Week 1-Week 4 Notes
Week 1-Week 4 Notes PS 326
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Josiah on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PS 326 at University of Oregon taught by Yongwoo Jeung in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see US Foreign Policy in Political Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/24/15
Oct 1 Realism Why assumptions matter Causal Theory We use causal theories to explain foreign policy decisions For sure everything matters but is it a good theory that takes everything into consideration Not always might overlook important data Functions of theory What do theories do Theories of US foreign policy try to isolate the most important forces which shape policy Independent variables External environment Societal environment Governmental structure Bureaucratic roles Personalities of individuals Mearsheimer39s assumptions Assumption 1 AnarchyIt is different from chaos and conflict Hobbes39s vs Locke39s state of nature are differing Assumption 2 Offensive military capability Assumption 3 Uncertainty about other countries intentions Game theoretic situation Assumption 4 Primacy of survival Assumption 5 Great powers as rational actors Five assumptions lead to great powers39 general behavior Great powers should behave aggressively Ultimate goal for the state to be the most powerful state in the system Insatiable nature of pursuit of power in the system once it takes the position of dominance Security dilemma The very act of a state to enhance its security makes it more vulnerable Realism a systemiclevel theory does not pay attention to qualities of political leaders of states does not pay much attention to qualities of regimes individual states are fundamentally similar in a Weberian sense of bureaucracy ndividua states are different from each other only by capabilities capabiities shape intention Great Power Politics Great powers only matter in realist perspectives of powerful countries in the international system How many there are What would be the desirable for world peace Where are they located Relative power gap Roles of middle powers and weak states in the international system Hegemon and its limits Antonio Gramsci 19th Century Italian Marxist Bourgeoisie39s hegemony over the society quotA hegemon is a state that is so powerful that it dominates all the other states in the system Mearshiemerquot quotHegemony means domination of the system which is usually interpreted to mean the entire worldquot Regional hegemony like in China39s hegemony in the East Asia Mearshiemer39s famous argument quotIt is virtually impossible for any state to achieve global hegemonyquot US at best regional hegemon Stopping power of water The purposeful and planned use of military economic and diplomatic means by states to achieve desired foreign policy ends whether in peacetime or during wartime Oct 6 Status quo state vs Revisionist Status QuoMaintain 1Territory integrity 2Position in international system Revisionist stateActively increase 1Territory under control 2Relative power Number and degree of stability of international system Bipolargtstable war is not likely Multipolargtunstable war is likely Unipoargtdisputable recent period unprecedented soationism status quogtGreat Power War revisionist During the isolationist stage the US expanded its territory toward the wild west at the cost of native Americans not attacking other countries SpanishAmerican War 1898 was the start of America39s revisionist era US became an imperial power since the 19th century Balance of power theory When a country becomes powerful for some reason other neighboring countries start to balance against it nterna Balancing military buildup to catch up Externa Balancing forging alliances with other countries Defensive realism Most states are content with the status quo Balanceofthreat theory States balance against threatening states not power itself States should only invest a sufficient amount of resources to maintain their security Offensedefense balance Some technological developmentsgtdefenders39 advantage In some eras offense is dominant in others defensesometimes the cost of conquest exceed the benefits The security dilemma the very activities for enhancing one39s security can threaten other countries which paradoxically made it more vulnerable Offensive Realism ntentions of states are not known Murky boundary between offensive weapons and defensive weapons To be a hegemon is the only way to promote one39s securitygtfor Mearsheimer it39s a regional hegemon US is a regional hegemon in the western Hemisphere Becoming regional hegemon Preventing the rise of another regional hegemons offshore balancing The history of the US fits with the Offensive realism The US famousnotorious of offshore balancing activities Defensive and offensive realism compared Defensive countries balance against threats have security that is abundant has a preferred grand strategy of status quo Offensive countries balance against power have security that is scarce has a preferred grand strategy that is revisionist Oct 8 Realism and Other Theories Military power Necessary of conquering the territory Latent power Large population Large economy Large gdp Why does measuring wealth sometimes fail in predicting military power in realist approaches Difference in composition of wealth across countries 0 Russia and Prussia before WW1 What is the quotmobilizablequot wealth It has to do with materials for weapons What is the diminishing returns in transforming wealth into military power Can China rise peacefully Theories of US Foreign Policy Offensive realism Defensive realism Liberaism Neoclassica realism Marxism Constructivism Liberalism Louis Hartz The Liberal Tradition of America 1955 Lack of feudalism Political culture of consensus Absence of extreme ideologies The US has to remain liberal no matter what The quality of the US affects its foreign policy constantly American jeremiad John Winthrop39s Sermon 1630 o quotA city upon a hillquot 0 Puritans and God39s judgements 0 Watched by the world ndividua Liberty Democracy Woodrow Wilson Democratic forms of governments Selfdetermination International organization for world peace Democratic Peace theory Democracies do not fight each other Immanuel39s Kant39s What is Enlightenment amp Perpetual Peace Free trades and interconnectedness Neoclassical realism Independent variables Systemic level variables Realism Intervening Variables Domestic politics politics in Capitol Hill ideological conflicts economic situation OutcomesDependent Variables US foreign policy Marxism Basic concepts Exploitation o Perpetual process of extracting surplus values from the exploited Antagonism between the haves and the haves not Classless society Lenin39s Imperialism Argued to be the highest stage of capitalism Economic motivations determine US foreign policy World Systems Theory Coresemiperipheryperiphery Division of labor or different levels of exploitation Dependence Theory Against Marxism Against modernization school 0 Thought that there is a linear path of economic growth is wrong according to Marxists They believe free trades make underdeveloped countries poorer Constructivism deas matter in determining foreign policies or ideas matter more than material conditions in some cases in determining foreign policies Socia process of meaningmaking Oct 15 Domestic Politics 1 Some previous scholars thought that liberal theories in IR were at best quotapproachesquot They could not be theories which have to do with the criticism that quotit liberalism is secondbest social sciencequot 515 Why 0 Liberal theory is all about the outcomes not providing any predictions 0 Liberalism is too broad o More of an ethical position 2 State39s preferences should be analytically distinguished from state39s strategies in the international politics 519 What does it mean 0 Every state will have an ideal or a preference but this should not affect policy decision making or strategies 0 Comes from rational choice theory 0 Preference is set before you enter the game but strategy considers other player that can play in the game 3 Why is liberal theory not a just domestic theory or quotunitlevelquot theory as realist argued 522 0 Liberal theory is looking at other countries preferences and strategies 0 International actors also play a part in domestic decision making 0 States will change their preferences they are not static and changing their goals goes with the liberal ideal The nature of three types of 1 Ideational liberalism identity and legitimacy liberal theories 524 0 Configuration of domestic identities o Nationalism affects behavior 2 Commercial liberalism distributional conflicts and economic incentives 0 Individuals are doing business and groups debate the atmosphere of free trade 0 Looking at distribution of resources 3 Republican liberalism institutional features of representation 0 Elections 0 Uneasy relationship between bureaucracies and governmental actors 0 Institutional divide Checks and balances Oct 20 kenberry et al 1988 1 Scholars of systemic and societycentered approaches treated the policymaking process as a quotblackboxquot What does this mean 0 Random internal domestic politics political procedure personalities differences 0 fyou are not in the process you might not understand the full situation 2 Do you believe that the American state is weak compared to its society Or do you believe that the American state is weak compared to other countries When the authors introduced contributors39 works in terms of power of the American state what are they trying to suggest against a conventional wisdom 0 Comparing the American state and other countries is like comparing fruits and vegetables 0 This conventional wisdom of the power of the stae is bad for social sciences they should look at it case by case 3 What is the main limitation of the systemiclevel theories including world systems theory and the theory of hegemonic stability 0 Limitation can be explained by the division of labor on the international level o It takes time to become developed as a country must exploit other countries to develop but it doesn t help the periphery countries to develope 4 David Luke argued that quotthe extent to which systemic constraints are reflected in foreign economic policy is determined by the relative success of the foreign policy executive within the domestic political arena What does it mean 0 The executive can only be successful overcoming systemic constraints if there is domestic support to do so 0 It39s liberal argument 0 Give example 5 According to statecentered explanations quotInstitutional change is nonlinearquot What does it mean 0 Once made the institution is not likely to change Theorizing US Grand Strategy Trubowitz39s theory of executive choice key terms 0 Grand strategy 0 Political selfinterest o Geopolitical slack o Partisan coalition 0 Guns and butter 0 Opportunity costs Grand Strategy quotit refers to the purposeful use of military diplomatic and economic tools of statecraft to achieve desired endsquot 0 Actors in the theory 0 Who are most important actors in determining foreign policies in a country 0 Presidents in the United States 0 executives eg presidents monarchs prime ministers party leaders Poitica selfinterest 0 David Mayhew a professor at Yale Univ 0 Politicians are quotsingleminded seeker of reelection o Executives are also singleminded seekers of positions 0 Two sources of failure of seeking their positions 0 o In responding to international threats 0 Eg Machiavelli 15 6c Florentine Republic o In realizing domestic supporters policy preferences 0 Eg LB Johnson s Vietnam in the 1960s Dependent Variables Dimensions of foreign policies 0 Dimension 1 o Revisionist 0 Status Quo o Dimension 2 o Expensive 0 Cheap quotWhat is bindingquot nternationa constraints on executives39 choice Big disagreement over security 0 Offensive realist 0 Security is scarce o Defensive realists 0 Security is abundant Trubowitz39s solution P 19 Geopolitical Slack o If geopolitical slack is high then security is abundant 0 Clinton administration after the soviet union broke up o If geopolitical slack is low then security is scarce o The US right after the American Revolution 0 The Cold War Domestic constraints Limits of the systemic level theories 0 Samesimilar degree of geopolitical slack o Leads to different outcomes Domestic constraints 0 Does the president need his party39s political support 0 Choice over quotguns and butterquot 0 Who are supportive of military buildsups o Partisan coalition 0 Pork barrel politics 0 Agricultural States39 disagreement with the federal government39s military buildups before the Civil War and during the 1930s Limit in the budget gt Opportunity costs 0 Investment in butter cannot be spent on guns Guns amp Butter Government Investment Priorities 0 Government Investment Priorities of the guns party National security Militaryindustrial complex homeland security 0 Government Investment Priorities of the butter party Education Infrastructure Healthcare Environment or less taxation Preferred Grand Strategy 0 Preferred Grand Strategy of the guns party Expensive and revisionist 0 Preferred Grand Strategy of the butter party Cheap and status quo Geopoitica Slack HighLow vs GunsButter Low geopolitical slack vs Guns party 0 Scenario 1 Balancing 0 Internal Balancing o Defensive War High geopolitical slack vs Guns Party 0 Scenario 2 Expansionism o Expansionism o Imperialism o Wars of Conquest Low geopolitical slack vs Butter Party 0 Scenario 3 Satisficing o Appeasement 0 External Balancing o Buckpassing High geopolitical slack vs Butter Party 0 Scenario 4 Underextension o Retrenchment o Isolationism Where are we now Obama administration in the US 20092016 0 The ruling Democratic Party is a party 0 Geopolitical slack is o The predictable scenario for the US is Scenario Problems of Trubowitz39s framework Applicability o Is it applicable to other countries with different representative systems Perception of geopolitical slack and partisan preferences 0 How do we know and how do we measure it Various military actions and War on Terror 0 War of conquest defensive war preemptive strike in War on Terror 0 Clinton39s intervention in Kosovo in the 1990s o Trubowitz39s prediction underextension due to weak geopolitical slack no distributive benefits for military action weak electoral advantage for military action loosening fiscal restraints 0 Actual foreign policies selective engagement in for instance Kosovo39s quotethnic cleansingquot or quotgenocidequot Appeasement Previous scholarly discussion of appeasement 0 Historical failure of Neville Chamberlain in placating Adolf Hitler in 1938 0 Wrong strategy 0 Rationale in appeasement 0 From realist point of view quotchoosing between primary and secondary threatsquot Trubowitz39s argument 0 quotThe critical choicewas not between primary and secondary foreign threats but between conflicting geopolitical and domestic imperativesquot 45 George Washington 0 Alliance with France since the American Revolutionary War 177583 0 The revolutionary France39s Declaration of War against Britain in 1793 0 France was heavily reliant on American products 0 Britain39s military dominance o In the summer of 1793 the British no longer allowed any neutral shipments mainly of food across the Atlantic Ocean 0 American commercial interests were hurt o Cries for retaliation o FinanciallyMilitarin 0 Degree of political slack Low 0 Party Preference 0 Republicans vs Federalist 0 Republicans a Constituentswhite yeoman farmers b Cause political c Prefer guns 0 Federalist a ConstituentsMerchants shipbuilders land speculators b Cause practical economic interest infant industry and developmental strategy c Prefer butter 0 Policy choice of G Washington 0 Jay Treaty with Britain 0 No shipments to France o In response the damage inflicted by the Royal Navy will be compensated by Britain 0 However when it comes to America39s trades with British West Indian ports which was a great concern for US businesses US merchants39 access was still severely limited
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