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All Notes for Midterm

by: Robert Davydov

All Notes for Midterm Music History 8

Robert Davydov
History of Electronic Dance Music
Fink, R.W.

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History of Electronic Dance Music
Fink, R.W.
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Robert Davydov on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Music History 8 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Fink, R.W. in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see History of Electronic Dance Music in Music at University of California - Los Angeles.

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Date Created: 10/27/15
93015 Dance music is a problem Outbreaks of moral panics Rhythmic music gathering of large group of people and sex Western industrialized capitalist society Oscar Powell asked Steve Albini to use a lyrical sample in his edm track Insomniac o Raspy sound 0 Hardcore Albini hates dance music and club culture Chuck D of Public Enemy on house music circa 1987 0 It s sophisticated antiblack antifeel the most artificial shit I ever heard It represents the gay scene it s separating black from their past and their culture it s upwardly mobile 0 Track has use of whistle some kind of bell birds chirping drum Denial that it has artistic value From the movie Human Traffic 1998 I Time of the British rave explosion I Characters of the film are working class people from Wales Behind all of the panic of dance music pleasure and feeling good of the music and taking drugs is why people do it Study in British medical journal The Lancet 2007 o Heroin cocaine alcohol among most harmful 0 Tobacco and cannabis among medium level harmful o Ecstasy among least harmful Dance music is connected to a strong need for pleasure Connected to the weekend De nition of a moral panic Thompson 1998 0 Something or someone is defined as a threat to values or interests 0 This threat is depicted in an easily recognizable form by the media 0 There is a rapid buildup of public concern 0 There is a response from authorities or opinionmakers o The panic recedes or results in social changes Wilhelm Gause Court Ball in Vienna 1900 o The Waltz o The invention of a new style of dancing in the first half of the 19th century German dance invades AngloS axon culture Dance with partners in patterns change partners New physical intimacy introduced into dancing O 0 Learning books were written about the danger of the waltz Wilkinson on the Waltz 1884 I Health threat I Sex I Drugs I People will drop their boundaries because of music motion and intoxication o The Volstead Act 1919 Prohibition 0 Banned alcohol after the end of World War 1 made it illegal 0 Jazz and Swing Dancing 19201940 0 The Charleston The Ladies Home Journal December 1921 I Unspeakable Jazz Must Go Dancehall owner J Louis Guyon in Ladies Home Journal 1921 I Sensual stimulation of the abominable jazz orchestra with its voodoo born minors I Abolish jazz music LHJ reports on dance censorship in Cleveland I Everybody is required to dance the same thing here at one time and to dance it the same way Right now it is a waltz You must waltz and do it like the others or leave the place I Police the dance oor Massive outdoor dance party in Philadelphia 1921 I 20000 people in an outdoor dance party Marguerite Waltz of the dance police in LHJ I Censorship Dance teacher Fenton T Bott in LHJ I More agrant dancing since prohibition than before I This may be partly because people substitute one form of sense excitation for another a dance spree instead of a bout with liquor o Rocking and Rolling circa 1955 O Rock n roll in Time magazine June 18 1956 I Evokes a physical response from even its most reluctant listeners for that giant pulse matches the rhythmic organization of the human body I Dances are far from intimate the wiggling 12 and 13 year olds and up barely touch hands I Little Richard compared to Hitler 0 Ralph Gleason in Rolling Stone 1967 o The swing era s parents had danced the waltz The foxtrot was a ritual with only a little more room for selfexpression Exploitation lm Riot on Sunset Strip 1967 o LSD freak out Acid house rave 0 1980s MDMA invented by Germans 0 1990s British use MDMA 0 Leah Betts 1995 Took a bad ecstasy tablet and was dead within hours 18 years old Brain damage 10115 Stayin Alive Bee Gees o Disco Song 0 Bee Gees are actually a Pop Rock band Saturday Night Fever 0 Tony I Italian American I Flashy I Working Class paintshop Tribal Rites of the New Saturday Night 0 Vincent I Working class I Creates dance routines I Dances to become empowered Dance is a way to reclaim your body I Will Survive Gloria Gaynor 0 Powerful song 0 Very moving 0 Uplifting 0 Happy 10515 The African Diaspora o Olly Wilson s five principles of Afrodiasporic music I A tendency to incorporate bodily motion as an integral part of the music making process I The tendency to create a high density of musical events within a relatively short time frame I Antiphony or callandresponse musical structures that involve the audience I The tendency to approach singing or playing any instrument in a percussive manner I The tendency to approach the organization based on the principle of rhythmic contrast 0 Rhythms fighting with each other 0 Babatunde Olatungi J in Go Lo Ba 1959 o Fatboy Slim Jin Go Lo Ba 2004 The l6beat grid Xaxis time grid represents a loop in time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ll 12 13 14 15 The l6beat grid strongweak duple meter a European frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 8 X 2 The l6beat grid duple meter twofold symmetry 1 2 3 4 l64x2x2 The l6beat grid duple meter quadruplefold symmetry 162x2x2x2 The l6beat grid duple meter quadruple subdivision 164x44quot2 o Djembe Drum 0 Put palm right in the middle of drum head to get a very deep low thud I C GO 0 Hit the side of the drum With your fingers hollow sound to it I C KA 0 Throw your hand onto the drum hit the bottom of your palm almost like a rib crack your fingers slam onto the drum I CPA o Downbeats 0 When you literally feel your body go down 0 Strongest beat 0 Polyrhythm or CrossRhythm 332 44 0 Creates tension and resolution 10715 0 West African percussion low drum sogo 0 Kick bass drum 0 West African percussion shaker or axatse o Snare drum 0 West African percussion bell or gankogui o Hihat Three layers three levels of subdivision Four on the oor of disco and house mapped onto a 16beat grid No crossrhythm A more complex crossrhythm adding up to 16 beats 332 332 becomes 3333 22 Outlander Vamp Belgian techno circa 1991 333322 Vamp repeating figure that you do over and over again Sonz of a Loop Da Loop Era Far Out British rave 1993 1 2 3 4 1 gtXlt 223333 Sonz of a Loop Da Loop Era Far Out British rave 1993 1 2 3 4 1 gtXlt 332332 Breakbeats of hardcore jungle and drum n bass mapped onto a 16 beat grid Sonz of a Loop Da Loop Era Far Out British rave 1993 Drum machines sequencing layering vs samplers looping slicing 101215 0 Martha and the Vandellas Dancing in the Street 1964 o 1234 o backbeat 0 James Brown Papa s Got A Brand New Bag 1964 0 L234 0 on the ONE 0 Superbad Hihat pattern Kick and snare interlock 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 X o X X X o X X X o X X X o X X A A A A A A gtxlt gtxlt gtxlt gtxlt 332 Rhythm guitar 1 X A chankchank of rhythm guitar reinforces 332 crossrhythm of snare drum zone of funkiness where different subrhythms intersect Note pervasive clash of crossrhythms threes vs fours at more than one level massively funky 0 Ricky Vincent Funk The Music the People and the Rhythm of the ONE 0 Traditionally West African music did not emphasize melodies The music emphasized rhythm itself and in so doing it ventilated around the one Pulsing waves of drumbeats designed to suspend the listenerparticipant on a crest of percolating tension compelled one to dance A locked happening rhythm brings everybody together grooving as one o By bringing the energies of the life force into the present the funk brings all its listeners onto the dominant pulse the bass line in which all energies sex power ecstasy joy and struggle come together united with the funk on the rhythm of the one o Pfunk is designed to bring the spiritual world down to the level of its participants so that everyone on this world and beyond can groove together on the one 0 Mark Dery Black to the Future Afrofuturism 1996 o AfricanAmericans are in a very real sense the descendants of alien abductees They inhabit a scifi nightmare in which unseen but no less impassable force fields of intolerance frustrate their movements official histories undo what has been done to them and technology is too often brought to bear on black bodies o AfricanAmerican signification that appropriates images of technology and a prosthetically enhanced future might for want of a better term be called Afrofuturism 0 George Clinton 0 The Parliaments ca 1967 o Funkadelic ca 1970 o PFunk mid 1970s 0 Black superheroes defend the ONE using rhythm o R amp B Rhythm amp Blues Mixes With technology Dr Funkenstein Afrofuturistic mad scientist coming to funk it up PFunk 1970s funk concept albums comic book included PFunk 1970s funk concept albums as Afrodiasporic science fiction OOOO Drop the bomb on the one o PFunk Mothership Connection live in Houston 1975 0 Deadmau5 Joel Zimmermann onstage in Boston 11 October 2011 0 Ricky Vincent s history of AfricanAmerican popular music Musical Model of Funk Evolution SIXTIES SEVENTIES EIGHTIES NINETIES Gospel gt Soul RampB gt disco Blues gt Black Rock gt FUNK BOMB gt Hip Hop gt Rock gt gt Jazz Fusion Jazz 0 Duel between funk Starchild and disco Sir Nose D Void of Funk o Disco vanquished through the power of the ONE 0 Marvin GayeTammi Terrell Ain t No Mountain High Enough 1967 0 To keep me from getting to you babe Drive 0 Heavy beat 0 Signifiers of luxury and success 0 Gospel 0 Diana Ross Ain t No Mountain High Enough 1970 0 Fusion of religion Salvational drive 0 With American fantasies of social nobility 0 Richard Dyer In Defense of Disco 1979 o The Temptations The Law of the Land 1973 101415 0 The Art of Noises musique concrete collage and sound sampling 0 Luigi Russolo and his NoiseInstruments ca 1910 I Futurist 0 Pierre Schaeffer and the Groupe de Rechlerches Musicales GRM I Uses real sounds from the real world 0 John Cage I Invented the notion of experimental music I Williams Mix 1952 0 Graph paper 0 Shapes 0 John Oswalf Plexure 1993 I Cutting and slicing I Notion of reduced listening 0 Synthetic Sounds analog synthesis and electronic musical instruments 0 John Cage Imaginary Landscape No 1 1939 I Record Turntable Microphone I Piano I Bell The Theremin 1920s the first practical electronic musical instrument Karlheinz Stockhausen ca 1964 I Kontakte 195960 I Tape measure on electronic sounds I Sonic effects I Manipulate parameters of sound Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier 17681830 Voltage Controlled Oscillator VCO I Makes square wave 0 Voltage Control Filter VCF Cuts harmonics of wave timbre 0 Voltage Controlled Amplifier VCA Magnifies wave loudness o Envelope Generator EG Shapes wave in time 0 Low Frequency Oscillator LFO Control Voltage controls speed and depth interval of oscillation 101915 0 Voltage Control Introduction to Analog Synthesis 0 Oscillators Electronic circuit using wires and resistors and capacitors Output of an oscillator is a square wave Electronic circuit that periodically releases electronic pulses Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier 17681830 0 Can be understood as the sum of various simple sine wave pulsations Square wave as sum of periodically related sine waves odd harmonics Square wave has a buzzy sound Sine wave has a pure sound The odd harmonics increase in frequency decrease in amplitude Spectrum of sound Voltage Controlled Oscillator VCO 0 Changes fundamental frequency of wave 0 Basic building block of analog synthesizer 0 Makes square wave 0 Control voltage from ribbon keyboard changes frequency of wave pitch Voltage Controlled Filter VCF o Lowpass filter lets low frequencies pass attenuates high frequencies 0 Resonant peak emphasizes effect of filter makes sweeping audible Voltage Controlled Amplifier VCA 0 Voltage from pot changes amplitude of waves Envelope Generator EG 0 Shapes wave in time ADSR 0 Attack Decay Sustain Release 0 Sends control voltages to amplifier which effectively creates a shape for the sound I Low Frequency Oscillator LFO 0 Voltage from pots controls speed rate and depth interval of VCO 0 Doesn t make sound on its own 0 Modulates other parts of the synthesizer I One oscillator s output is another s input LFO control the control voltages to VCO VCF I Noise Generator adds grit good for percussive sounds o Moog Modular Synthesizer ca 1961 o Buchla Modular Synthesizer ca 1964 o Buchla Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source module ca 1967 I Effectively the first sequencer o The Legend of Eurodisco o Giorgio Moroder with two robotic friends I Response largely for bringing the analog synthesizer into dance music I Played guitar at 16 I Donna Summer I Put a click on the 24th track I Started his career doing songs in disco I 1977 I Feel Love rst EDM track I Midnight Express Soundtrack 1978 0 We Are the Robots Kraftwerk and the End of the Industrial Revolution 0 Kraftwerk I Autobahn 1974 I Autobahn is German word for freeway I Kraftwerk means power plant I The group s symbol was a traf c cone I From the city of Dusseldorf I Radioactivity 1975 I Studio KlingKlang I The ManMachine 1978 I The Robots 1978 102115 0 ORCH5 TR808 Kraftwerk Afrika Bambaataa and the Birth of ElectroFunk O 0000 0000 O Afrika Bambaataa born Kevin Donovan Bronx NY 1957 I South Bronx NYC 1970s I Fusion of techno futurism and afrofuturism I Deindustrialization I Universal Zulu Nation Rises Bronx 1970s I Council of War Bambaataa and Black Nationalism Malcolm X meets Kraftwerk Bronx late 1970s Minimoog monophonic analog synthesizer Roland TR808 Rhythm Composer Analog Drum Machine Kraftwerk I Computer World 1981 The Fairlight Computer Musical Instrument CMI ca 1981 ORCH5 sampled from Igor Stravinsky The F irebird 1919 Mantronix Needle to the Groove 1985 Doing the Electric Boogie Bronx NYC 1982 I Juggled breakbeat from John Davis and his Monster Orchestra 1 Can t Stop 1976 Electric Boogie rescored to ElectroFunk ca 1983 I Tim Cook and the Party People Do What You Wanna Do 1983 Bambaataa s Planet Rock as Global AfroFuturism 0 Industrial Lies Detroit Techno and Deindustrialization 0 00000000000 The Dusseldorf School industrial architecture as anonymous sculpture Futurism from the Ruins Computerwelt Kraftwerk s Post Industrial Futurism Charles Sheeler River Rouge Plant Ford 1927 Robert Frank Detroit River Rouge Plant 1955 EPA photo of brown eld pollution at River Rouge 1970 Oil Crisis of 19705 Reagan Recessions of 198182 Deindustrialization of Detroit late 1970s1980s Ruins of Detroit 1980s Futurism travels from Dusseldorf in the 1970s Cybotron ca 1983 I The Belleville Three I Black guys from Detroit I Willow Run Industrial Complex Ford B24 Kaiser GM Chevy I Selfconscious critiques of capitalist society I Cybotron Juan Atkins Richard Davis Industrial Lies 1983 1026 15 o A Tale of Three Cities 0 Chicago I House 0 Detroit I Techno 0 New York City Garage Disco 0 Detroit Techno is straight the other two are gay 0 Garage Maestro of the Parade Mixing remixing and the birth of club culture The Paradise Garage 84 King St NYC 19771987 Gay dance club 5000 sq ft dance oor Mixed crowd 0 000000 Latinos African Americans and Whites get together to dance Mixing console at the Paradise Garage ca 1979 The Maestro DJ and producer Larry Levan Gay black man pioneering dance music A new sound system at the Paradise early 1980s bringing bass power To solve the problem of clean bass at high volume we designed a special subbass horn which is now a standard item in our line of speakers The horn called the Levan Horn after the DJ consisted of 2 parts The main cabinet which is a large W type hyperbolic folded horn using two 500 watt custom built 18 drivers and an extension which bolts on to the mouth of the W horn The mouth of the extension is a full 8 feet wide and 3 12 ft high or 28 square feet The horn is capable of awesome reproduction at very high sound pressure levels down to 30hz Each corner of the room would contain 1 Levan subbass horn and one complete triamplified Ultima and the larger sides of the room would have at their corner point 2 Waldorfs and 2 smaller subbass woofers Six tweeter arrays would be hung over the dance oor in appropriate positions The Paradise Garage used a special electronic crossover designed to our specification by Alan Feirstein of Acoustilog Inc it is a 4 way crossover with a subsonic filter at 20 hz The standard ranges are 20 to 100 Hz For subbass 20 to 800 Hz for main bass 800 to 20000 Hz for midrange and 7000 to 20000 Hz for tweeters Its most unique feature is that the two extreme ranges of 20 to 100 Hz and 71 to 20k Hz are controllable in volume by the Disc Jockey with up to 16 dB of gain built into the circuit The DJ control frequency balance DJ as conductor of the loudspeaker orchestra a new idea in 1981 00000 O I The initial reaction of most audio engineers to the idea of a nontechnical person such as a DJ controlling the frequency response of a sophisticated sound system is complete shock and disbelief But in a discotheque a sound system can be considered to be the orchestra while to DJ is the conductor The conductor s job is to stimulate and entertain the audience the DJ must entertain the dancers The DJ is not reproducing the works of Bach or Brahms as performed in a symphony hall but is instead playing music which was created in a multitrack studio under artificial conditions mixed by an engineer also attempting to create the most exciting sound possible Patrick Adams presents Phreek Weekend 1978 Larry Levan s extended 12 remix of Weekend ca 19791980 Levan produces Garage version of Weekend feat Class Action 1983 Collapse of disco in 1980s Roland TR909 Rhythm Composer 1983 Roland TB303 Bassline 19821984 0 Techno AfroFuturism on a budget The fortunate failure of Tadao Kikumoto O O O O Tadao Kikumoto Godfather of Electronic Music Creator of Roland s TB303 amp TR909 Specialize dumbed down analog synthesis in a drum machine Roland CR78 CompuRhythm 1979 I Uses a couple oscillators to simulate the sound of percussion Roland TR808 Rhythm composer 1978 I You can program a beat into it and it would remember the beat I CPU 4bit 80 word instruction set clock speed 440 KHz 000044 GHz I Ram 4 ICs 512 Bytes each 2 Kbytes total I Sound Envelope Generators Drums I Drum machine is the child version of an analog synthesizer Model 500 Juan Atkins No UFOs 1985 I Beat made on TR808 Drum Machine The Model 500 Roland MC500 Microcomposer 1984 Roland TB303 Bassline 19821984 I Band in a box Ad I Tone controls where you can make it sound like an electric bass I Tuning Cutoff resonance envelope decay accent I 1 oscillator no patch chords Roland family complete failure in 1987 I The 808 went from 800 to 100 I The 303 went from 400 to 30 Rhythim is Rhythim Derrick May Strings of Life 1987


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