have close relationships with trade unions Program of Social Democrats 0 First Welfare Programs were initiated by TradeUnions as selfhelp schemes 0 Conservatives espoused such programs both as a way to contain workingclass radicalism and part of their world view 0 Social democrats pushed for expansion 0 The state should be a father and help its children way Bismarck thought 0 Planned EconomyMarket forces under supervision o WorkCouncils Tradeunions gain some control over management decisions in factories o Nationalization of some key industries like steel coal railroads transport 0 After 193039s Keynesian demandside policies after 1929 crisis policies that stimulate the economy as a whole by increasing the money consumers have by social and infrastructure polices Sheri Berman39s Argument 0 Primacy of Politics 0 1910 s and 20 s were a time of social crisis Inequality loss of sense of community violence 0 Liberalism as an economic doctrine did not have a response 0 Neither Marxism as a narrow economic doctrine 0 Social Democrats understood the primacy of politics They advocated a society which will benefit all its citizens without pursuing the narrow interests of the Working Class 0 Hegemony of Social Democracy 0 The real triumph of social democracy is not the success of social democrat parties 0 The main elements of Social Democratic Program has been adopted by all political parties in Europe and shaped the regimes after the WW2 olnclusive Democracy oWelfare State oRegulated Capitalism
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