Music 331 Daily Lecture Notes
Music 331 Daily Lecture Notes MUSIC 331
Popular in History of Jazz
Popular in Music
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Date Created: 01/17/15
History ofJazz Ch12 24092014 153000 4 Midterm chapters 110 4 Final chapters 1119 9 The three universal elements of music melody harmony rhythm Melody the tune The lead vocal or instrumental line lead singers or lead instrumentalists play melodiesmelodic lines o Improvisation the instant creation and performance of melodic lines Harmony Usually involves the accompaniment or counter line to the melody ie backup singer in pop music or walking bass line in Jazz 0 The movement of chords A chord is 3 notes sungplayed simultaneously or in rapid order Rhythm involves many sophisticated elements The most basic being the pace or pulse of notes tempospeed of music 0 People feel rhythm through drumming patterns bass and guitar 0 Tempo the speed of the music Beats rhythmic patterns are divided into beats normally 4 beat patterns in jazz 0 Measure or bar how beats are grouped together If the rhythm has 4beat patterns the measure contains 4 beats There are strong beats 13 and weak beats 24 0 Syncopation one of the most important elements of jazz stressing the weak beats rather than the strong beats in a measure resulting in rhythmic tension Complex syncopation involves stressing beats inbetween the 4 primary beats in a 4 beat rhythmic pattern Anything that s not on the beat 0 Polyrhythm The simultaneous use of contrasting rhythms EX Akuapim Tribal Drumming Ghana 1983 U Repetitive cyclic structures 0 Rhythmic layers polyrhythm Foundation layers equivalent to the ride cymbal and bass line in jazz EX Preservation Hall Jazz Band When the Saints Go U Layered use of instruments 0 Polyrhythmic 0 Swing Feel next to improvisation the swing feel in jazz is the most distinctive characteristic of the music Walking bass the ride cymbal o Timbretexture the characteristic or quality of sound What differentiates one instrument or voice from another Musicians will often alter the timbre of their instruments to create variation alter the mood etc Blues Ch12 1182015 124400 AM e Blues Form AAB typically four bars 0 Lyric Form A problem and B why 0 Ex Joe Turner Love is Like a Faucet Los Angeles 1978 e AABA Form typically four 8bar sections e A 8 bars A 8 bars repetition of melody might vary lyrically B known as the bridge 8 bars harmony and melody are different A 8 bars repetition Roots ofjazz Ch3 1182015 124400 AM e Culture is learned race is not e Four primary styles of music preceded amp in uenced the development ofjazz 0 Blues 6 THE BLUES MinstrelsyPopular Song Ragtime Brass Brand Tradition e Three types of slave songs in uenced blues eld holler work songs religious songs 0 Field holler o EX Louisiana prisoner picking cotton song of freedom 19305405 o EX Peanut Farmer in Senegal Similarities in declamatory style melismatic similar direction of melodic lines melancholy mood o Rhythmically loose syncopation in both lines syllable and pitch manipulation o Mixture of major and minor tonalities 0 Use of vocal in ections humming etc dynamics follow 0 Downward direction of pitch Work songs sung by a group of workers usually with a tool pick ax hammer shovel o EX james Carter and the Prisoners 1959 Usually a lead singer present Tools fall on weak beats syncopation Vocal in ections use of pickup Use of simple vocal harmony lntense passionate performance spontaneous in nature Sliding or liquid vocal quality TTT Religious songs provided a positive look at life after slavery hope for heavenly rewards Blues in uenced from religious songs 0 EX quotThe buzzard lope Ge0rgia Sea Island Singers N In the required Norton Collection Spiritual dance with African origins based on the practice of leaving a body in the eld to be consumed by buzzards quotKing Jesusquot will protect the salves Call and response song Bessie Jones provides the call and is answered by seven men Cyclic structure body percussion hand claps foot stompS polyrhythm improvisation within call amp resp The blues is considered the mother language of American music AAB Form Country blues folk blues rural blues appeared after Civil War Regional styles Mississippi Delta Texas Migrated throughout the south via traveling blues men itinerant Predominantly male amp usually voice and guitar Call and response between voice and instrument Guitar uses bends vibrato etc in effort to imitate human voice Varying phrase lengths suggests 12 bar form but is elastic e EX quotHehound on My Trail R0bertjohn50n 1937 Dallas Download AAB Form local folk lyrics use of southern slang Each phrase has a different length due to the variations in the lyrics Sliding liquid vocal style use of scoops smears and bend notes or blue notes Voice and guitar call and response guitar is sometimes used as extension of vocal line 9 Urban Blues VaudevilleClassic Blues Formalized 12 bar form needed for larger groups Trained musicians meant the addition of intros etc More re nedsophisticated than country blues Women were more popular than men sex appeal women s suffrage represented oppression 9 record labels saw the adv 0 Ma Rainey Bessie Smith and Mamie Smith were leaders 0 Popular on 1920305 radio race labels created to promote music e Bessie Smith 18941937 quotThe Empress of the Bluesquot 0 Major gure in the 19205 0 A worldrenowned performer well known as a vaudeville star Transcended the race label market was contracted to Columbia Records for whom she sold more records than any other performers in 205 black or white Studied opera singing and had strong technical skills hitting notes dead center using vibrato etc 0 Powerful vocal style nationally known vaudeville star who toured the country performing the blues in large theaters without ampli cation e EX quotReckless Blues Bessie Smith 1925 New York N 0 With Louis Armstrong COMPARISON OF URBAN BLU ES AND COUN39llRY BLUES COUNTRY BlUES URBAN BlUES E Local events people love Universal themes urban life death freedom relationships SONG STRUCTURES AAlB 3 unequal phrases A A lB 3 All bar phrases 1 2 sbor blues Raw vocal effects such as Refined full sound vibrato bent notes scoops smears some effects P I Folk style selfaccomppnimlent on Ensembe39 bud vocm with gurtor or banio band I r v r itinerant mme fo5i39nger5 Predominantly female Vaudeville P traveling the rural south circuits urban areas Blues amp In uence on Jazz ch3 1182015 124400 AM 4 Blues is one of the roots ofJazz 0 Basis for improvisation 0 Provided a standard repertoire of songs 0 Introduced blue notes 0 Instrumentalists used vocal in ections scoops smears bend notes etc in an attempt to make their instrument sound like the human voice 0 Gave jazz its soul 0 The blues has maintained an identitv separate from lazz lazz musicians must know how to play the blues blues musicians don t necessarilv know how to blav lazz lt e Minstrelsy 4 Featured white performers who blackened their skin and parodied African American music dance dress and dialect 4 1840605 predominant genre of popular culture in US rst cultural statement by the US 0 Important in uence on the mainstream of American popular song 4 im Crow created by Thomas Dartmouth Rice 18101860 in New York City Spoke and sang in a dialect that was based partly on preexisting white rural characters 4 Virginia Minstrels 1843 led by white banjo virtuoso Dan Emmett 18151904 created a lengthy stage performance that featured a standardized group of performers 0 Mr lnterlocuter lead performer who sang and quotMCquot ed the show 0 Mr Bones and Mr Tambo sat at either end of the line of performers e Minstrel troupes toured the US constantly helping create an embryonic national popular culture Minstrel is direct ancestor of vaudeville Stephen Foster Established quotsong formquot The most in uential songwriter of American popular song during the nineteenth century TTTTT e e 9 Brass Bands Military bands made up of brass instruments trumpets trombones etc spread rapidly duringafter Civil War 9 e e TIT 9 Drew energy from the interaction of patriotism and popular culture quotA town without a brass band was barely a townquot ohn Philip Sousa 18541932 America s quotMarch Kingquot 0 Most popular bandleader of the late 19th and early 20th 0 EX quotThe Stars and Stripes Forever jPS 1897 N o AABBCtrio Interlude C Interlude C Ragtime Music From the AfAm term quotto ragquot using syncopation quotraggingquot the rhythm Energized popular music in US by adding rhythmic vitality syncopation 9 it T TTTT Emerged in the 18805 preceded Jazz continued to develop alongside Originally a piano style 0 Piano was center of home entertainment in 18905 Emerging sale of sheet music helped to popularize the music Popularity peaked in the decade after the turn of the century Gradually came to identify any syncopated music CHARACTERISTICS 0 Like marches have multiple themes 0 Highly syncopated Classical piano technique usually completely notated o Eventually performed in group settings 0 The left hand quotboomchuck pattern was translated to the bass and drums and later carried to stride piano playing In uenced by Latin American rhythms such as the Cuban habanera Scott Joplin 18681917 Aspired to be concert pianist but roamed the south playing in bars 0 First great ragtime composition quotMaple Leaf Ragquot EX quotMaple Leaf Rag 1898 o Named after the Maple Leaf social club in Sedalia o AABBA CCDD four primary themes each letter represents a 16bar phrase and follows the formal style of a march quotFreak Dancesquotch3New Orleansch4 24092014 153000 9 quotFreak Dancesquot Turkey Trot and Tango e The association with dance and Jazz music e ntensified in uence of African American dance e Dance fads loosely based on black styles included 0 The turkey trot the bunny hug the grizzly bear and the foxtrot e e Vernon and Irene Castle e Biggest media superstars of the WWI era Husband and wife dance team who did more than anyone to change the course of social dancing in America e Attracted millions of middleclass Americans into ballroom classes e Estabished an image of mastery charisma and romance e Legitimized syncopatedAfrican American dances in eyes of white audiences Therefore legitimizing jazz to white audiences e e James Reese Europe 18801919 e African American musicianbandleader rst black offered record contract e Associated with the Castles to help cross racial boundaries 9 e NEW ORLEANS Chapter 4 e Birth place ofJazz e Since it s a port city it became a 19th century commercial center focusing on the slave trade amp a relaxed Caribbean culture e Was largest most sophisticated city in the South after the Civil War lt e Race in New Orleans e The demographics contributed to the creation of jazz since it was a site characterized by mingling of newly urbanized blacks with Europeanized Creoles 9 Race relations were different vs other parts of US Unlike Protestant North America New Orleans was oriented to the Caribbean and like racial practices there slaves were allowed to retain much of their culture including music 9 e 9 Congo Square 0 During late 16005 and into the 18005 slaves and free blacks were permitted to dance and play music on Sundays in Congo Square Lasted into 1840 but is important part about New Orleans culture Creoles of Color 0 New Orleans mulattos were known as Creoles of Color 0 Caribbean culture including New Orleans recognized a mulatto culture as well Bene tted free blacks with lighter skin 0 Catholic spoke other languages afforded opportunity for education including music and skilled trades Creoles lost this status caste system around 1894 with enactment ofJim Crow laws After Civil War racial tensions increased Compromise of 1877 helped usher era ofJim Crow Plessy v Ferguson 1896 sharecropping e In 1894 city government amended the Black Codes Jim Crow Laws 0 Anyone of African descent including Creoles considered black Creoles dropped to bottom of caste system resented by former slaves and ousted from elite status by whites New Orleans Ch4 cont 24092014 153000 9 Storyville e By 1897 New Orleans was plagued by prostitution activity city alderman Sidney Story proposed a licensed prostitution district 0 In former site of Congo Square 0 38 square city block with over 200 brothels Lasted until 1917 ordered closed by decree of the Secretary of War 9 Brass Bands in New Orleans e New Orleans funeral parades an important ceremonial and social event Solemn procession to funeral site Uptempo happy marches amp ragtime pieces on way back to town Spontaneous arrangements of songs improv o Lively swinging march rhythms e Preservation Hall jazz Band 0 EX 7ust a Closer Walk With Thee procession to funeral site 0 EX quotWhen the Saints Go Marching In back to town 0 Trumpet plays primary melody trombone improvises low melody o Drums play swinging syncopated march beat Early Jazz The earliest jazz had roots in ragtime blues and brass band music Later important differences came about 0 More of each performance was improvised Rhythmic feeling was looser and more relaxed jazz swing feeling o It generated some of its own repertory of compositions Its collectively improvised format created a more complex musical product than was typical in ragtime blues or brass band music TTTT 0 Origin of term jazz jass is debated sexual slang jasmine perfume e e Cornet primary melodic instrument e Clarinet performs the high improvised line e Trombone performs the low improvised line e Collective improvisation two or more musicians simultaneously improvising e PianoBanjo derived from the left hand function of ragtime piano playing on beats 2amp4 e TubaBass derived from left hand of ragtime piano bass notes 1amp3 e Drums derived from brass bands and ragtime orchestras military march in uence yet improvised contrary lines Buddy Bolden 18771931 payed cornet He s the rst recognized improviser of jazz in New Orleans First personality of jazz Said to have loosened up the more legit playing using bluesy effects No recordings exist institutionalized in 1906 with a mental disorder lazz Reaches Outward With the inequity of sharecropping WWI and industrialization employment e Opportunities opened up in shops amp factories in the northern cities 0 So a large of blacks migrated from South to Chicago Kansas City NY and other metropolitan areas The Great Migration TTTTTTTTT e jazz musicians found new opportunities in Chicago NY and Kansas City 9 e The Firstlazz Recordings e Very few recordings of black performers exist prior to 1920 although none contained jazz or improv stylistic elements of rhythm and timbre exist 0 James Reese Europe and his Society Orchestra 191417 Trumpeter Freddie Keppard passed opp to make rst jazz recording for fear his ideas would be stolen Original Dixieland Jazz Band ODJB All white New Orleans musicians Their music was unprecedented and were so popular to bring the word jazz about 0 Victor Records signed them to record two pieces quotLivery Stable Bluesquot and quotDixie Jazz Band One Stepquot which became blockbusters 0 First recording in 1917 in New York Marketed as a novelty used jazzlike scoops smears and growls suggesting the sounds of barnyard EX quotDixieass Band OneStep 1917 N The ODJB Group had strong ties to brass band tradition Can be heard in roll of at beginning and in march rhythms by drummer Sold a million copies by the late 19305 0 After songs of original New Orleans black musicians were released they faded away New Orleans Ch4 cont 24092014 153000 9 Jelly Roll Morton 18901941 e Ferdinand Joseph LaMothe piano composer e First signi cant jazz pianist he was also the rst signi cant jazz com oser Early compositions such as King Porter Stomp Mn jelly Lord e lntroduced arranging practices in his small group 9 imitated during early stages of the history of big bands e Combined writtenimprovised jazz while still keeping excitement of improvisation e Morton often wroteout 3 part counterpoint lines for his band e One of the rst to utilize the string bass in place of the tuba 0 He transferred his striding left hand piano patterns to the string bass creating the standard walking bass lines that are commonplace in contemporary jazz Helped bridge the gap between ragtime and jazz piano styles by loosening ragtime s feel and playing eighth notes in a more quotswing likequot fashion 9 EX quotDead Man Bluesquot 1926 New York N 0 Introduction parodies a funeral procession Moves between a two beat and a walking four 0 Simple clarinet Ingenious variations on the blues Clarinet trio arranging Collective improv to conclude e EX quotDoctorazzquot jelly Roll Morton and His Red Hot Peppers 1925 New York N Raucous rendition of a piece by joe King Oliver Morton uses stoptime breaks and a longheld note and his own sophisticated vocal phrasing to heighten the drama 0 Call and response used to give brief solo to each instrument 9 e Joe quotKingquot Oliver 18851938 cornet e King ofjazz in New Orleans between 1912 and 1917 following Freddie Keppard and Buddy Bolden e e e 0 19141917 he tutored a young New Orleans cornetist named Louis Armstrong offering him whatever work he couldn t take 0 With the close of Storyville in 1917 he travelled to Chicago working with various bands in bars and clubs 0 In 1922 he reformed his old band The Creole Jazz Band and invited Louis Armstrong in Chicago 0 His band became a model for Chicago jazz young musicians were in awe of quotpsychicquot means he and Louis performed together The Creole jazz Band 19221924 They eventually leave King Oliver for Louis Armstrong Oiver was a master of trumpet mutes using a derby hat doorknobs etc anything creatively to alter sound of horn e EX quotSnake Ragquot 1923 Chicago joe King Oliver amp the Creole Jazz Band N 0 Has a ragtime structure Bluesy breaks Chromatic melodies or quotsnakesquot every next note is played 0 A repeated trio section used to build excitement The signature ArmstrongOliver improvised duo breaks e Sidney Bechet 18971959 Creole on clarinetsoprano saxophone Perhaps rst virtuoso soloist in jazz Introduced the soprano sax to jazz as an alt to the clarinet Unlike American audiences who looked at music as novelty Europeans took it seriouslythey loved Bechet e EX quotCake Walkin Babes From Homequot Red Onion jazz Babies 1924 N o A cakewalk was a parody by slaves of white dancing slaveholders donated a cake as a prize Nostalgic look at the syncopated dance of the past Bechet was already famous while Armstrong was still rising Final two choruses show BechetArmstrong prodding each another lt e New Orleans Today e Preservation Hall 0 Begun in 1962 with intention of preserving heritage of early jazz 0 A popular tourist attraction garnering lines of listeners every night New York in the 19205 Ch5 24092014 153000 e Athough different urban areas are considered central to the development of jazz at diff times New Orleans Chicago Kansas City Los Angeles NY has been central since 19205 e NY had commercial sociological and musical appeal 0 Commercial appeal entertainment infrastructure supported jazz Sociological Lots of immigrants in NY contributors to jazz if not Black came from immigrant families 0 Musical styles speci c to NY ie stride piano was receptive to modern developments in jazz bebop avantgarde growth of big bands and swing while social dancing popularized lt e Developing Technologies e Recordings radio and movies during 19205 TV during 405 and digitalization during 805 e In 1925 electrical recording gt acoustic recording Great forjazz since drums cymbals and polyphonic textures were much clearer Phonographs and disc also became cheaper e 1877 Edison s phonograph cylinder rst recordingreproducing device e CBSNBC became national network 19267 Results in people staying home amp buying recordings to listen there New York in 19205 Prohibition the Volstead Act 19201933 Speakeasies and job opportunities for jazz musicians arose By 1925 anywhere from 30k to 100k speakeasy clubs in NY lntended to limit rise of prostitution and corruption but ended up oppos e TTTTTT e Consuming or buying alcohol was not illegal but selling it was 9 e Paul Whiteman 18901967 e Recorded in NY in 205 with Victor Records making Paul Whiteman Orchestra famous nationally e 19205 media referred to him as quotThe King oflazzquot Whiteman s concept of Symphonic Jazz is characterized by his commission of George Gershwin39s Rhapsody in Blue premiered w Gershwin at the piano e Crossed racial lines BTS hiring black arrangers like Fletcher Henderson 2 e In 1926 Bing Crosby s prominence in the Rhythm Boys vocal trio helped launch his career as one of the most successful singers of 20th century 0 Paul Robeson 1928 and Billie Holiday 1942 also recorded with the Pail Whiteman Orchestra e Had 28 1 records during 19205 e EX quotChangesquot Pau Whiteman 1927 NY N 0 Featured musicians Bing Crosby vocalist Bix Beiderbecke trumpeter o Metaphorically represents changes in society and within the band Literally the lyrics refer to the harmony or changes in a piece of music Arranger Bill Challis amalgamates jazz symphonic and popular styles into the piece 0 Use of the Charleston rhythm NY in 19205 cont 24092014 153000 4 Fletcher Henderson 18971952 e Pian0Band LeaderComposerArranger 4 His band established the modern instrumentation of a swing band and set the early standards for arranging music concepts still used today 4 Formed his own band in 1923 using a basic 6 piece unit established the basic instrumentation that s survived today 0 Band originally functioned as a pleasant dance band with only a minimal amount ofjazz and improvisation e 1924 He invited Louis Armstrong to join group and was surprised by his acceptance band also includes Coleman Hawkins and Don Redman e 1926 was best jazz orchestra but faded when Duke Ellington arose e 4 Don Redman39s in uence on arranging techniques 4 Pitted the sax section against brass trumpettrombone section for callresponse e Developed effective Block Chord Voicings within each section 4 lntroduced concept of soli a featured section within band playing the same written line in unison or block harmony not improvised e lntroduced shout chorus 2 forms Tutti shout chorus the whole band plays the same thing in unison or block harmony with lead melody Callresponse shout chorus one section stating a riff which is answered by another section stating different riff building intensity 4 EX Copenhagen Fetcher Henderson Orchestra NY 1924 N Scored collected improvisation sounds like improv but its not 0 Uses elements associated with Chicago jazz like breaks 12bar blues ragtime rhythms polyphony collective improv banjo amptuba o Trumpet solo by Louis Armstrong Unexpected ending 4 EX quotKing Porter Stompquot FHO NY 1933 Arranged by FH composed by jelly Roll riff tune Mature clean swinging style call and response between sections characterizes the classic mold established by early arrangers e Harlem Renaissance 191919305 e AFAM art philosophy literature plays newspapers poetrynovels e The Apollo Theater performance venue Careers of Billie Holiday Ella Fitzgerald and Sarah Vaughan launched there Harlem Stride piano style Grew out of ragtime Faster more melodically complex and less bluesy than ragtime Originally Harlem stride compositions were composed then were not Stride pianists worked rent parties James P Johnson 18941955 Father of Harlem Stride EX quotYou ve got to be Modernisticquot James P Johnson 1930 NY N Modernisms the intro and rst two strains use advanced harmonies diminished ampwholetone scales 0 The piece switches in the middle from formal ragtime to the theme and variations of jazz 0 There are three 16bar strains each of which is distinctive and then seven choruses of variations 0 This structure re ects the transition from ragtime to stride and from composition to variations TTTTTTTT NY in 19205 contCh6 24092014 153000 T James P Johnson cont Father of Harlem Stride EX quotThe Charlestonquot james P Johnson 1925 NY 0 A popular song and dance typifying the rise of the appers 0 Charleston rhythm inspired more re ned simpli ed approach to drumming less emphasis on march rhythms T Duke Ellington 18991974 Piano bandleader composer arranger Made jazz an art music approached it as seriously as classical composers e Duke Ellington stands alone in jazz as a composer for and a performer on the unique instrument that he invented and perfected The Ellington Orchestra e Learned to play the piano by running rolls through a player piano s mechanism at a slow speed and following the keys with his ngers In high school Ellington had to choose between his music and sports he was an emerging track star 0 His piano playing stemmed from the Harlem stride style but tended to be more economical TTTT e 1926 caught the attention of Irving Mills who became Duke s agent and manager e 1927 Mills secured house band job for Ellington at famous Cotton Club in Harlem a club featuring black musicians singers dancers and comedians in a jungle motif Trumpeter Bubber Miley was a key component to development of the quotjungle soundquot 0 His mastery of use of mutes to create animallike growls was descendent from his study of King Oliver s mute techniques 0 Only white patrons allowed to attend e Eington became music director of the Cotton Club responsible for writing the music for the show his band singers dancers and comedy skits The shows were broadcast nationally on weekends making Duke Ellington a rising star in the music business e When writing he carefully considered the unique playing style of each member of his band creating a part that best suited their strengths e e e TTTT Many of Ellington s work is programmatic meaning the music is intended to depict an extramusical element From his earliest days as a professional musician he made four contributions three musical and one cultural He demonstrated the potential of bigband jazz way beyond anything Whiteman was doing He solidi ed the in uence of stride piano as a pianist and arranger He proved that innovative jazz writing could be applied to popular song He violated the assumptions about jazz as a low and unlettered music by refusing to accept racial limitations EX quotBaCkAnd Tan Fantasyquot Duke Ellington 1927 NY N BlackTan refers programmatically to racially mixed clubs of Harlem 0 Some saw these small clubs as a bastion of liberal racial politics but Ellington was not convinced In this piece Miley s twelvebar blues black side is juxtaposed with Ellington s parody of a sixteenbar ragtime tan section Blues choruses utilize quotjungle stylequot The title is one of many Duke would use to help cast a positive light on his race Written by Ellington and Miley They merge in an evocation of Chopin s quotFuneral Marchquot putting an end to the illusion of quotblack and tanquot clubs as some kind of viable response to segregation o Sarcastic comment on integrating clubs Chapter 6 Louis Armstrong 19011971 Most important gure in the history ofjazz Transformed social music into art and a place where a musician regardless of race could nd a voice Central in uence as an instrumentalist and vocalist Very popular when jazz was considered primitivedegenerate Broke bonds of ragtime phrasing de ned SWING TT Established the blues as the foundation of jazz Introduced concept of scat singing Established jazz as music that prizes individual expression above technique Popularized jazz more than any musicians beforesince 19251929 He formed a new jazz band at request of Okeh Records The Hot Five featured former members of Creole jazz Band Armstrong cornet johnny Dodds clarinet Kid Ory trombone Lil Hardin Armstrong piano johnny St Cyr banjo They were a recording band only one live performance EX quotHotter Than Thatquot The Hot Five 1927 Chicago N 32 bar tune Use of collective improvisation Use of solo breaks Armstrong s solo owed along without dependence on ragtime phrasing he de ned the swing feel in jazz Scat singing Use of stoptime Armstrong s notes in his solo are quotghostedquot almost inaudible Ch6 cont Quiz Day 9 TT 9 e e 24092014 153000 EX quotWest End Bluesquot Louis Armstrong 1928 Chicago N 0 Louis opening is one of the most famous in jazz history 0 Signals arrival of the true jazz soloist and foreshadows bebop Sounds like a horse trotting slow song features Louis scatting EX quot Weather Birdquot Louis Armstrong 1928 Chicago N 0 Louis Armstrong cornet Earl Hines piano 0 Features Hine s quottrumpet stylequot playing 0 Use of octaves and linear trumpet like solo lines as opposed to chordal soloing o Rhythmic interplay between Hines piano and Armstrong cornet cross accents and polyrhythms Armstrong and Hines competitively drive one another as piece unfolds Earl quotFathaquot Hines 19031983 Came to Chicago from Pittsburgh in 19205 Developed percussive approach to piano playing that set him apart from other stride piano players 9 Perfected approach to playing melodic lines by doubling melody in octaves called trumpet style so he could be heard above the band in live performances e e e 9 Austin High Gang By 1925 two categories ofjazz musicians in Chicago 0 Transplanted black musicians from New Orleans 0 Louis Armstrong King Oliver trumpet Young white musicians who studied New Orleans style and had Louis Armstrong as role model Several young Chicago musicians would carry the jazz tradition into the swing era of the 1930 s and 1940 s as major stars of popular jazz music including 0 Benny Goodman clarinet Glenn Miller trombone Tommy Dorsey trombone Jimmy Dorsey alto sax and clarinet Eddie Condon guitar Gene Krupa drums Jimmy McPartIand trumpet Bud Freeman tenor sax Dave Tough drums Ch6 cont TTT own 9 e 24092014 153000 Bix Beiderbecke 19031931 cornet Horizonta player easier to follow Considered a musical prot g as a youngster learned to play piano on Rebelled against piano teachers preferred to improvise own versions of classical music and popular songs After hearing the Original Dixie Jazz Band Bix bought a cheap cornet and taught himself to play utilizing a variety of interesting alternate ngedngs Incorporated clever syncopated placement of notes and use of longer held notes a new sound in jazz Bix heard Louis Armstrong and was moved by improv New Orleans By 1924 already recognized force on the Chicago jazz scene Ex quotSingin The Bluesquot 1927 Chicago Frankie Trumbauer Orchestra N Featured musicians Franky Trumbauer Cmelody sax Bix cornet Jimmy Dorsey clarinet Not a blues in the formal sense in the ABAC tune A subtle cool approach to their music re ective in nature not outgoing like New OrleansLouis Armstrong approach Bix s invention the quotripquot an aggressive technique in contrast with his usual subtle approach is a highlight of his solo Collective improv is laid back Ex quotIn A Mistquot Bix Only known song where Bix is playing piano New approach called Third Stream Jazz Classical and jazz together Armstrong vs Bix e EIMEHEEHE Bemmantl ef the met Eaeelllent ieehnieue with Unerthe ea teehnitlue hulll iaeility anti rage limited ieillity and range Ueul playing range Mi elle ta high Law in mileale Tene an allity Big lllll hreey tene eu htlle hraeey Imemirileatery utgeing bluesy quothatquot Reflective hlluee eharaetenletiee refereneeel enell39 Hlaimenie eeneeptien Ellueeyg eenieniinert3r Advanee l ellemente at ilmnreeeilenieiie ll39larmeny Rhythmic enneeptien Swinging relaxed teen Laidhaelt eael Ieee brake the hands at ihgilzlliniilealIlglr inaenthe ragtime phrasing ilnhueneee Buddy Bel en lee lilaeh teuie Armetreng ll Bit Heideiheeke Ravel Debussy Coleman Hawkins Tenor Saxophone Father of tenor saxophone Member of Fletcher Henderson Orchestra from 192434 Eary solos were largely built on novelty effects like slap tonguing More vertical playing style Bix is horizontal pivotal gure into the bebop era bc of ability to navigate complex chord progressions e e EX quotOne Hour If I Could Be With You One Hour Tonightquot Coeman Hawkins 1929 N 0 Composition byJames P Johnson 0 Hawkins phrasing is in uenced by Armstrong 0 Romantic expressiveness in tenor solo o Hawkins plays with a rich timbre musical variety and legato phrasing Collective improv at conclusion 0 Slow song TTTTTT Swing ch7 e e 24092014 153000 During the 19305 jazz was called swing Features of swing Bands that played in large ballrooms for dancers Played by big bands made of instrumental sections of reeds bass and rhythm o Derived from music of the 19205 Retained rhythmic contrast bluesy phrasing and balance between improvisation and composition 0 Commercial appeal Bluesy riffs clearly de ned melodies dance grooves Swing music was period where jazz was America s most popular music 19301945 9 Many big names in swing came out of the young Chicago school ofjazz in the 19205 they learned their craft from Louis ArmstrongNew Orleans 9 TT TT Swing was an outgrowth of Society bands such as Paul Whiteman Dance bands that didn t feature jazz style of improv New Orleans and Chicago jazz improv The early large ensembles of Fletcher Henderson amp Duke Ellington Al swing bands played for dancers yet some emphasized jazz more 0 Sweet Bands used very little or no jazz improv 0 Guy Lombardo Ozzie Nelson Lawrence Welk 0 Hot Bands featured improve a loud driving rhythm section and exciting shot choruses 0 Benny Goodman Count Basie Duke Ellington World War 2 was important accompanied by swing music 0 Was popular during war bc symbolized US strengths participatory informal and built community e 9 Composer creator of new music Arranger takes existing music and organizes it for an ensemble choosing instruments etc 9 TTTT e Riff short catchy repeated melodic phrase Head arrangements simpler orally derived arrangement During swing era basic ensemble Sax 35 players Trombone 25 Trumpet 35 Rhythm section piano string bass guitar drums Each section in band has a featured soloist and a lead player who dictates tone quality phrasing etc 9 TTTT ii The Rhythm Section 0 To accommodate new groove tuba made way for string bass 0 Guitar took over banjo o Drummers began simplifying their set up eliminating most of their sound effect instruments like wood blocks cowbells etc Rhythm sections in general began playing with a more economical driving swinging feel Fletcher Henderson again Most proli c black recording artist Ster was characterized by short memorable riffs in call and response 0 Left lots of room for solos EX quotBlue Louquot Fetcher Henderson and His Orchestra 1936 N 0 Clean economical writing and playing 0 The recording starts in a relaxed twobeat rhythm but the fourfour swing rhythm eventually takes over 0 The rst chorus introduces the melody which is deformed by the last chorus Ch7 cont 24092014 153000 9 Benny Goodman 19091986 clarinetbandleader e quotKing of Swingquot e Led best known band of erapopularized swing more than any other leaderbrought jazz out of the bars and into concert halls rst to perform in public with an integrated band e Grew up in ghetto e As young man he was considered a prot g and studied classical clarinet lt e Metjohn Hammond a famous music promoter talent scout amprecord exec He got Benny s band their rst big break 0 Then John negotiated a recording contract with Columbia Records and organized crosscountry tour e Made jazz almost a colt music into American popular song e First one with integrated band e EX quotKing Porter Stompquot Benny Goodman Orchestra 1935 NY 0 Fletcher Henderson arrangement riff driven Sounds like a train e 9Gene Krupa Drummer in Goodman s band teen idol e Goodman launched a number of small groups that emphasized soloists some of the groups were interracial e Popuar audiences preferred the tight arrangements played by the group were called chamber jazz e EX Dinah Benny Goodman Orchestra 1936 NY N Improvised solos 32bar song AABA pop song 0 Gene Krupa on drums Includes the Vibraphone e e Artie Shaw 19102004 clarinetbandleader e Rose from meager beginnings like Goodman e String orchestra in his group e EX quotStar Dustquot Artie Shaw Orchestra 1940 N Gentle song sounds like an old TV show 0 Uses small string orchestra which adds to languid quality explores classical sounds amp focuses on melody rather than dance evoking e e Signed Billie Holiday as his band s vocalist rst white to hire a full time black she eventually left due to racism from audiences e In 1953 Shaw was brought up before the HUAC for his leftist activities 9 e Jimmie Lunceford 19021957 bandleader e His music teacher was Paul Whiteman s dad e The band was characterized as one that could play difficult arrangements e Paced emphasis on showmanship and humor using skits e EX quotTaint What You Doquot Jimmy Lunceford Orchestra 1939 N Riff based composition 0 Great soloing and ingenious arranging played with high precision Chapter 8 24092014 153000 9 Characteristics of Kansas City Swing bluesbased music improvisation was the primary focus not secondary to the arrangement early on arrangements were not written down each musician memorized his part quothead arrangementsquot most compositions were riff tunes easy to remember performance was not highly polished rough around the edges but passionate and honest rhythm section focused on a driving yet buoyant feel most Kansas City jazz musicians were not highly trained many could not read music thus necessitating the need to rely on simple arrangements and an emphasis on improvisation e e Boogie Woogie e piano style characterized by a moving 8th note left hand line based on the blues e first popularized in Texas Louisiana and Kansas City TTTTTTT it s revival was led byJohn Hammond in the 1930 s A precursor to Rock 39N Roll EX quotIt s All Right Babyquot Big Joe Turner and Pete Johnson 1938 N Andy Kirk bandleadersax His band Twelve Clouds ofJoy EX quotWalkin And Swingin quot Andy Kirk and His Twelve Clouds ofJoy N Not riff based Relaxed 2beat swing More sophisticated arrangement than most territory or Kansas City bands typically played Use of crossvoicing trumpetsax soli e Band was especially viable for it s ability to function as a quothotquot jazz band or as a quotsweetquot society band e 9 e Count Basie piano e Basie s rhythm section The AllAmerican Rhythm Section e h fi ll s EMHIT nesllE l EHEETE m i 39 is3 New iterij Femiurdl musicians Hirechill Evans in I Eenre Hut Member lsl r Tenn tuner in nal Elluytleni trump Eeumtl Bull Fi l Freddie lI39lirn gluil nir Hu l r Page bulls Jle Junie drum ll ene ef Easie s nest pepulr reeerdings his theme sengi ll based en e H ef Fets WIIEI err39enged end fEt t39ded by Den edmn in 192 s 5 Gr 3quot Times eventually made itquots W te Eesie te whenii it is generally ttrihuted ll this r eeer39din typifies the essence net Ensues Cityquot swing ll nete the di er39enee in tene quilt between tener39 sexiephenists llershe Evns nd Lester it39eungi l 39 Jll39ln Hn39lntrld Fired Benn Gedmenis land ginst Cunt E ieis hind in seserl Bitille at th Banish ntests Basie trurleed Eedmen every time Duke Ellington ch8 24092014 153000 9 Duke Ellington e Composed over 2 thousand compositions e BONUS Duke Ellington said this is not playing the piano this is dreaming Jazz is music swing is business e e Ellington s compositional style has been broken down into seven categories lmpressionistic book or tone poems 0 Pieces that describe places moods culture people etc Romantic baads 0 Duke virtually invented the instrumental jazz ballad Exotic book 0 Concert book 0 Acknowledged for having taken jazz into the format of quotextended worksquot Concertos Sacred concerts 0 He was very religious Popular song book e EX quotMood Indigoquot Duke Ellington 1930 N 0 Good example of how Ellington used his instrumental resources 0 The melody comes from Barney Bigard but Ellington turns it into his own Muted brass timbres e EX quotConga Bravaquot Duke Ellington 1940 N o In the style of Ellington s quotexotic bookquot 0 Shift from Latin feel to swing feel TT 9 e 0 In uence of Cuban music Muted brass timbres EX quotConcerto for Cootiequot Duke Ellington Orchestra 1940 Chicago Composed this piece for trumpeter Cootie Williams Ellington s Tone Poems EX quotHarlem Air Shaftquot Duke Ellington Orchestra 1940 NY Loosely based on 12bar blues form 0 Shifting moods in piece tell story of life in a Harlem apartment 0 Uses musical sound effects such as choked cymbal Later Years After WWI band business began changing Theaters were demolishedchanged and radio no longer was broadcasting live music e In 1956 he became the cover of Time magazine and recording was a best seller from the Newport Jazz Festival TTTTTT Tl Billy Strayhorn 19151967 composer arranger Duke s longtime cocomposerarranger Musical genius who s work was lled with emotional depth Cassica music was his rst love but EX quotTake the A Trainquot Duke Ellington 1941 Hollywood Duke s theme song written by Billy EX quotBlood Countquot Duke 1967 N 0 Written by Billy in reference to his treatment for esophageal cancer 0 Recorded a few months after Billy s passing last piece he composed Swing Era Soloists Ch9 24092014 153000 e Level of musicianship began to rise e Many of the era s great soloists found small group playing and recordings to be an outlet for more solo time 0 While big bands offer only limited time because of emphasis on arrangement e Big band soloists were star personalities the small groups led to the shift in jazz toward smaller ensembles focused on individual players e Jazz singing began to reach new heights 0 Louis Armstrong was inspirational with scatting and phrasing e e Coleman Hawkins 19041969 sax e The prime exemplar of the rise of the Swing Era soloist who dominates and establishes legitimacy of the instrument e Vick Spiederback horizontal approach gtllt e EX quotBody and Soulquot Coeman Hawkins 1939 N 0 Coleman on tenor sax His most successful recording artistically and commercially 0 Vertical hard to sing back 0 He moves quickly away from playing the melody into improv 0 An important recording in history ofjazz as it leads to harmonic explorations of bebop Ben Webster 19091973 From Kansas City Became featured soloist with Ellington Tone is described as quotgruffquot but he played very smoothly on ballads More melodic than vertical in his soloing style 0 Middle of very vertical Coleman and horizontal Lester Young TTTTTT e e e Lester Young 19091959 lnitialy in uenced by the sound of Frankie Trumbauer s Cmelody sax Young tried to emulate the warm smooth tone quality of tenor sax TTT e e e Spawned imitators Brew Moore Stan Getz Jimmy Guiffre Al Cohn Zoot Sims etc Generally more blues coming from Kansas and laid back than others Nick named quotprezquot by Billie Holiday EX quotJust You Just Mequot Lester Young Quartet 1943 NY Young s playing is more melodic singable and scalelike than Hawkins aka horizontal An example of Young s great phrasing use of space in the middle of phrases letting his lines carry across the phrases of the form David Roy quotLittle jazzquot Eldridge 19111989 trumpet Primarily in uenced by Coleman Hawkins on sax but then began studying Armstrong 9 e e TTTT The leading trumpet soloist of the swing era Next trumpeter following L Armstrong linking he and Dizzy Gillespie EX quotRockin Chairquot Gene Krupa Orchestra 1941 0 Technique does not overshadow the passion of the performance Django Reinhardt 19101953 First signi cant nonAmerican jazz musician gypsy burned hand In 1934 he cofounded the Quintette du Hot Club de France with violinist Stephane Grappelli gaining celebrity status in Europe e In 1946 he travelled in US toured with Duke Ellington as a featured soloist 0 Played electric guitar for rst time in career 9 e Benny Carter 19072003 saxtrumpetcomposerarranger e e e A masterful arranger o Wrote for Fletcher Henderson Duke Ellington Ella Fitzgerald etc Signature device was to write blockchord soi passages for the sax Never household name but fellow musicians held him in high regard llKingll e TTT Crossed color line in LA studios bc black quotRea King of Swingquot not Benny Goodman Largey selftaught EX quotI m Coming Virginiaquot Benny Carter and his Orchestra N Arranged by Carter using only rhythm section and four saxophones Ch9 e 10 24092014 153000 Alto sax is starting to come to prominence after swing in bebop with Charlie Parker Tlgllllll Q E Billie Holiday 19151959 vocalist mportant singer in swing era Hard life before singing prostitution drugs Discovered in 1933 byJohn Hammond Worked with nest names in jazz Lester Young Count Basie Artie nspired by Louis Armstrong 0 Sang in the style of an instrumentalist EX quotA Sailboat in the Moonlightquot Billie Holiday 1937 N Billie vocals Lester tenor sax o Holiday s phrasing and articulation is similar to Lester Young s Form 32bar e Wrote song called quotStrange Fruitquot about lynching gained lots of credibility e e Ella Fitzgerald 19171996 vocalist e Happier toned music than Billie e Started as a teenager winning an amateur talent contest at Apollo Theater e First and maybe last truly great scat singer e EX quotBlue Skiesquot 1958 N e From her Irving Berlin Songbook recording 9 e Chapter 10 e Rhythm Section bass ill The foundation of swing band is the rhythm section guitar piano 9Piano Seen development w rise of ragtime Harlem stride boogiewoogie Thomas quotFatsquot Waller 19041943 Student ofJames P Johnson also played organ for silent movies An entertainer in same mold as Louis Armstrong Became second most popular entertainer of 19305 performing in theaters nightclubs etc EX quotChristopher Columbusquot Fats Waller 1936 NY N o A mix of stride piano cross rhythms and small group swing provide rhythmic power Comical TT TT TTTT TTT TTTTTTT 24092014 153000 Art Tatum EX quotTiger Ragquot Art Tatum o The original melody is almost indiscernible typical for him EX quotOver the Rainbowquot 1939 N 0 Beautiful reharmonization of the popular melody o Dazzling virtuosity Charlie Christian 19161942 electric guitarist Payed with Goodman EX quotSwing to Bop Topsyquot Charlie Christian 1941 NY N 0 Vertical playing less singable yet interesting jumps and leaps like Coleman Hawkins In uences bebop era Jimmy Blanton 19181942 bass Changed nature of the rhythm section 0 Added melodic harmonic and rhythmic nuances First to record solos that weren t standard walking lines Chick Webb 19091939 drums Discovered Ella Fitzgerald and recorded quotA Tisket a Tasketquot Gene Krupa 19091973 drums First real showman of drums 0 First drummer to become a matinee idol Brought drums to forefront expressing virtuosity Jo Jones 19111985 drums Made his mark with the Basie band Great innovation was to transfer the time from the bass drum and snare to the highhat cymbal creating a lighter sound TTTT e Eegant drummer and master showman e Buddy Rich 19171987 drums e Regarded as the foremost virtuoso on the instrument e Formed his own bands later e Started playing professionally as a child with important bands 0 Tommy Dorsey Benny Carter Basie Midterm Review 24092014 153000 e Common 32bar song form AABA 8 bars of each A A B A e Styles that were roots to jazz 0 Blues 0 Ragtime 0 To quotragquot is to syncopate and loosen up melody 0 Basic patterns were in uenced by the banjo 0 quotFreak dancesquot 9 brought jazz to wider audiences 0 Famous dance team Irene and Vernon Castle They made dances acceptable to mainstream legitimized jazz to white audiences Worked with a black composer james Reese Europe Created a simple way to learn dances fox trot tango o Minstrelsy o Uniquely American 0 Vaudeville came after 0 Brass Bands 0 Primary Melodic instrument Cornet 0 High improvised line Clarinet 0 Low improvised Trombone o Collective improvisation two or more musicians simultaneously improvising o PianoBanjo derived from right hand function of ragtime piano playing chords on beats 2 amp 4 o TubaBass left hand function bass notes on beats 1 amp 3 Drums Derived from brass bands and ragtime orchestras military march in uence yet improvised contrary lines to main melodic voice 9 Storyville 38 blocks of brothels TT TT TTTT Had legalized prostitution Pressure from Navy shut down Storyville Great Migration jobs opened in Chicago Kansas NY etc blacks moved First jazz recording ODjB white men 0 Huge hit NY Brought the word quotjazzquot into common parlance quotLivery Stable Bluesquot jelly Roll Morton 0 First sig jazz composerarranger Invented jazz on a warm summery day 0 First to use string bass over tuba 0 Created walking bass First signi cant jazz personality Buddy Bolton Technoogy Radio 0 Record player Microphone 0 Bing Crosby crooning Movies started using sound The jazz Singer TT TT T T TT Pau Whiteman First to hire African American arrangers and composers o quotThe King ofjazzquot 19205 c He played more quotpopquot than jazz There was syncopation Fetcher Henderson black 0 Band leader 0 Louis Armstrong joined 0 Pitting woodwinds against brass not playing together Harlem Renaissance 0 Period of African American expression of art culture etc 0 Area of af uence Harlem stride grew out of ragtime 0 Father of Harlem Stride James P Johnson Duke Ellington piano and his contributions to jazz 0 Less interested in writing music for dances wanted to write it as an art form a re ection of the AFAM experience Louis Armstrong 0 He would loosen up ragtime phrasing de ned swing Established blues as foundation ofjazz harmony Introduced scat singing Popularized jazz more than any musician TT TT TT SWNG 19305 Bands that played in large ballrooms for tons of dancers Commercial appeal 0 Bluesy riffs clearly de ned riffs Benny Goodman King of Swing 0 First band integrated 0 He played clarinet City in Missouri that began swing Kansas City 0 Based on blues style Improvisation was primary focus 0 Head charts didn t need to write down music Count Basie o Rhythm section All American Rhythm Section Swing era soloists o Instrument tenor sax saw popularization o Billie Holiday Ella Fitzgerald Rhythm section Modern Jazz Chll 24092014 153000 Desire for jazz musicians to be soloists T Recording Ban Prevented the earliest examples of bebop from being recorded The AFM instituted the ban in 1942 lasted two years Musicians were losing jobs as a result of wartime measures 0 Radio and records were creating a form of inhome entertainment thus decreasing audiences Radio stations were playing more recordsbroadcasting fewer live performances e The union demanded that royalties be paid on every recording 4 Singers however were not part of the union and continued recording in entirely vocal formats Profound effect singers became the matinee idols in place of instrumentalists TTTT e e The Bebop Era 19421955 e The beginning of what we now call modernjazz in uencing the developments of jazz to this day 9 4 Not as popular as swing era music 0 Not for dancing Smaller venues No vocalists Less commercial appeal 0 Music for musicians jazz as art form complex quotunsingablequot melodies not for dancing Developed in after hours clubs in Harlem Small group jam session approach in uenced o The emphasis on improvisation TT Deemphasis on arrangements 0 Use of borrowed progressions A focus on experimentation e One of key elements of bebop was an emphasis on instrumental virtuosity the jam sessions continue the quotcutting contestquot tradition thus pushing the level of all players who dared sitin e CHARACTERISTICS Small groups emphasized over big bands 0 Songs were based on standard tunes altered by complex chord progressions and abstract melodies not made for dancing 0 Surprise was highly valued in bebop emphasis on unpredictability o Rhythm more active and interactive Jazz was an art not solely entertainment Chll 24092014 153000 e Charlie Parker 19201955 alto sax 9 Perhaps the most important saxophonist and one of the most important musicians in the history ofjazz 0 Master improviser with complete command of his instrument 9 Parker built an entire system that was conveyed in his improvisations and compositions The system embodied New ways of selecting and accenting notes to be compatible with the accompaniment chords 0 New ways of accenting notes so that the phrases have a highly syncopated character 0 Methods for adding chords to existing chord progressions and implying additional chords by the selection of notes for the improvised lines e Born in Kansas City KS but grew up in KC Missouri absorbing blues 9 Got a job in Ozarks with a dance band Spent spare moments practicinglistening to his favorite players learning tunes in all twelve keys etc Eventually red due to trading his horn for dope btwn sets 9 Given morphine after car accident leading to his lifelong addiction to heroin e Made a big splash in NYC in a battle of the bands between Jay McShann including him and Lucky Millander s big bands 9 e EX quotKokoquot Charlie Parker N o Quirky melody with unexpected twists and turns 0 Parker has great command of his instrument displaying rapid re cascading lines e EX quotEmbraceable Youquot Charie Parker 1947 NY N 0 Parker barely alludes to the CG melody Solo seems to be one connected stream slowly unfolding Rhythmically aggressive Use of doubletime and aggressive tone quality 0 Parker stretches his ideas across the range of the horn e Parker pursued the concept of creating arrangements for himself to play with a small string orchestra 0 His concept was to use great arrangers instead the music was arranged by dance band arrangers e Critics hated it accusing Parker of sellingout Parker said quotA performance should not be judged bad or good because of the kind of music but because of the quality of the musicianquot e EX quotNow s The Timequot Charlie Parker 1953 NY N o 12 bar blues a simple blues melody Blues in ected bebop improvisation Chll 24092014 153000 e John Birks quotDizzyquot Gillespie 19171993 trumpet e The rst important bebop trumpeter and one of the greatest improvisers and composers in jazz e Virtuosic command of his instrument especially upper register e Advanced sense of harmony e One of the rst to play saxophone type lines on the trumpet a result of the in uence of Roy Eldridge e A great entertainer earned nickname Dizzy bc of his clowning behavior e Dizzy never succumbed to substance abuse exempli ed clean living and became an quotelder statesmanquot of jazz 9 e quotI39ve Got Rhythmquot chord progression rhythm changes 9 e Dizzy s contributions 0 A model of unparalleled trumpet mastery Assembled a body of original compositions Led a string of high quality combos and big bands featuring numerous jazz starts to be Incorporated AfroCuban music into jazz 0 Created a new vocab of phrases and ways of matching solo notes to accompanying chords 0 Was a mentor to all musicians e e Earl quotBudquot Powell piano e The most imitated of the bebop pianists e Laid foundation for all bebop pianists to follow e Master of bebop language 9 rivaling the agility of Parker and Gillespie e Left hand inserted sporadically placed 2 and 3 note chords reducing his statement of harmony e EX quotTempus FugueItquot Bud Powell 1949 NY N T T TTTT Great example of his technique and horn like lines 0 Great ex of his left hand composing style too Jazz in LA Central Avenue was the center for AFAM life in LA Blacks attracted to area because of jobs Dexter Gordon 19231990 tenor saxophone Born and raised in LA Considered rst sig tenor sax of bebop introduced tenor sax to bebop EX quotLong Tall Dexterquot Dexter Gordon Quintet N 12bar blues 0 In the style of Charlie Parker s Now s the Time song Ch12 The 1950 s Cool Jazz and Hard Bop 24092014 153000 9 New Directions e Bebop was a style that many who had grown up wswing couldn t accept e Bebop musicians were interested in pleasing their audience 0 Dizzy Gillespie was a showman 0 Charlie Parker recorded with strings e 6 Cool Jazz e By the early 19505 quotcoolquot was used to describe a kind of toneddown jazz e Later the term became assoc with a white musicians who relocated to CA where they could get day gigs at movie studios unlike AFAMs while playing jazz at night Called West Coast iazz e 9 Characteristics of Cool jazz e quotEmo version of jazzquot 0 Re ective softer approach 0 In uenced by classical elements of tone form and style while retaining bebop improvisatory language 0 Sometimes characterized by a detached quotcoolquot quality 0 Greater emphasis on orchestration and arranging than bebop 0 Cool jazz improvisations are an outgrowth of the innovations of bebop however are characterized by a more re ective softened attitude 0 Use of instruments usually associated with orchestral music 0 French horn bassoon oboe etc 0 Generally instrumentalists played with very little or no vibrato e Coo jazz began as a reaction to the explosive frenzy of bebop its musicians strove for a more sophisticated mature style 9 Many of the predominant players favored the lighter tone and lyrical qualities of Lester Young and Miles Davis e Some musicians became interested in exploring more sophisticated forms than the simple headsoloshead format of the bebop era e Musicians began using college campuses as performance venues e Faciitated by the quasichamber music quality of the new groups it seemed to be at home in concert halls as opposed to smoky clubs Nightclub scene has steadily declined 9 inspiring jazz festivals e Often associated with west coast however many early recordings were made on east coast by Miles Davis Gerry Mulligan Gil Evans e Term quotthird streamquot was coined in 1957 by Gunther Schuller while lecturing about the attempts of musicians to cross the in uence of jazz classical and other world musics Classical 1st stream 0 jazz 2nCI stream jazzClassical Hybrid 3rCI stream Lennie Tristano 19191978 pianocomposer Blind Transitiona gure btwn bebop and cool jazz In 1951 he founded a jazz school in NY 0 First signi cant institution of its kind Staffed by his best students Konitz Marsh Bauer e Fairly reclusive didn t perform much after his school closed in 1956 but continued to teach students Mary Lou Williams Bud Freeman Art Pepper e A demanding teacherbandleader his music required great tech skill Characterized by complex harmonies 0 Long angular running 8th note lines o lrregular shifting of rhythmic accents e He experimented with free improv and multitrack recording long before those who would follow him TTTTT e e Miles Davis and the birth of the cool e In 1945 19 year old Miles Davis played on Charlie Parker s rst recording 0 Can hear major differences in his lyricism and personal timbre longer tones and silences e In 1949 Davis led a group of musicians interested in slowing down the pace and rebalancing the mix btwn improv and composition 0 Group was a coalition interracial intergenerational and culturally diverse musicians e His instruments low or high gravitated to the midrange medium dynamics and economical phrasing o Warmer tones more about blending Nothing is too emotive e e Birth ofthe Cool Name of famous recording e Although there were precedents in jazz for this concept of music like Ellington these young modernists looked to classical chamber music for sonorities that favored the middle ranged instead of high notes 0 the French horn and tuba to complete the instrumental palette a toned down rhythm in place of the upfront beat of dance music Great organizer lead discussions rehearsals etc Gil Evans was the oldest of the group 9arranger composer pianist band leader 0 An ingenious orchestrator who explored instrumental possibilities when he worked in the Claude Thornhill band 0 Band that included French horns tuba ute and bass clarinet in addition to regular bigband instrumentation Often used longheld chords that seemed to oat People that came to his house regularly 0 Gerry Mulligan baritone sax arranger did most of writing for nonet 0 Lee Konitz whom Evans featured in the nonet 0 John Lewis composerpianist went on to form the Modern Jazz Quartet e One of the great original voices ofjazz inspired by Ellington e Liked little vibrato in ensemble playing e Orchestrated his arrangements with a standard big band instrumentation pus two French horns and a tuba e Aways fascinated by textures Evans in later years arranged Jimi Hendrix songs for his big band TTTT EX quotMoon Dreamsquot Miles Davis Nonet 1950 NY N Arranged by Gil Evans extension of Ellington s style Use of complex chords 11ths 13ths etc Crosssection voicing Understated re ective quotcoolquot quality in the music No sustained improvised solo placing emphasis on arrangement and textures Composed lines show the in uence of Ellington and Euro impressionist composers like Ravel and Debussy Rhythmically it is less syncopated and more predictable the bebop Ch11 Ch12 Hard Bop 24092014 153000 Modern jazz Quartet ohn Lewis pianistcomposer created this group MjQ featured music that sought to elevate jazz to concert music 0 Feeling of group was like classical chamber ensemble Composition and arrangement were emphasized with a leaning toward orchestral textures In contrast to Mulligan quartet MjO was AFAM East Coast and longlasting john Lewis believed Bach and blues were compatible Lewis wanted to change how jazz was presented 0 Wanted every performance to be like a concert even if in club 0 All members wore identical tuxes pieces were introduced and musicians would enter and exit stage Music was cool re ned and highbrow on surface but hot rhythmic and intense at the core EX quotAll the Things You Arequot Modern Jazz Quartet 1952 N 0 John Lewis on piano vibraphone Cool quality Contrapuntal writing reminiscent oij Bach Composed intro and ending using unusual percussive timbres Dave Brubeck 19202012 pianocomposer Came to prominence in SF CA during 505 3 years before Miles Davis quotBirth of the Coolquot sessions he was making similar recordings as a student composer working under Darius Milhaud TTTT e Next to Miles Davis he became the more popular jazz artist in 605 e EX Take Five very famous e e Hard Bop e In opposition to quotcoolquot hard bop was an East Coast revival of bop but with harder edge e Mies Davis instigated this turn when he started to record a tougher more urban straightahead more rhythmic and emotional music Reaction to cool jazz also bebop Contrasted to West Coast s cooler more introverted response Mostly played by urban musicians from Detroit and Philly e Characteristics Simpler than bebop but from the same basic harmonic and rhythmic territory Change in drumming style more activity use of backbeat Darker heavier rougher sounds More 06 compositions less based on pop tune chord progressions Hard driving swing feel An effort to reestablish blues as an essential element ofjazz Classic quintet instrumentation Popularization of organ trios Strong gospel in uence An effort to connect with audiences by relating to everyday life A movement away from the intellectualization of the cool era A general interest among players in African roots Ch12 Hard Bop 24092014 153000 e Art Blakey 19191990 drumsbandleader e In 1954 formed a group with pianist Horace Silver quotHorace Silver and the Jazz Messengersquot They typi ed the growing hard bop movement hard funky bluesy When Silver left band in 1956 Blakey became leader 0 Jazz Messengers had always been an incubator for young talent 4 Member of Fletcher Henderson s orchestra early on e Wanted to be a pianist e Blakey differed from other bop drummers bc his style was about rhythm energy re and intense swing lt e Horace Silver 19282014 pianocomposer 4 His style became a model for subsequent mainstream pianists to emulate simple and direct e An outstanding composer e EX quotThe Preacherquot Horace Silver 1956 NY N e Art Blakey on drumsHorace on piano Gospelin uenced groove 0 Blues oriented melodies Happy upbeat mood e 4 Clifford Brown 19301956 trumpet e Formed a quintet with Max Roach after recording with Art Blakey One of the premiere hard bop bands lasted until Brown died 4 Had a fat warm tone a bopish style and a mature improvising approach e 9Had complex intros so that others would not copy him 4 Since he died early he didn t have the fame he should ve TTTTTT Max Roach 19242007 drums Father of modern drum solo Considered the epitome of bebop drumming Emphasized a melodic approach to the drum set He solidi ed bebop drumming concepts Expressing the time on the ride cymbal relying less on the bass drum or hihat like swing era drummers Interplay btwn snare drum and bass drum as well as with soloist Ch12 Hard Bop Ch13 TT TT 9 e e 24092014 153000 Sonny Rollins b 1930 tenor sax One of the true jazz giants and alltime great tenor saxophonists Some referred to him as the greatest improviser in jazz 0 Incredible ability to organize and manipulate motivic material 0 Turned unlikely material into jazz 0 One of the rst to adapt bebop to the tenor sax Strong hard fu tone quality EX quotAutumn Nocturnequot Sonny Rollins 1978 N o A master improviser absolute command of instrument combined with an inspired vision o Is heard playing gures more reminiscent of free jazz players distorted tones and sweeping clusters of notes EX quotIt Don t Mean a Thingquot 0 More characteristic of Rollins playing 0 Uses more than one elementtheme for his playing Wes Montgomery 19231968 guitar One of the majorjazz guitarists emerging after such in uential gures as Django Reinhardt and Charlie Christian e Came from a musical family brothers Monk and Buddy were performers e Achieved a unique tone on his guitar by strumming it with the side of his thumb rather than using a pick 9 His playing is also noted for his use of octaves when improvising or playing melodies e EX quotTwisted Bluesquot Wes Montgomery 1965 N e quotGuitar playing really singsquot e Bues infected lines and phrasing e Gradua build in Montgomery s solo from single lines to chords and octaves e e Jazz Composition in the 19505 Ch13 e Four jazz composers represent four approaches to expanding the jazz canvas Monk works with blues and standard song forms Mingus worked with and expanded conventional forms adding effects from gospel ragtime bop classical music and others o Gil Evans radically transformed the work of other composers George Russell introed modalism and new ways to approach harmony changed the relation btwn composition and improv e e Thelonious Monk 19171982 pianocomposer 9 One of the originators of the bebop style e Member of the house band at Minton s Playhouse e Strong individual played way he wanted without concern for what s popular e Borrowed from the stride styles ofJames P Johnson and Ellington e He used a great deal of dissonance his melodies are often angular e His compositions are deceptively simple using a simple rhythmic idea and manipulating it to a great degree e Monk s tunes are generally performed as composed not manipulated like a standard 9 e EX Thelonious Thelonious Monk 1947 NY N 0 None of the virtuousity of bebop style but all of the surprise 0 Not re ned A bit of stride piano Monk loved to explore musical ideas for sake of exploring He tends to solo in a similar way developingrepeating simple ideas 9 EX quotRhythm A Ningquot Thelonious Monk 1962 NY N Rhythm changes 0 Highly syncopated comping Based on a theme by Mary Lou Williams Ch13 24092014 153000 9 Charles Mingus 19221979 basscomposer e A virtuoso bassist conversant in all styles extant in his lifetime from early jazz to big band to free jazz 0 Gospel blues and new Orleans in uences e Many of his compositions were dedicated to important musical in uences jelly Roll Open Letter To Duke Theme For Lester Young Goodbye Pork Pie Hat Praying With Eric e Outspoken advocate against racial inequality e EX quotBoogie Stop Shuf e Charles Mingus ampjazz Workshop 1959 NY N o A blues featuring a boogiewoogie inspired line 0 A driving energetic performance enhanced by sharp horn articulations and smears blur the lines btwn old and modern styles e e Gil Evans 19121988 arranger e EX quotKing Porter Stompquot Gil Evans Orchestra 1958 N o Arranged by Gil Evans Composed byjelly Roll Morton 0 Hard swinging yet colorful horn voicings and instrumentation make this arrangement unique 9 e George Russell 19232009 composerarranger e Notabe as a bandleadercomposerarranger who didn t perform professionally on an instrument e quotFatherquot of modal jazz movement new direction in jazz of 19605 e Often works from a simple theme upon which he can build and elaborate creating complex yet swinging arrangements e Russel formulated and advanced his Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization a work that has had a signi cant impact on jazz improvisation e EX quotConcerto for Billy the Kidquot George Russell 1956 N Russell s quotdiscoveryquot of virtuoso Bill Evans pianist is exempli ed in the piano solo for whom the piece is written 0 Simple theme developed and layered in a tightlyknit arrangement that suggests be bop modern classical and Latin music e Bill Evans 19291980 pianocomposer e His trio conception is still the model upon which many piano trios are based e Paying featured highly lyrical lines and beautiful harmonies e Master of re harmonization and is one of the rst to explore modal harmony in jazz his association with Miles Davis had a lasting impact on the trumpeter e Ch14 24092014 153000 9 CH14 The Modality of Miles Davis amp John Coltrane e e Miles Davis trumpetcomposerbandleader e Easily the most importantin uential musician in the history of modern jg 9 Changed the rules of jazz 5 times 19491950 the quotBirth of the Coolquot sessions helped focus a younger generation to search for something beyond bop and started the cool jazz movement 0 1954 quotWalkin quot started the hard bop movement 0 19571960 with Gil Evans enlarged the scope ofjazz composition big bands and recording projects while adding a new meditative mood to jazz 0 1959 Kind ofBue was the culmination of his experiments with modes and melodic improvisation replacing the harmonic complexity of bop o 1969 Bitches Brew started fusion shifting the focus from melody to rhyhm 9 Miles Da vis jazz Legacy 0 Created an original and substantial trumpet style evident from early in his career Produced a large body of recordings which almost invariably contain distinctive highquality performances Facilitated the Birth of the Cool sessions 0 His mid fties quintetsextet represented the height ofjazz playing in that period Pioneered modal jazz on his Kind ofBue album in 1959 Pioneered jazzrock fusion styles through A Silent Way and Bitches Brew of 1969 Incorporated pop songs into his repertoire as well as hiphop ago go styles Pioneered the predominant group approaches and individual instrumental styles of the 19805 and 905 with his quintet of 1963 1968 Characteristics of Miles Trumpet Style Use of Harmon mute huge quantity of his songs have it Dramatic use of space Unique sense of timingswing Great sense of tone coloruse of long tones allowed listeners time to appreciate colors Uses little or no vibrato Favors middle register of trumpet in pre1964 performances Later work shows a more clustered sense of phrasingcoloristic shapes rather than single notes EX quotSo Whatquot Miles Davis Sextet 1959 NY N From his most famous recording Kind ofBue Bass plays melody horns answer quotSo Whatquot AABA form Piano uses quartel harmony with a third on the top plaining btwn chords modern European in uence He lost key members of band after recording became bored with music but in 1962 he began assembling the next great group Ch14 TT 9 e e 24092014 153000 EX ESP Mies Davis 1965 LA N Composed by Wayne Shorter The main compositional force of the group andone of the most important composers in jazz history 0 The perfect foil for Miles as a soloist but was a perfect companion in phrasing melodies and openness of sound and concept John Coltrane 19261967 tenorsoprano saxes quotMusic and life are all about style To Coltrane music was something more playing was his research his intellectual challenge his means of investigating as well as expressing spiritual moodsquot Mies Davis 9 TTTT e e e In 1955 joined Miles Davis group brought him popularity 0 1959 Coltrane participated with Davis group on album Kind ofBue o This landmark album known for its quotmodalquot playing became one of the bestselling and mostacclaimed recordings in the history of jazz 0 In between the sessions for the album Coltrane began recording what would be his Atlantic Records debut Giant Steps released in early 1960 its title track essentially the nal nail in the bebop cof n Early on worked in bands led by Dizzy and Duke Ellington Addiction to heroin led to being red a lot COLTRANE S CHARACTERISTICS Sheets of sound dense improvisations Squeezing high crying notes out of the instrument 0 Long runs that sweep across the range of the instrument contrasted by long sustained notes Popularized the soprano saxophone Practiced obsessively EX quotGiant Stepsquot john Coltrane 1959 NY N Modern day test piece for improvisers it represents an extremely dif cult chord progression 9 o The ultimate quotassault on the chordquot OPPOSITE of modal playing Sheets of sound Ch14 24092014 153000 e Elvin Jones 9 lots of syncopation T I TTT Loosening of music open structure of playing In uence of free jazz coming to popularity at this time Bridging a gap and taking a lot of liberties quotsliding chords aroundquot Coltrane played incredibly long solos John Coltrane 196439s A Love Supreme one of Coltrane39s bestloved albums which earned him two Grammy nominations for jazz composition and performance and became his biggestselling record an aural praise of God 9 9 ii quotA Love Supremequot John Coltrane One of his best love albums 0 And aural praise of God EX Acknowledgement John Coltrane 1939 NY N o The classic quartet Modal harmony Chanting quotA love supremequot 0 Eastern in uence 0 Spiritual calling deeply spiritual 32bar popular song AABA Has a Latinstyle groove to it The Classic Ouartet s Characteristics Sustained and repeated tones in the bass part called pedal points 0 Drum patterns whose basic unit occupied several measures instead of just a few beats Sustaining piano chords 0 A focus on modal harmony Longterm continuity of mood as though the composition and lengthy improvs were conceived in their entirety instead of being a sequence of written melody and solors strung together informally 0 There s an arc beginning middle resolution e 9 John became increasingly interested in the freer approach of Ornette Coleman and to the dismay of his critics delved into the free jazz movement as a means of trying to nd a direct pure path to his inspiration e 1966 saw the release of the albums quotKqu Se Mamaquot and Meditations Coltrane s last recordings to appear during his life though he had nishedapproved release for his next album Expression the Friday before his death He died suddenly of liver cancer very quiet person no one knew Received many Grammy nominations TT Ch15 AvantGarde T e 24092014 153000 CHAPTER 15 Free JazzAvantGarde Generay free jazz is characterized by unique voices Ornette Coleman Albert Ayler Cecil Taylor Sun Ra t s highly individualize BUT quotfreequot doesn t necessarily mean there isn t any formorder to the music 9 build 9 TTT TT Performances often have some theme upon which the players will often giving musical cues to move from one section to another During rise of Civil Rights mvmt Re ection of what was happening to AFAMs at that time Critics and musicians were generally polarized about the new music Characteristics of Free jazz Typically no preset chord progressions Generally piano is omitted Extensive manipulations of pitch and tone quality often times simulating the sound of the human voice Sometimes improvised textures assume greater importance than the development of melodies 0 Use of extended instrumental techniques shrieks squawks wais etc Adoption of nonEuro musical approaches which don t rely on chord progressions Some free jazz contains preset structures and some has no musical structure Collective improv sometimes used Use of folklike melodies Free jazz foows trends in art and culture Challenges what de nes jazz Divided the world in half Criticized for being too political o Other hand supporters called free jazz quotpeople s musicquot even though it alienated more than it attracted it had folk quality e john Coltrane was well respected for mastering the bop idiom and the avantgarde Was able to do both e e Ornette Coleman alto saxviolintrumpetcomposer e Born in Texas e An extremely unique controversial and innovative voice in jazz e Fan of Charlie Parker an in uence that s apparent in much of his e Criticized for not knowing the changes and playing out of tune Free jazz style No chord progressions e Ornette s is called Harmolodics The group focused on Ornette s unusual concepts attempting to equalize the rolls of melody harmony and rhythm e Coeman believed that chords were a hindrance to a musicians ability to truly play their own music creating something in the moment of that moment e Ornette s sound has always been characterized by his use of a plastic alto sax and very soft no1 reeds He always said it was only horn he could afford Points out that Parker used a plastic alto at times in his career therefore it shouldn t be unusual or signi cant e EX quotLonely Womanquot Ornette Coleman 1959 LA N o This recording shows a remarkable amount of growth in sheer depth alone Droning bass double time drums and a melody line that seems to move at a pace separate from both 0 AABA form lmpassioned crying quality Ch15 e e e 24092014 153000 Cecil Taylor pianocomposer A virtuosic pianist nspired by pianists Dave Brubeck Bud Powell Thelonious Monk and Duke Ellington 9 His early work s characterized by his use of standard jazz repertoire however his improvs would stretch out beyond the harmonies 9 Highly percussive clusters his sounds and rhythms together producing rapid re runs signi cant for their shape and energy rather than speci c notes 9 e Referred to his ensemble approach as quotunit structuresquot EX Bulbs Cecil Taylor 1961 NY N o Inspired by lights of Central Park Shifts seamlessly btwn composed sections and free improvs Sunny Murray drums would be come a leader of the free jazz drumming mvmt EX quotWillsau Concert Part 3 Cecil Taylor 2000 N Cecil Taylor on piano Virtuosic command of the piano 0 Highly organized thematic development Ch15 24092014 153000 Albert Ayler 19361970 tenor sax e Rooted in blues gospel and jazz famous for free jazz e Can play sax in any style e Was heralded by Coltrane who saw him as an extension of his own work e Had a huge sound and played intense improvisations e EX Ghosts Albert Ayler 1966 Paris N FolkIikecalypso quality to the melody o Drums are not playing time but rather are coloring and creating energy through sound density and texture Ayler s tone is hard and hollow he uses extended techniques and a strong vibrato in the style of Sidney Bechet Bass is an equal improvising partner The Avantgarde 2ncl Generation 19705 schooled in Midwest They formed collectives who arranged rehearsals and secured work like the fraternal societies of New Orleans 0 The Black Artists Group BAG arose in St Louis 0 The Underground Musicians Association in LA by Horace Tapscott o In NY Cecil Taylor Andrew Cyrille and Archie Shepp tried to launch the Jazz and People s Mvmt e None of these collectives lasted very long with exception of the AACM e 9The AACM Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians Started in Chicago by Muhal Richard Abrams pianistcomposerbandleader Lasted 40 years 0 Each member had to write new music for the ensemble 0 From 1969 the AACM organized a music education program for innercity youths In 1960s70s AACM members were among the most important and innovative in all ofjazz TTTT e The Art Ensemble of Chicago AEC e Most important band to come out of the AACM was the Art Ensemble of Chicago AEC e Popularized little instruments Bells whistles hand drums Used to add African content e Members used makeup Lester Bowie always appeared in a lab coat e Concerts were continuous and ended with a hardswinging number or blues e Described concerts as quotGreat Black Music From the Ancient to the Futurequot 0 Included free improvisation e e The Loft Scene 197486 e During this era the new music in NY was played in lofts churches and galleries and was recorded by small labels often owned by the musicians e The Knitting Factory opened a large performance space that encouraged musicians to cut across idioms to reach a broader audience o Moved to a 3 story building with several performance spaces SaxcomposerJohn Zorn combined classical avantgarde David Murray 1955 tenor sax lnitially in uenced by free jazz musicians such as Albert Ayler and Archie Shepp 9 Set himself apart from most tenor players of his gen by not taking John Coltrane as his model chose to incorp elements of mainstream players Coleman Hawkins Ben Webster and Paul Gonsalves 9 Uses circular breathing to play extended phrases Primarily active from the 197019905 EX quotEl Matadorquot David Murray N Rhythmic freedom btwn the musicians Use of the quotSpanish Scalequot 0 A major scale with a atted notes on the 2nd 6 and 7th degrees TTTT TTTT Ch16 Fusion 24092014 153000 e Fusion I to 1960 RampB Singers and Latin jazz e Swing faded had 3 other successors aside from bebop Rhythm and blues Mainstream pop vocals 0 Latin jazz e Rhythm and Blues RampB e 19405 an offshoot of swing jump eventually part of RampB focused on 0 Blues 0 Fast tempos o Brash Humorous lyrics 0 Ensemble riffs e jazzers including beboppers played some of this alongside RampB musicians e In addition to swing boogiewoogie rhythm proved essential to RampB e Pianists and blues quotshoutersquot like Big joe Turner recorded successfully during 1930405 and reached the while mainstream through Louis jordan e e Louis Jordan 19081975 alto sax singer songwriter bandleader e Had 60 hits on both the RampB charts and predominantly white mainstream pop charts e 1938 formed his own band Louislordan and His Tympani Five Sounding like a big band it proved that a small ensemble could be successful and as a result small bands became very popular in jazz and pop after WWII e Much of his success was due to his use of southern black cultural humor that blacks related to whites could quotgetquotunderstand e He emphasized the humanness of being black creating new black archetypes e 1940s recorded with major stars Bing Crosby Armstrong Fitzgerald and appeared in movies He was a real showman and some of his hits have endured e His career slowed down in 1951 due to illness but his in uence can be heard in the music of Chuck Berry Bill Haley Ray Charles e e Soul Jazz e Vocaists like Ray Charles and others reached a larger audience than jazz musicians leading their own groups For jazz musicians wanting to reach a mainstream audience the way to go was through soul jazz e Sou jazz is based on the hard bop of Blakey Silver and Adderly with o A strong backbeat An aggressive urban sound Gospelstyle chords 0 Simpli ed basic harmonies compared to bop Short solos Clear dance rhythms An emphasis on ethnic language 0 Cultural references such as food church and parties 9 e Jimmy Smith Hammond organ e ln uential as jazz and RampB fusion artist in the black community during the 19505 and 605 e Studied piano with his parents and Bud Powell then studied bass after serving in WWII Toured w father playing blues and gospelin ected music in clubs e Payed piano for years in local RampB bands and then heard Wild Bill Davis on organ in 1953 and switched Organ was a more acceptable jazz instrument by then e EX quotThe Organ Grinder s Swingquot 1956 N 12bar blues 0 Hammond B3 guitar drums Smith adds mumbles and bagpipelike textures along with his typical organ squawks and tremolos His knowledge of bass and mastery of the B3 s foot pedals allowed him to play complete bass lines e e e e vocalists z z z z e e TTTTT e e o This sets a precedent for jazz organists He combined the virtuosity of bop RampB rhythms and gospel Rise of the Big Singers By 1946 shifts from celebrity instrumentalists and bandleaders to a new gen of vocalists Many top vocalists started careers during swing era The musician s union recording ban of 194244 didn t apply to Frank Sinatra 191598 Was heavily promoted on radio movies and press Singing style combined the crooning style of Bing Crosby with the bel canto technique of Italian opera ln uenced by female jazz singers such as Billie Holiday EX quotThe Birth of the Bluesquot Frank Sinatra NY 1952 N Big band sound Sinatra uses rubato time variations of timbre Not a blues Sinatra s sense of phrasing was in uential Nat Cole 191765 Most successful black recording artist of the postwar period Greatest postwar crooner Made rst recording in 1936 in the Solid Swingers a jazz band led by his brother Eddie Cole Sarah Vaughan 192490 e Won the Apollo Theater s Amateur Night at 18 yrs 0 Earl Hines heard her there and offered her a job in his band 4 Recorded bop in 1944Signed by Columbia Records in 1949 and Mercury Records in 1954 e Fu5ed pop and jazz 4 EX quotBaby Won t You Please Come Homequot 1962 N 0 Unusual because less instruments than she normally has surrounding her voice 9 e Latin Jazz 4 Postwarjazz was especially in uenced by Cuban music salsa and Brazilian music bossa nova Cuban in uence includes the rumba of the 19305 mambo of the 19405 and chachacha of the 19505 e Cuban bands in the states offered itte jazz but much rhythmic vitality and great showmanship e 4 Mario Bauza39 19111993 trumpet e One of the rst to introduce Latin music to the United States by bringing Cuban musical styles into the New York jazz scene 4 Bauza395 composition quotTangaquot was the rst piece to blend jazz with cave and is considered the rst true Afro Cuban jazz or Latin jazz tune e e Machito 19081984 maracas e joined band with Bauza but not enough work so joined Xavier Cugat 4 Then created own AfroCuban band in 1940 and had Bauza as director 9 4 Dizzy Gillespie and Chano Pozo 19151948 4 Dizzy started working toward a Latin jazz fusion with his 1946 big band for which he hired conga player Chano P020 4 He knew very little about Cuban music until Bauza started teaching him 4 EX quotMantecaquot Dizzy Gillespie Big Band 1947 N Chano Pozo on congas The piece was Pozo s idea and starts with interlocking congas and bass ostinato much different from the usual walking bass 0 The piece is built up from staggered riff entries Pozo originally wanted to keep the music completely AfroCuban by stretching out the groove but Gillespie added some jazz content through a written harmonically hip bridge underpinned by a walkingbass line 9 e Mongo Santamaria congas e Had his own hit with quotWatermelon Manquot written by Herbie Hancock This hit helped pave the way for Latinsoul fusion e EX quotWatermelon Manquot Mongo Santamaria 1962 N 0 OG composed by pianist Herbie Hancock 16bar blues Essentially a dance piece 0 Has a jazz feeling but no jazz substance Bossa Nova Style Of Brazilian origin Fuses the traditional Brazilian samba a percussiononly style with American jazz harmonies and cool jazz lyricism e In Brazil the mvmt was led by Antonio Carlos jobim Luiz Bonfa and joao Gilberto jobim insisted that bossa nova was not just another form of samba but a radical break from it Like bop bossa nova broke with the past in terms of harmonic and melodic sophistication lt represented a young new attitude TTTT e In 1958 guitarist Charlie Byrd toured Brazil and brought the music back to saxophonist Stan Getz e The bossa nova craze peaked quickly in the 1960 s but the style has remained a staple of the jazz repertoire e e Stan Getz tenor sax e One of the great saxophonists he was known as quotThe Soundquot because of his beautiful tone quality e Disciple of the Lester Young school but fully versed in modern jazz e Worked with Machito earlier in his career and he loved the records from Brazil that Charlie Byrd had brought him e Getz joining Byrd got American labels interested in the music They released album jazz Samba in 1962 0 An edited version of Desi nado featuring Getz from that album became a number one hit e EX quotSamba Dees Daysquot Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd 1962 N 0 Charlie guitar 0 An original by Byrd for the jazz Samba album that captures both the rhythmic and wistful elements of bossa nova c He uses a typical Jobim device in the bridge the repetition of one note eg Jobim s quotOne Note Sambaquot Getz is the star here illustrated by his varied phrasing singlenote repetition climactic melodic phrases uidity overarching control of the form tender but forceful timbre and melodic inventiveness Ch17 Fusion H 24092014 153000 e Fusion ll Jazz Rock and Beyond 9 The 19705 e A period of stylistic pluralism in jazz one could hear musicians playing in every style from early jazz to free jazz e It was a difficult period forjazz rock music had become the predominant popular form e Poitically rock and folk functioned better as a means of expression as there was a focus on new compositions and lyric writing 9 Fusion draws upon improvisatory nature of jazz rhythmic and timbrel elements of rock and world music 9 9 Characteristics of Fusion 0 A shift to electronics instruments and processing 0 The recording process became an art unto itself allowing musicians to editmanipulate result 0 Rock based rhythms and grooves varied rhythm section aesthetic form jazzinteractive to static groove 0 Groups became the focus as opposed to single artists supported by a band 0 Virtuosity within the quotrockquot idiom e Differentiating Early Fusion From Rock 0 Primarily instrumental 0 Less predictable than rock 0 More complex melodic lines and often more syncopated rhythms Electronics are often used more texturally than melodically More emphasis on improvisation e 9 Miles Davis amp Fusion e Miles Davis was rst musician to attempt to fuse jazz and rock debatable o quotIn a Silent Wayquot amp quotBitches Brewquot were 1st to receive national attn o Thru these recordings Miles additionally in uenced his followers to utilize the studio as an important tool in the creative process of music making e Mies had also been interested in the music ofjimi Hendrix Sly and the Family Stone and James Brown He felt jazz was becoming too abstract 9 e Tony Williams drumscomposer e Veteran of Miles in uential mid3960 s quintet he also performed on In A Silent Way e nterested in rock music as well as jazz this was the music of his generation lt e John McLaughlin guitarcomposer e Roots lay in rock and blues e Performed on In A Silent Way and Bitches Brew e With the passing ofjimi Hendrix many looked to McLaughlin as the predecessor to the rock guitar throne e Unlike Miles groups Mahavishnu Orchestra features carefully arranged compositions often featuring multiple odd time signatures and rock in uenced soloing e e Armando quotChickquot Corea pianocomposer e Performed on In A Silent Way and Bitches Brew e Formed band Return To Forever in 1971 o This group was in uenced by Corea s interest in Scientology re ected in their group name as well as in the titles of their music e Decided to follow the Spanish element of his writing 9 WEATH ER REPORT Wayne Shorter tenorsaprano saxlcomposer A veteran of the bands of Art Blakey and Miles Davis One of the greatest composers in jazz Cofounded Weather Report with joe Zawinul in 1971 TTTTT I Joe Zawinulpianosynthcomposer Born in Austria One of the rst to use electric pianos and early synthesizers Weather Report Group drew heavily on the in uence of Bitches Brew but with a more subtle approach e Relied less on the extended timbrel manipulations of the Davis groups and focused more on the use of synthesizers particularly as a solo instrument instead ofjust a source of texture and on the infusion of world rhythms Used free improvisation e aco Pastorius had a tremendous affect on the group and became one of the most respected electric bassists in the history of the instrument 9 e EX quotTeen Townquot Weather Report 1977 N Named after a neighborhood in Miami 0 Wayne Shorter soprano sax loe Zawinul keyboards o Uptempo dance groove Melody is played on bass TTTTTT Ch17 Fusion H 24092014 153000 Fusion mix ofjazz rock and world music Herbie Hancock pianosynthesizers Another veteran of Miles mid60 s quintet as well as the In A Silent Way recording TTTT e Had soul jazz hits in the 1960 s with Watermelon Man and Cantaoupe Island so he was no strange to groove music e A pioneer in the use of synthesizers e His initial fusion recordings were largely in the Miles Davis vein largely textural however in 1973 he created a seminal funk jazz record Headhunters Funky ECM Edition of Contemporary Music Record label founded in Germany by Manfred Eicher in 1969 e The label s output shares a certain common aesthetic framework including o A crisply nuanced recording sound 0 Repertoire consisting mostly of CG compositions by the artists most of which didn t swing in the conventional sense 0 Stark and minimalists photographic cover art There s an ECM sound that borders on a style 9 z z 9 Keith jarrett pianocomposer Another veteran of Miles Davis fusion groups Member of Art Blakey s Jazz Messengers in 1965 ntensely lyrical pianist Had huge following due to several solo piano performs ex Koln Concert e Paramount in establishing the German ECM label 0 his recordings put label on map TTTTTTT e In the 705 he led a successful group heavily in uenced by the work of Ornette Coleman e EX quotLong As You Know You re Living Yoursquot Keith Jarrett 1974 N 0 Gospel in uenced Obtuse melody contradicts the earthy simple nature of the groove 0 Hard to sing along 0 Can tell it s fusion music bc has folky quality yet progressive chord progressions but a rocklike beat etc lt e Pat Metheny guitarcomposer e Heaviy in uenced by Ornette Coleman with whom he recorded with e Paying characterized by greatly lyrics melodies and soos a country in uence e The Pat Metheny Group has been one of the most popular in jazz in the last 35 years 9 e e e e 9 Gary Burton b 1943 Vibraphonecomposer A virtuoso vibraphonist and master of four maet technique Arguably best to have ever played PersonallyYlKES Worked with Stan Getz tenor sax in 196466 Coed a group with guitarist Larry Corye with strong rock in uences His groups particularly of the 1970 s helped to de ne a new sound often associated with the ECM label that features melodic vocabulary drawn more from classical and country music than bebop z z z z 9 Frequently collaborates in a duo format with Chick Corea 80 s Fusion 9Chick Corea The Chick Corea Elektric Band was one of the most in uential in 198039s e e Picked up where Corea left off in the 1970 s with Return to Forever This band was the model of instrumental virtuosity in the 1980 s particularly in uential were drummer Dave Weckl and bassistJohn Patitucci e e o In addition to his work in fusion he split his time playing acoustic piano in more mainstream contexts too 9Miles Davis Left the music scene for most of the midlate 705 only to return reinvigorated in 1979 e TTTT EX quotTutuquot Mies Davis 1986 NY N o The title references Bishop Desmond Tutu o Mixture of improve with preprogrammed music Incorped elements of hiphopagogo grooves Miles was interested in the music of Prince Michael Jackson and Cyndi Lauper at this time john Sco eld guitar Veteran of Miles Davis early 80 s group At ease in the bebop idiom also well versed in jazz fusion funk blues soul rock and other forms of modern American music 9 e organ 9 TTTT One of the most proli c artists of last 30 years 0 Extremely in uential A unique tone quality sometimes imitating the sound of a Hammond EX quotChankquot John Sco eld N o A coab with the popular quotjamquot band Medski Martin and Wood Modeled after the funky style ofJames Brown Quincy Jones trumpetcomposerarranger mportant jazz musician to evolve from Seattle Jazz scene Came to prominence for trumpetcomposing 9evolved to producer The Brecker Brothers Michae Brecker tenor sax Randy Brecker trumpet Their formidable talent made them at home in any genre their band focused on progressive funk and fusion 0 Highly syncopated funk groove 0 Tight ensemble playing TTTT T e 9 Michael Brecker tenor sax e Absoute command of the tenor sax A virtuoso performer one of most in uential saxists of last 30 years 9 e The Downtown Scene e So called as the center of this scene was primarily focused around the downtown NYC club The Knitting Factory Center of 19805 avantgarde Bill Frisell guitar Assoc with downtown scene Eccectic tastes and an absolutely original sound Frisell rede ned the electric guitar in the mid1980 s Currently considered one of the most in uential voices in jazz of the last twenty years e His playing has bridged the gap btwn free and quasimainstream styles a frequent collaborator with diverse artists e He combines his unique tone with an almost slide guitarlike articulation e Recenty he s been incorporating more bluegrass and country elements into his playing lives in Ballard 9 TTTTT e John Zorn alto sax e Created a new trend with the formation of his group Masada described as Ornette Coleman meets Jewish Yiddish music e Extremey creative he has been an important in uence on the rise of the quotDowntown Scenequot 9 Ch18 24092014 153000 Ch18 Historicism Jazz on Jazz Jazz history has been considered as several things Artforart39s sake an art that progresses through radical leaps of creativity by master musicians A fusion tradition that changes in response to contemporary pop culture 0 Historicism where jazz creativity is seen as bound up with its past e In 20005 artists try to energize the present by mining the past through interpretation and homage In 505 and 605 musicians began to create new and original works e These are mined by present musicians through 3 kinds of historicist principles 0 Revival of entire idioms 06 music that celebrates musical past Modernists interpretations ofjazz classics Avantgarde Historicism 19705 Historicism was almost totally absent during 19605 Record companies started to release box sets encompassing the music of a musician era movement or record label TTTT Anthony Braxton reeds Chicago native Studied philosophy e He recorded dozens of albums with music ranging from improvisatory to structurally constrained and everything in between with a diverse group of musicians also representing a broad range Chick Corea Dave Brubeck Dave Holland and Max Roach lt e EX quotPiece Threequot Anthony Braxton 1976 N 0 Anthony Braxton clarinet This piece is from Braxton s 1976 album Creative Orchestra Music which contains musicians that represent a diverse sampling ofjazz history including bebop swing fusion Euromodernism and the avantgarde TTTT o It starts out authentically but soon moves in another direction 9 e Neoclassicism e Loft era musicians drew on older resources combined with new ways of playing to create quotfree jazzquot e During the 19805 one response to this approach appeared in the form of new classicism Older styles practices and techniques were viewed not as a resource for new music but rather as an object of homage and a de nition of the quotrealquot jazz 0 This traditionalist approach to jazz paralleled the conservative nature of political culture during the Regan era of the 19805 Wynton Marsalis trumpetcomposer The son of New Orleans pianist Ellis Marsalis Virtuosic trumpeter Payed classical as well as jazz but stopped classical bc hard to maintain both e Worked with Art Blakey and the jazz Messengers from 198082 e Mid 805 formed a group with his brother Branford sax modeled after the mid 605 Miles Davis quintet This group spurred a Renaissance in jazz often referred to as new classicism bc it is essentially based on previous styles e Very vocal about state of jazz suggesting that anyone who played fusion was a sellout e Highly promoted by the media fueling jazz mythology regarding the young lions jazz needed a pickup and was desperate to get behind new faces TTTTT e A ne composer and ultimately educator his concern for his image in 805 often overshadowed and degraded his message e His music seemed to go backwards rather than forward getting closer to New Orleans39 roots in the mid 905 he began leading the Lincoln Center jazz Orchestra 0 A group whose repertoire is primarily focused on old works from the likes of Ellington and new works by Marsalis e EX quotProcessionalquot Wynton Marcalis N 0 Sounds like from 1950 like comes from south References to pa The theme very much like a folk song or hymn suggesting H Grace Si The Preacher The themes harmonies are similar to those of quotSweet Georgia erWnquot U see of tam be u n n es evokes govs pel t re d it ions Ellingto in uence is evident in the bowed bass vocalized trombone Marsalis halfvalve effects Ch19 Jazz Today 9 TT TT TT TT T T TT TT 24092014 153000 Esperanza Spalding bassvoice o 2011 Grammy Award winner for Best New Artist Diana Krall pianovoice 2 Grammys 8 juno Awards Brad Mehldau piano 0 An astounding combination of inventiveness virtuosity and musicality Draws his material from the Great American Songbook as well as the popular music of bands like The Beatles Pink Floyd and Radiohead Robert Glasper piano 0 Integrates hiphop and neosoul with jazz to remedy what he feels is a lack of energy and direction in the current state ofjazz Dave Douglas trumpet 0 His music derives from many non jazz musical styles including classical music folk music from European countries and Klezmer Chris Potter tenor sax Virtuoso saxist Snarky Puppy o Funkfusion group from Denton Texas Kneebody They are quota resolutely unpindownable bandquot acclaimed for their eclectic style which quotuses a common jazz instrumentation to make a somewhat less common amalgam of urbansignifying genres from electropop to punk rock to hiphop Final Review 24092014 153000 Final review Ch1118 BEBOP Jazz shifted from large group emphasis to small The recording ban of 194244 led to what change in popular idols Singers as opposed to musicians Bebop was the beginning of what we call quotModern Jazzquot TTTT e e 9 Characteristics 9 Small groups emphasized over big bands 9 Not for dancing allowing greater variety of tempos and rhythmic e Vertical melodies less singable syncopated and oddly rhythmic 9 Presented as art music not just for entertainment 9 More improvisationless arrangements 9 Surprise was highly valued emphasis on unpredictability e Musical convo rhythmic interplay e Emphasis on instrumental virtuosity e More complex melodies and harmonies in comparison with the Swing Era e Songs were based on standard tunes altered by complex chord progressions and abstract melodies Why39re Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie important 9 quotInvented bebopquot Why is Max Roach important 9 Father of modern drum solo TTTTTTT e COOL JAZZTHIRD STREAM 9 Characteristics 9 Re ective softer approach e ln uenced by classical elements of tone form and style while retaining bebop improvisatory language 9 Detached quotcoolquot quality e Emphasis on orchestration and arranging more than bebop 9 Cool jazz improvs are outgrowth of innovations of bebop BUT characterized by more re ective softened attitude e Use of instruments usually associated with orchestral music French horn bassoon oboe nstrumentalists played with very littleno vibrato Important Musicians 9Miles Davis quotBirth of the Coolquot Gill Evans arranger 9Lee Konnitz quotSubconscious Leequot HARD BOP Reaction against cool jazz Tried to reinject blues into music 0 Added gospel strong in uence e Simpler than bebop but from same basic harmonic and rhythmic territory e Darker heavier rougher sounds from instruments 0 Change in drumming style more activity use of backbeat 0 Hard driving swing feel e More 06 compositions less based on pop tune chord progressionsforms TTTTTTTTTT An effort to reestablish the blues as an essential element of jazz Cassic quintet instrumentation Popuarization of organ trios Effort to connect with audiences by relating to everyday life 0 A mvmt away from the intellectualization of the cool era General interest among players in African roots TTTT Art Blakey drums Hard Bop Jazz Messengers His style was about rhythm energy re and intense swing 0 Jazz M typi ed the growing hard bop mvmt hard funky bluesy jazz M incubator for young talent Winton Marsalis Wayne Shorter TTTT Miles Davis39 Legacy to jazz Created 06 and substantial trumpet style Produced a large body of recordings which contain distinctive high quality performances e Mies39 midSOs quintet repped the height of jazz playing in that period e Dizzy got super high with notes Miles was middlelow e Pioneered modal jazz on his Kind of Blue album Modal iazz staLs on same chord for long time 0 Giant Steps has chord progressions opposites e Pioneered jazzrock fusion styles with an amalgamation of elements from modal jazz rock and funk in his In A Silent Way and Bitches Brew albums 0 Rock and jazz and Funk together Fusion e ncorped pop songs into his repertoire as well as hiphop a go go styles e MOST in and imp musician in history of modern jazz TTTTT TTTTTTT Characteristics of his trumpet style Use of harmon mute Dramatic use of space Unique sense of timingswing Uses little or no vibrato Great sense of tone coloruse of long tones allowed listeners time to appreciate colors TTTTTTTTTT Oquot TTTTTTT Favors middle register of trumpet in pre 1964 perform Chic Korea electric piano used distortion Randy Brechert distortion with trumpet John Coltrane tenor sax Characteristics Sheets of sound TONS of notes WHO MADE BY dense improvs Squeezing high crying notes out of the instruments Long runs that sweep across the range of the instrument contrasted y long sustained notes Popuarized soprano sax Practiced obsessively The piece he composed that quotput the nail in the bebop cof nquot 9 Giant Steps FREE jAZZ Characteristics Omit piano and chordal instruments No preset chord progressions Extensive manipulations of pitch and tone quality often times simulating the sounds of the human voice e Sometimes improved textures assume greater importance than the develop of melodies use of extended instrumental techniques shrieks squawks wails etc e Collective improv more than one person improving e Adoption of nonEuro musical approaches which don39t rely on chord progression world music Some free jazz has preset structures some none Use of folklike melodies Paraes trends in artculture Challenges notions of what de nes jazz TTTT WHO is associated with Harmolodics 9 Ornette Coleman Who is the pioneering avantgarde pianist who possesses an incredible ability to manipulate and develop motives e 9 Cecil Taylor TTTTTTTT e 9 Jimmy Smith hammond organ e in uentia as a jazz and RampB fusion artist in the black community during the 19505 and 19605 FUSION Characteristics A shift to electronic instruments and processing Recording process became an art allowing musicians to editmanipulate the result TTTTT e Rock based rhythms and grooves varied rhythm section aesthetic from jazz interactive to static groove Groups are focus as opposed to single artists supported by band Primariy instrumental Less predictable than rock More complex melodic lines and often more syncopated rhythms Eectronics often used more texturally than melodically More emphasis on improvisation First recording to establish fusion as a legit style ln A Silent Way TTTTTTTTTTT Wayne Shorter and Joe Z led band 9Weather Report 0 Who was bass player 0 jaco Pastorius What was unique about his bass 9He took frets off
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