Lecture Notes for Upcoming Exam
Lecture Notes for Upcoming Exam ANTHROP 3300
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ANTHROP 3300 at Ohio State University taught by Debra Guatelli-Steinberg in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Primate Evolution Part 4 Mid to Late Miocene 175MYA Eurasian Hominoid Radiation land bridge between Africa and Eurasia opened up during this time Dryopithecus 148mya in Europe 0 chimpsized brain 0 Brachiator long fingers and long arms Oranopithecus Greek Ape 107mya 0 thick enameled form 0 quotgorilla like face Gigantopithecus 75mya in India and China 0 huge jaws teeth 0 possibly a bamboo eater No more hominoids in Europe at end of Miocene During this time the climate changed woodlands receding and spread of first grasslands in Europe Summary of Trends for MidLate Miocene woodlands grasslands spread some suspensorybrachiating species species with thick enamel robust jaws o anticipates early hominins End of MidLate Miocene Bipedalism What did it evolve from Anatomy of Bipedalism History of Discovery The earliest possible bipeds What did bipedalism evolve from One idea ancestors were arboreal vertical climbing or suspensory and then became bipedal Another idea were arboreal but went through a phase of knuckle walking then became bipedal Human Bipedalism Striding strides with different phases stance toeoff swing heelstrike 0 only one leg supporting you most of the time 0 need many adaptations to make it work Obligate primary way of locomotion Bipedal Anatomy The skull 0 location of foramen magnum under the skull centrally located 0 head balanced on top of the spine The Spine center of gravity balance point is in the hip joint of humans standing chimps COG far forward of hip joint humans lumbar curve shifts hips forward thoracic curve brings head of COG o apes have 3 lumbar vertebrate whereas humans have 5 Pelvis o pubis illium ischium relative to apes human ilia shorter broader and wrap around 0 shortening of ilium bring COG closer to the hip joint 0 broadening and wrapping of ilia maintaining stability 0 gluteus medius and minimus maintain lateral stability 0 gluteus maximus prevents the body from pitching forward when walking Legs 0 long heavy legs 0 femur has a valgus angle goes away from the body keeps feet underneath the pelvis 0 locking knees allows full extension of the knee when walking without having a lot of muscle involvement making it energy efficient The foot 0 convergentadducted big toe o enlarged calcaneusheel bone 0 metatarsalsbones of big toe are very robust o arched feet plantar fascia maintains the arch shock absorption propulsion Burdens of Bipedalism back pain because of holding up the body pregnancy got harder because of bipedalism o humans have big heads that must get through a small pelvis 0 female pelvis is a compromise big enough to get head through but still small enough to maintain efficient bipedalism History of Discovery Dart 1924 Taung child in South Africa 0 australopithecus africanus o bipedalism is the defining feature of hominins because it came first 1930s and 40s Robert Broom o gracile and robust forms of australopithecus africanus found in South Africa 0 Spine and pelvis screamed bipedalism 1959 Mary and Louis Leakey found homini in Olduvai Gorge in East African Rift Valley 0 Africa 2mya o Nutcracker man 0 giant teeth 1974 Donald Johanson discovered Lucy 0 Ethiopia 32mya A afarensis 0 then another find to 39mya Earliest Possible Bipeds Sahelanthropus tchadensis faunal dating 67mya reconstructed cranium could make it questionable skeptical think the foramen magnum is facing down cranial capacity 380cc very small brain small canines 0 environment wooded Orrorin tugenensis o millenium man 6mya basalt dated using Ar Ar very precise Kenya s Tugen Hills femur some teeth mandible bit forested environment curved finger bones femur obturator externus groove created by muscle attachment distribution of bone in femoral neck looks similar to hominin 00000 000000 more details on future exams Dawkins Reading Discussion questions in word document Ardipithecus kadabba ardi ground kadabba ancestor 58mya52mya middle awash ethiopia only evidence of bipedalism is in a part of a toe possibly ancestral to ardipithecus ramidus Ardipithecus Ramidus announced 1994 large sample found in 2009 alluvial plain 109 fossils represent 36 hominin individuals many other vertebratesfossils there that are allowing people to reconstruct the environment ramidusroot Ar Ar dating squished between two layers of volcanic ash Bipedalism 44mya What can Ardi tell us about the evolution of bipedalism o facultative biped arboreal quadruped when in the trees 0 top of pelvis is rotated short more like a humans anterior inferior iliac spine is present not in chimps place of attachment to extend knee and the one to keep trunk upright passively has a long ischium like chimps not like humans climber no traces of knuckle walking wrist flexible and can bend hand back knuckle walking evolved independently in gorillas and chimps not a vertical climber midfoot stiff even though big toe is divergent 0 very small brain 300350cc lived in woodland habitat bipedalism didn t have to evolve in a savannah C3 resources Ardi was eating C3 resources found in dental enamel enamel of intermediate thickness humans have very thick enamel malefemale canines equivalent in size 0000 Review 7mya Sahelanthropus tchadensis o foramen magnum 6mya Orrorin tugenensis o groove on femur femoral bone density in neck 55ish mya Ardipithecus kadabba o slanted toe joint 44 mya Ardipithecus ramidus almost complete skeleton lots of data 0 pelvis foot divergent big toe stiff mid foot propel no vertical climbing o flexible wrist in treesarboreal quadruped on groundbipedal o facultative bipedalism 0 Today Habitual Bipeds Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Habitual bipedalism bipedalism is the regular mode of locomotion Early hominin paleoenvironment forests woodlands savannah grasslands adaptability Australopithecus anamensis 4239 MYA Kenya Fragmentary lots of teeth and jaws and a knee joint knee joint tibia with spongy bone wide joint surface 0 extend and lock knee features lower tibia straight feature of human tibias probably not a knucklewalker flexible wrist and not stiff elbow joint teeth tip of canine is wearing down from the top very human no honing complex pretty square jaw chimp like molars are bigger than chimps very close morphology to A afarensis dental arcade rectangular thick enamel and expanded molars Australopithecus afarensis 3930 MYA some stasis going on for the almost million years Laetoli Tanzania Hadar Ethiopia gt200 fossils environments open Laetoli forested Hadar Laetoli Footprints 3 individuals Lucy 32mya 0 best known A afarensis C cap average 415cc small brain EQ 22 chimp 20 human 58 prognathic diastema between incisor and canine dental arcade rectangular large molars and thick enamel first premolar not fully bicuspid short sexually dimorphic bipedal adaptations muscle attachments femoral angle long arms int index 88 long curved finger bones more cranially directed shoulder joint study guide online Human Diversity in the Pliocene 518mya A afarensis Kenyanthropus platyops Australopithecus garhi Australopithecus africanus A afarensis cont d world s oldest baby Dikika found in Ethiopia 4km from Lucy adult endocranial volume lower than expected even for a 3 year old chimp 0 slow brain growth cranially directed shoulder joint curved finger and toe bones Great debate How much time did A afarensis spend in the trees 0 looking at anatomy shows that Lucy walked with bent knees not very adaptable to habitual bipedalism The problem phylogenetic inertia o tendency of traits to resist evolutionary change 0 had ancestral baggage but maybe didn t use those traits Recent study bent kneebent hip Not according to this study 0 recreated humans walking with bent knees o footprints more similar to habitual bipedalism Problems 0 heightweight of research subjects Au afarensis Laetoli footprints 36mya arches convergent big toe heel strike narrower pelvic inlet greater iliac flare longer femoral necks Lovejoy biomechanical efficiency of gluteus medius How was Lucy s locomotor behavior similar todifferent from Ardi s Ardi has a divergent big toe Lucy s is convergent Lucy has an arch in her foot Ardi does not Ardi s shoulders are more hunched Ardi s arm length is longer Ardi s rib cage is bigger Ardi s pelvis is more chimp like they both have curved fingers both have short legs relative to arms both bipeds Kenyanthropus platyops 3533mya Kenya flat faced man of Kenyaquot grassland woodland bipedal foramen magnum position smaller molars than Au afarensis Earliest stone tools 33mya well before homo 700800k years before A afarensis Dikika 34mya stones found but not very strong evidence not sure who made them Australopithecus garhi 25mya Ethiopia means surprise latest australopithecus found cheekbones flare out very prognathic huge molars teeth curved found animals bones with cut marks long femur more human like very odd compilation of traits Gona Ethiopia stone tools at 26mya look like Olduwan tools Australopithecus africanus 3020mya South Africa Taung child Makapansgat 30mya site Sterkfontein 25mya site 0 gt600 fossils Taung 252mya site 0 Taung child is the only fossil found here think it was taken here by an eagle craniodental features 0 cc average 450cc EQ 25 o Prognathic fully bicuspid lower first premolar o no diastema 0 dental arcade is less rectangular clearly bipedal M1 emergence brain size related 0 first molar bigger brain weight later eruption 0 takes longer to grow those big brains so delayed development 0 count growth lines to get age at death when M1 erupting O A afarensis vs A africanus afarensis has a bigger brow ridge africanus cranium is rounder afarensis has wider zygomatic crest bigger chewing muscles bigger molars africanus is more modern human like
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