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Feminist Art History Exam 3_ Week 1-3

by: kmschemmel

Feminist Art History Exam 3_ Week 1-3 AHS 265-1

Marketplace > Ball State University > Art > AHS 265-1 > Feminist Art History Exam 3_ Week 1 3
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Exam 3 is on the 6th of April.
Feminist Art History
Dr. Natalie Phillips
Feminist Art History
75 ?




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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by kmschemmel on Friday March 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to AHS 265-1 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Natalie Phillips in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Feminist Art History in Art at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 03/25/16
Exam 3 Feminist Art History Week 1: Abstract Expressionism (1940s-1950s) high point for “abex” - Jackson Pollock o One of the major Abex artists o Very godlike masculine guy known in the Abex era o Becomes a very stereotype role of what an artist should be o Women became mad because this stereotype help qualities that women could not fulfill  Women are rebelling, and pushing towards these limiting roles  Also hard because o Was married to Lee Krasner, but didn’t treat her well- cheated on her with Ruth Kligman. Who was in the accident with him when he died, but she survived. o Abstract art o Was known as “Jack the Dripper”  He would splatter paint onto large-scale unstretched canvas that was on the ground from above- his brush never touched the canvas. His energy was spilled out on the canvas= related to Abex stereotype by took strength to express this way.  Jackson Pollock, Lavender Mist  Non-representational art. No subject matter- just about the paint and the artist’s emotion. - Lee Krasner o Jackson Pollock’s wife o A woman artist o She was his wife and his manager- thus causing her to have to put her artwork on hold; after he died due to a drunken car accident she then started her artwork up and took off…becoming a well-known artist. o Anne Wagner, “Lee Krasner as L.K.”  Title refers to how she did not sign her real name on her artwork but rather referred to herself as L.K. to hide the fact that she was a woman, to try to prevent harsh talk about work due to sexuality. o Before her marriage:  Comparable to Artemisia Gentileschi painting of self portrait as the allegory of painting  Shows studio, herself actively painting, strong and independent body posture and language o Lee Krasner, Self-portrait (1929)  Holding a flower: not fertility or sexuality but rather is making a statement against the other Abex artist. (Symbol of the role of abstract art over nonrepresentational art) o Jackson Pollock, and Lee Krasner marry in 1945—after marriage:  She is now sitting down and looking up at him, and he has a powerful stance looking at her. She is in an inferior position compared to him. They are surrounded by Jacksons work rather than her own.  Other photo: she is in image and holds an independent and business like role but she is pushed in the background and seen as less important - Article o “Being mr.s Jackson Pollock meant being summoned by Pollocks gallery…..prices, buyers, titles,” 426 o 1962 (Pollock dies in 1956) – after Pollock’s death  she is now surrounded by own work again with a confident and positive pose- an artist- not just a model or manager. The photo is taken at a slight lower level than her eye level- making her her seem more important or influencial. Close to the pictures of her before she married Jackson o “1972 time…out of the shade” 427.  The Time when she finally got out of being judged through the view of Jackson Pollock  Everyone thought she copied Jackson’s style, but who knows who influenced who o Lee Krasner, Noon  Think back to Lavender Mist – Jackson’s  She actually touches her brush to the canvas and the paint is more controlled rather than splattering  “ There is a tendency…little square and triangles” 427.  Her work is more tight and controlled. But frames it to as her role as a housewife- and suggest that she is copying her husband- but is not. o Lee Krasner, Right Bird Left  Was a large-scale painting- abnormal- women were to paint on small scale and not on large scale like men did.  But she worked on large scale to advert this idea and rebel  She actually worked from right to left (she was dyslectic)  She clearly touched brush to canvas.  Abstract work- not nonrepresentational  Can see birds and trees if look at it a while  “this is so god you would not know it was painted by a women” – Hans Hofmann (was a compliment but jab at her at same time) o Lee Krasner, Night Creatures  Depicts abstract owls and trees, etc.  She always returns backs to nature- she declares the dominance of nature and turns away from the nonrepresentational work that men do. o Lee Krasner, Mysteries  Forms in middle look similar to bleeding heart flowers, which would refer to the naturalistic quality of her work - Willem de Kooning and Elaine de Kooning o Elaine de Kooning was Willem de Kooning’s wife.  Willem de Kooning Woman I o Willem de Kooning, Woman I  Does giant woman paintings but abstracted  He touches brush to canvas but very vigorous brushstrokes  Sometimes he hit the canvas so hard it ripped the canvas  Was seen as active and macho figure of the male artistic genius  Suggested that the women images looked like/resembled Paleolithic figures of women such as women of Willendorf o Elaine de Kooning  Married to Willem de Kooning; he cheated on her and they separated, but then got back together later on in life  When was with her husband she was living under a shadow, once she gets out of shadow though- she really develops her own artistic style  Photograph of her and her husband relates to lee Krasner and Jackson’s portrait when she was married to him – hidden in background  But even after she becomes well known – she is still kind of depicted behind him  o Elaine de Kooning, Bull, 1938 (visited Mexico)  Kind of refer back to Paleolithic themes of bulls and takes inspiration of them  Works off of style of her husband, Willem o Portraiture: she now figures out her strong point as an artist and finds her own style as an artist o Elaine DeKooning, Self-Portrait  Presenting an image of an artist as intellectual. (Manet’s- Zacharie Astrec) and very self confident portrait o Elaine de Kooning, JFK, 1963  Had a huge commission of painting JF Kennedy  A huge portrait of him, and was very rare for women to work in that size and to be featured in such a prominent museum and publicity.  When she becomes her own individual and unique Abex artist. Week 2: The Dinner Party Documentary Week 3: Feminist Art of the 1970s - Linda Nochlin o Women throughout history were: denied access to art institutions, to important art exhibitions, study of male nude, limited to only the “minor” arts (craft vs. fine art). o Very few women were allowed in the art canon; but not this has exploded and feminism did more than just help women- helped open up things to more than just white men o Hierarchy of Painting: history, etc. o They embraced these minor arts and made the minor major. Even though they were limited to these things, they have done amazing works with it. o This is during the second wave Feminism- “big one” it is the beginning and is focused more on biological difference, male vs. female. But third wave generations “grows up” a little and gets more complicated and complex. - “The Personal is Political” o if look at microcosm of women’s everyday worlds, its is symbolic of the macrocosm // focus on women’s daily lives and are symbolic of the overall. - Feminist Art Program, Cal State Fresno o Collective of two female professors and female art students, worked collaboratively on projects- to give women exhibition space and get name out there and counter idea of individual of lone male artistic genius- it is mimicking the way female work has been done- tapestry, etc. to make the minor a major. o Miriam Schapiro and Judy Chicago. The teachers at this school. o Judy Chicago  Born in 1939, grew up in Chicago. Changed her name from Judy Gerowitz to Judy Chicago to reclaim her name for herself.  Judy Chicago, Bittersweet, painted when she was 9. o Miriam Schapiro:  Art program called the Femmage:  Describes Femmage as the activities of collage, assemblage, decoupage, and photomontage practiced by women using traditional women’s techniques- sewing, piercing, hooking, cutting, appliqueing, etc.  Work by a women; the activities of saving and collecting are important ingredients; scraps are essential to the process and are recycled in the work; the theme as a woman-life context; the theme of the work addresses itself to an audience of intimates; a diarist’s point of view; there is drawing and/or handwriting sewn into the work (very personal stuff)  Miriam Schapiro, Miriam’s Life with Dolls o Made Japanese references to Gasha culture- cutouts- collage from magazines, and some quilt work, dolls, and stuff from different parts of the work, etc. (Femmage)  Miriam Schapiro, The Kimono o All textiles, took the women work and made it a work of status o Feminist Art Program, Miss Chicago and the California Girls  Mocking the California girls; in traditional bikini wear and posing- they instead showed of themselves as feminist and went against the views of women’s image o Feminist Art Program, Cunt Cheerleaders  It was loud and in your face  They used their own female bodies in this feminist protest  They dressed up in cheerleader outfits; mocking parody of cheerleading and the sexualization of these women on the sidelines, when they performed they did a cunt cheer. Parody of seeing the women as nothing but objects.  The pink color of their outfits is a very girly tone of pink, catches your eye, loud/bold/outlandish  Reproductive organ color scheme (parody of the women reproductive system), it is a re-embracing of the word cunt and taking the power back from that and celebrating women’s bodies. o Cunt Coloring Book  Used to counter the crazy stereotypes of women’s bodies o Feminist Art Program, Womanhouse  Huge installation  Bought a rundown house and each student were given a separate room for their exhibition  Received a lot of recognition and publicity  It explores all the different domestic roles of women  Staircase: wedding: role of wife and mother. Some celebratory but some critical of that.  Dining Room: very lavish spread of food; elevating and celebrating traditional women work- role of cooking and cleaning- but doing a fabulous job- celebration of this; watermelon resembles reproduction organ but also nurturing and caring object  Lipstick background: done in paint; about laborious process women have to go through to meet women standards of beauty  Kitchen: pastel pink, designating it as a “women zone”, curtains resemble vaginal imagery, breasts coming off the walls, related to women’s role as the provider of nourishment (associated with women and their bodies),  Linen closet: critique and celebration of women cleaning, linens folded very neatly but women is trapped within the shelves but starting to come out  Menstruation bathroom: “the period room”, the hidden/disgusting aspect of women, by having a womb you could be sick-women’s body considered pathological, so they went about it as it is just blood- something you need to have in order to have a child  In a home and deals with personal issues- connects with the statement that personal is political. - Feminist Art of the “Second Wave” The Dinner Party o Judy Chicago’s idea influenced it but everyone who worked on it were equally given credit for it o Second wave all about biological sex- all about bodies o Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party  3 sided table, 13 place settings on each side, is chronological by age, 999 additional names on the floor  13 place settings of each side was reference to the Bible and the last supper and the holy trinity- but now women who get a spot of this; also reference different place settings in world; number 13 significant in wicka- convent of witches- number of women killed in witch trial- discrimination against these witches  Had a grand entrance with tapestries and saying on the wall saying welcome to the dinner party, then in another room had full list of the women and the history over them, and then the dinner party.  Uses traditional women work such as textiles, tapestry, and ceramics. – Raise it to the status of fine art o Central Core Imagery – the Dinner Party  Image of power; ex. Mandalas  Essentially her answer to the phallic symbol  Was interested in the paintings that “borrowed” the phallic symbol in a feminine way; didn’t like that women did not have their own phallic symbol  Therefore, the central core imagery was her own creation of the woman’s own phallic symbol  The celebrations of woman power  Seemed problematic to some people  Thought only reduced to just their sexual parts  Essentializing: limits and restricts women to one singular role  So Essentializing women to one single organ  Thought to be pornographic – at the time (so much taboo about women’s body that they were seen as wrong)  Disturbed of the fact that they are represented on plates  Sojourner Truth: African American women who participated in the dinner party- created a plate (only one) that does not have central core imagery (vaginal) depicted within it  Not intentionally dehumanizes her from the others- not seen as powerful like the others due to the imagery  Intersectionality: takes into account that their identity is defined by more than one thing - Shigeko Kubota o Part of the second wave o Was married to Nam June Paik o Shigeko Kubota, Vagina Painting  Performing piece, using marked female bodies to protest  Performed on July 4, 1965 at the Perpetua Fluxus Festival  She was a Fluxus artist  She attached a paintbrush to her underwear, laid paper on the ground, dipped the paintbrush in red paint and created an abstract painting that way. – Connect it to menstruation  Makes very distinct female work and elevate it to higher art  Pretty clear Jackson Pollock influence on non- representational abstraction. – Taking this macho- ness and making it feminine- one only females can make o She also is influenced by Yves Klein, Anthropometries  He laid paper on the ground and used women as paintbrushes. He would cover them in paint and make them move in certain ways as he directs. – Power of him to control nude women to move in a certain way as his tool  Whereas Shigeko Kubota uses and controls her own body- has power of it- to create her own work of art. o Andy Warhol, Oxidation Painting  Was criticized by being characterized as too feminine (swish)  So he had paper on the floor, and had a certain paint that when meet with urine it would oxidize and change it. So he took male models and had them pee on them.  Took Pollock’s “manly” paintings and made his own version of manly paintings o Re-enactment: by different artists but is different such as the color of the paint- which changes the meaning of the work significantly - Yoko Ono o Famous unknown artist- know her name but not what she does o Yoko Ono, Wish Tree  She sets up a tree and people can write down wishes and tie them to the tree  Reference to nature and the reverence with it- ties to Buddhist  But equally a feminist artist too  The work is very viewer reliant- it would not become an artwork without the participation form the viewer.  Meant to bring people together, but in a more personal way. o Yoko Ono, Fly  A film that see did  Displays a female model, and the film follows this fly that crawls all over her body  They used more than one fly, but in the film they only show one fly  a o a - A Week 4: - A Abstract Expressionism Vocabulary: - Abstract art: Art that does not attempt to represent external reality, but seeks to achieve its affect using shapes, forms, colors, and textures - Non-representational art: No subject matter- just about the paint and the artist’s emotion; Compositions which do not rely on visual references in the world- indicate a departure from reality in depiction of imagery in art


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