Popular in American National Government
Popular in Political Science
verified elite notetaker
This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Leslie Michelle Crow on Monday October 26, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 20 at University of South Carolina taught by Michael Briggs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
What has changed since the drafting of the Constitution of the United States of America Optimism for the future of the country has diminished Direct prayer to God increased sense of individual power Immigrants are now citizens The average age of a citizen has dramatically increased Religious diversity Regional growth and expansion Family types and sizes Mistrust of government for various reasons What is natural law Society should be governed through ethical principles Natural order understood thru reason Came from ideas of Aritstotle Locke amp Hobbes were advocates Social Contract theory 0 A citizen agrees to a silent contract with the government that in order to be governed they in turn lose part of their freedoms Protestant Reformation People realized that they can directly talk to God 0 Created a sense of personal empowerment individualism What governments existed at the time the Constitution was being drafted Monarchy hereditary powers ie kings and queens Oligarchy political participations depends on wealth social status military position or achievements Totalitarianism one single leader who guides by selfinterest mercantilism was dominant form in 1776 0 Economic theory increase a nation39s wealth through commercial industry and balance of trade Characteristics of American democracy Popular consent Popular sovereignty Individual rule Personal liberty Types of political ideologies Conservatives favor limited government intervention 0 Liberals favor economic amp social government intervention Moderates centrist view Libertarians antigovernmental intervention Why did the colonists settle in America 0 Wanted religious freedom 0 More land which meant economic prosperity Virginia House of Burgesses First elected coIoniaI assembly by King James 0 Weak alliance with crown French and Indian War AKA quot7 Years Warquot Part of a global war between Britain and France with American Indian allies Britain controls commerce Sugar Act to raise money for the war 0 Form this came quotno taxation without representationquot Sugar Act 1764 0 Taxes on sugar wine coffee and other common imports from Great Britain 0 Boston Tea Party Quartering Act 0 Required that colonists furnish barracks or provide living quarters in their homes for British troops established by king Angered colonists Stamp Act 1765 0 Law that called for a tax on ALL paper goods 0 Stamp Act Congress 0 9 of 12 representatives met in NYC to draft a letter of grievances to the king because colonists felt that their rights were being violated Townshend Acts Imposed duties on all imported goods from Great Britain including tea 0 Boston Tea Party Sons Daughters of Liberty Outraged by Stamp Sugar Acts 0 Led riots Protested boycotted British goods 1St Continental Congress 0 List of woes sent to king regarding opposition to coercive acts 0 King refused 2nCI Continental Congress 0 Members decided that an army should be raised in opposition to Britain and George Washington should be the commander amp chief 0 Led to Revolutionary War There was a loose league of friendship under the Articles of Confederation Weak national government States had their own judiciaries Articles rati ed in 1781 Sovereignty in the states Congress members wanted to revise the articles ended up throwing it out and starting all over Shays s Rebellion Angered farmers marched to MA and forced state court not to foreclose on their farmlands VA and NJ Plans 0 VA Plan 0 A national system with heavy emphasis on nationstate 0 National government should get their power from the people 0 NJ Plan 0 1house legislator o 1 vote for each state 0 Congress can raise revenue 0 Supreme Court members are members for life The Great Compromise The nal decision of the Constitutional Conventions Creates a bicameral 2 house legislature 0 With powers divided 0 Made national law supreme supremacy clause 35 Compromise For purposes of population representation slaves counted as 35 of a person Committee on Un nished Portions Determined that one presidential term 4 years and can serve more than once Creates Electoral College Removes Chief Executive and the House of Reps Assumes role of impeaching o Impeachment happens when president partakes in quotTreason High Crime Misdemeanors or Briberyquot Basic tenets of the Constitution 0 Ideas are adopted from French philosopher Montesquieu 0 He advocated separation of powers and a system of checks and balances Federalism o A strong national government is necessary for a nation39s survival 0 Federal system divides power between strong national government and sovereign states with national power being supreme 0 10th Amendment allocated powers not given to national government to states and the people 0 Separation of powers 0 Symbiotic interdependent relationship 0 3 branches legislative executive judicial 3 separatelystaffed branches to exercise different functions Legislative makes laws Executive enforces laws Judiciary interprets laws 0 17th Amendment direct election of senators by the people 0 Checks amp balances 0 Powers of each branch can be are used to check the powers of the other 2 branches 0 Ensures that one branch does not exercise more power than the other Supremacy clause 0 In Article VI 0 Mandates that national law is supreme to all other laws passed by states or any other subdivision of government Articles of Confederation Article I o Creates legislative branch 0 Section 8 enumerated powers amp implied powers from necessary amp proper clause 0 Section 9 denies powers to Congress 0 Section 10 denies powers to states 0 Article II o Creates executive branch 0 the only court is the Supreme Court 0 Establishes presidential duties 0 Article Ill 0 creates judiciary 0 explains the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court 0 Articles lV VII 0 Full faith and credit clause States honor laws of other states ie any state driver39s license is valid in another state o supremacy clause constitutional laws of the US are the supreme law of the land How were things under the Articles of Confederation AKA quotThe Critical Periodquot Weak national government States were sovereign quotloose leaguequot of friendship with mother country Right of Mark and Reprisal outlaws piracy in time of war Constitutional Amendments 1 civil rights 2 militia and right to bear arms 3 no quartering of soldiers 4 search and seizure outlaw 5 no doublejeopardy or selfincrimination 6 right to a speedy trial 7 right of a trial by jury 8 no cruel and unusual punishment or excessive bail 9 every amendment is subject to change and rights are retained by the people 10 rights not stated in the constitution are reserved to the people FRST TEN ARE BILL OF RIGHTS o AntiFederalists only wanted these 10 amendments o Rati ed in 1791 12 electoral college 13 end of the civil war and slavery 14 citizenship rights 15 all men can vote 16 individual income tax 17 senators elected by popular vote 18 prohibition of alcohol 19 women39s suffrage 20 presidential and congressional terms 21 18th is repealed 22 no more than 2 presidential terms 23 citizens of DC get to vote 24 poll tax barred 25 presidential disability and succession 26 citizens 18 and over can vote 27 limiting congressional pay increases McCoIIoch v Maryland case o 1819 Denies right of states to tax the federal bank 0 part of supremacy clause Dred Scott v Maryland 1857 Congress lacks the authority to bar slavery in territories Lessens national power Increases power of states dual federalism Cooperative federalism takes over Dual federalism Cooperative quotmarble cakequot 0 Dual quotlayer cakequot 0 This conversion happens because of the Depression 0 New Deal New federalism Proposed by Regan Administration Federalstate relationship that returns administrative powers to state governments Marrow Land Grant Act 0 First federal grant 0 30000 acres to each member of Congress 0 For land grant colleges Categorical Grant Appropriates funds to states for a speci c purpose federal money Block Grant 0 A large grant given to a state from the federal government that comes with general spending guidelines Programmatic Requests 0 Federal funds for special projects within a state or congressional district 0 Money comes from taxes mandate fees Bill of Attainder Law demanding an act illegal without a judicial trial
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