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Homework Notes

by: Robert Davydov

Homework Notes Music History 8

Robert Davydov
History of Electronic Dance Music
Fink, R.W.

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History of Electronic Dance Music
Fink, R.W.
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This 17 page Bundle was uploaded by Robert Davydov on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Music History 8 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Fink, R.W. in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see History of Electronic Dance Music in Music at University of California - Los Angeles.

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Date Created: 10/27/15
Moral Panics Kenneth Thompson 0 000000 British sociologist Jock Young was the rst published reference to a moral panic in 1971 Public concern in alarming increase in drug abuse Moral panic over drugtaking results in the setting up of drug squads by police departments which produces an increase in drugrelated arrests Stanley Cohen Young s colleague characterized the reactions of the media the public and agents of social control to the youth disturbances Moral panic a condition episode person or group of persons who emerge to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests The key elements or stages in a moral panic according to this definition are I Something or someone is defined as a threat to values or interests I This threat is depicted in an easily recognizable form by the media I There is a rapid buildup of public concern I There is a response from authorities or opinionmakers I The panic recedes or results in social changes Different theorists may emphasize different characteristics of moral panics On the whole there is agreement about at least two of the characteristics I That there should be a high level of concern over the behavior of a certain group or category of people I That there is an increased level of hostility toward the group or category regarded as a threat However the use of the term panic means that other characteristic features may be emphasized such as volatility and disproportionality I Volatility means that moral panics are likely to appear suddenly and be shortlived they are similar to crazes scares and other such forms of collective behavior I Disproportionality refers to an implicit assumption on the part of some who use the term moral panic that the threat or danger is more substantial than is warranted by a realistic appraisal Clubbers and ravers in the late 1980s Acid House is the predecessor of Rave Ecstasy is the associated drug with raves and club culture Entertainments Increased Penalties Act 1990 Home Secretary in 1993 By 1993 illegal Raves had died out but Ravedance culture had spread and diversified into a variety of styles and venues New Moral Panic broke out after the Ecstasyrelated death of 18yearold Leah Betts in 1995 Parliament pressed for action to clamp down on night clubs and for councils to shut down clubs if there was evidence of drugdealing Brian Harvey of the pop group East 17 said in a radio interview that Ecstasy is harmless 0 There was also an account of Ecstasy as a 1 billionayear industry equal to the amount spent on tea and coffee this was followed rather bizarrely by the suggestion that if Ecstasy were legalized it could grow into a 5 billionayear business that would yield 4 billion in taxes enough to pay for 10 per cent of the NHS a quarter of the defense budget or nearly half the police force 0 The symptoms experienced by Ecstasy casualties are similar to those of heat stroke the high temperatures and vigorous dancing of Raves may interact with MDMA the basic ingredient of Ecstasy to produce physical experiences quantitatively or even qualitatively different to when taking the drug in a relaxed state In America where the drug has been available for longer than in Britain but where there is no comparable dance culture there have been only two deaths attributed to the effects of MDMA o Rave culture I Rave has been a mass cultural phenomenon among young people unlike Mod Rocker Punk Skinhead or Teddy Boy subcultures I Rave is not wholly or essentially a workingclass phenomenon Hence it is impossible to conceptualize it as a symbolic response of workingclass youth to material inequalities in the way that the CCCS subcultural studies did for previous groups I Related to the above Rave culture cannot be understood as resistance through rituals to the dominant cultural forms in society In so far as it has offered opposition it has been directed against attempts to control or outlaw Raves asserting the Right to Party Rave culture is essentially hedonistic concerned with having fun and feeling good not with changing the status quo I In contrast to the situation prevailing in the subcultures described by CCCS women are not marginal to Rave culture it is not dominated by masculine styles of behavior and it is ethnically mixed I It does not involve allconsuming and easily identified styles of dress in the way associated with Teddy Boys Mods Rockers Punks and Skinheads Rave culture is not like gang culture it is more diffuse disorganized and invisible 0 Why Do We Dance Carl Engel o By rhythm we understand a periodicity of movement noticeable to our senses as recurrence of visible events or patterns or as repetition of audible or sensible accents and beats 0 Such beats are also called quotpulsesquot a word derived from the Latin noun pulsus to which the ancient Romans attached such diverse meanings as to use it in connection with bloodcirculation and breathing o The concentration of group effort can be achieved only by sounds which succeed each other at regular intervals and emphasize a rhythm which is felt individually by each worker and is responded to simultaneously by all of them Witness the sailor39s chanties the marching songs of soldiers That rhythm should exercise this regulating power over the movements of the human body lies primarily in the fact that the rhythmic sense is innate in man and that any appeal to this sense is not only general but contagious As our emotions are directly in uencing our heartaction by quickening or accentuating our pulse so do they react upon the quickened or accentuated movements of the body It is to heightened affects then that we must trace the psychological roots of dancing Agitated movements of the body will induce a corresponding state of agitated emotion The elementary emotions such as awe fear anger joy love must be occasioned in man by his relation to a source or cause outside of himself I Man to the supernatural or God I Man to man I Man to woman Classification of dancing into three groups I Religious dancesto worship or placate a deity or to incite an ecstasy of spirit in the dancers I War dancesto intimidate an enemy or to incite a heightened aggressiveness in the dancers I Profane dancesto further the relations between the sexes or to incite a greater passion in the dancers Everywhere in the 16th and 17th centuries of South East North and West of Europe folkdances are nothing else than a form of public courting or amorous frolicking In the reign of Charles V on St John39s day quotpeople divested themselves of all their garments placed owerwreaths on their heads and holding each other by the hand they danced in long processions through the streets and churches sang and whirled around until they dropped out of breathquot These practices were stopped by act of Parliament in 1667 It was in 1581 at the palace of the Louvre in Paris that Henry 111 King of France late of Poland commanded the musicians and entertainers of his court to devise fitting festivities wherewith to celebrate the marriage of his quotfavourite minionquot Monsieur le Due de J oyeuse with Mlle de Vaudemont sister to the Queen Louise of Lorraine Of the 17 performances that took part that night the ballet arranged by Baltzarini was the best Baltazarini says that he had quotblended together Poetry Music and Dancing in a manner which if ever done before must have been in such remote antiquity that no trace of it remainsquot And the author emphasizes the novelty of his invention by saying quotI have given the first place to Dancing quot and he might have added 0000 to the rhythmic evolutions of the human body clad in a profusion of brocades or simply adorned with Nature39s charms For while some of the costumes cost as much as eighty thousand francs a piece those participants whose roles provided a justification shone by the mere exquisite whiteness of their skin And thus was born the ballet Opera originated in Florence about 19 years later Opera was a privileged entertainment for the noble and rich Louis XIV danced in 27 ballets These conditions remained the same until the outbreak of the French Revolution with the Courante making room for the Minuet under Louis XV and the Gavot becoming the quotfashionablequot dance under Louis XVI Note that every one of these figuredances though capable of all the graces and gallantry imaginable qualities of the 18th century never excelled remained nevertheless a rather stiff and dignified affair in which a certain quotdistancequot was always kept between the partners a distance that a smile and a look might easily cross but that was never abandoned for the sake of closer propinquity In Vienna the capital of the Roman Emperor of Teuton nationality the change was more gradual Not that his throne was threatened as that of his brotherinlaw and his sister But the wars in which Austria had been entangled especially under Maria Theresa wars with Russia and Turkey wars with Bavaria with France and England and especially the long and obstinate struggle with Frederick the Great of Prussia had severely taxed the forces of the Empire and drained its sap It was in Austria and more particularly in Vienna that at this point the waltz made its victorious entry into the world London banker and litterateur Sir John Dean Paul who with his wife and three friends spent two weeks in the French capital during the month of August 1809 and the sights that attracted our travelers most to judge by Sir John39s diary were those to be seen at the various dancing places such as Tivoli Frascati and the Pavilion d39Hannovre Storming of the Bastille in France on July 14th 1789 The murder of Louis XVI in 1793 and the subsequent reign of Terror 1993 1994 With Robespierre and his accomplices wielding absolute power the knife of the guillotine had barely a chance to cool off from the blood of the numberless victims that the blind fury of the populace demanded The dance went on throughout the massacres The waltz once known in France as quotla voltequot an inoffensive pastime of peasants then forgotten and reimported from Vienna was finally legitimatized by its introduction on the stage of the Opera in 1800 in a ballet by Gardel famous choreographer in his day with music by Mehul The church sent out missions to preach against these abuses Thirty missionaries who visited the province of Bourgogne during the carnival of 1819 having forbidden all dances and profane entertainments 0 Dancing craze of 1819 and that of 1919 The capitals of Europe the whole of the United States after having endured the greatest hardships and anxieties within the memory of man are dancing are furiously and indecently dancing The middle of the 19th century enjoyed innocuous lancers quadrilles polkas and expurgated waltzes In France where the birth rate was beginning to decline we meet in 1869 one year before the outbreak of the FrancoPrussian war with the quotCancanquot the only dance of the period that was pointedly obscene o The Dance of Modern Society William Cleaver Wilkinson 0 Author making fun of the idea that modern dance people wear such tight and revealing clothing and dance late at night Arguing that young men and women should be studying and reading involving themselves in art or readingclubs in order to acquire resources of mind rather than dancing Arguing that people do not dance because they are physically tired or need to rest but instead to seek pleasure If it is immoral for men and women to dance then how is it not immoral for them to talk with each other Passion is the true basis of the popularity of the dance 0 Unspeakable Jazz Must Go John R McMahon in Ladies Home Journal 0 0 Jazz dancing is a worse evil than the saloon Fenton T Bott I Lives in Dayton Ohio I Director of dance reform in the American National Association Masters of Dancing I Bott says that jazz is degrading and lowers moral standards I Jazz music calls out to the low and rowdy instinct 10 percent of the entire population or 10 million people become dancers Evangelical churches ban all dancing People tried to patrol the dance oor separating men and women sending them home etc Youngsters under 18 are not to be admitted at grownup functions Animal names for dances are disapproved as of degrading tendency Rapid and jerky music is condemned while a medium dance tempo is recommended 10 Don ts I Don t permit vulgar jazz music I Don t let young men hold their partners tightly I No touching of cheeks which is public love making I No neck holds no shimmy or toddle O O I No steps very long or very short I No dancing from the waist up but rather from the waist down I Suggestive movements barred I Don t copy stage stuff I Don t hesitate to ask offenders to leave the room I Don t be afraid to lose patronage Miss Marguerite Walz I Professional teaching of dancing I Premiere policewoman in Philadelphia duty of supervising public dancing in that city I Went to the mayor in spring of 1921 suggesting that authorities should supervise public dancing J Louis Guyon I Wants to abolish jazz music I Says that dancing has become a greater menace than liquor segregated vice or the brothels from which much of it sprang I Argues that people should have a marriage license before stepping onto the dance oor 0 YehHehHehHes Baby Time 0 O In Boston Roman Catholic leaders urged that the offensive music be boycotted Many of these shows and concerts were too rowdy and physical since there were brawls and people were throwing fists and beer bottles The object of all this attention is a musical style known as Rock n Roll Rock n Roll based on Negro blues Characteristics an unrelenting socking syncopation that sounds like a bull whip a choleric saxophone honking matingcall sounds an electric guitar turned up so loud that its sound shatters and splits a vocal group that shudders and exercises violently to the beat while roughly chanting either a nearnonsense phrase or a moronic lyric in hillbilly idiom On the other hand the fans39 dances are far from intimate the wiggling 12and 13yearolds and up barely touch hands and appear oblivious of one another Psychologists feel that rock 39n39 roll39s deepest appeal is to the teeners39 need to belong the results bear passing resemblance to Hitler mass meetings 0 Tribal Rites of the New Saturday Night New York Magazine 0 O O 0 Vincent was the best dancer in Bay Ridge Vincent sold paint in a houseware store Kissed a girl named Petulia She called him Al Pacino 0 Since then whenever he gazed into the mirror it was always Pacino who gazed back A killer and a star Heroic in re ection Then Vincent would take another breath the deepest he could manage would make his face his whole body go still would blink three times to free his imagination and he would start to count Silently as slowly as possible he would go from one to a hundred At one hundred he let out his breath in a rush The strain of holding back had turned him purple and veins were popping all over his neck and arms For some moments all he could do was gasp But even as he suffered his body felt weightless free almost as if he were oating And when he got his breath back and the roaring in his temples went away it was true that he felt content He was released Saturday night had begun Donna was in love with Vincent but Vincent loved only his mother and the way it felt to dance His father a thief was in jail and his oldest brother had been killed in Vietnam His second brother was in the hospital had been there almost a year recovering from a car crash that had crushed his legs His third brother had moved away to Manhattan into the Village because he said he needed to be free and find himself So that left only Vincent his mother and his two younger sisters Maria and Bea who were still in school Name of disco was Odyssey Refers to women as objects His father broke his arm when he was five twisted it until it snapped o The Heterogeneous Sound Ideal in AfricanAmerican Music Olly Wilson 0 African sound ideal as a mosaic in which separate elements combine to form a whole but the whole is not a unified blend of sound In 1932 Duke Ellington enriched the repertory of jazz and enlivened popular parlance by creating a new piece of music that contained the following classic line It don t mean a thing if it ain t got that swing Conceiving music I The tendency to approach the organization of rhythm based on the principle of rhythmic and implied contrast a tendency to create musical events in which rhythmic clash or disagreement of accents is ideal and crossrhythm and metrical ambiguity are the accepted expected norm I The tendency to approach singing or the playing of any instrument in a percussive manner a manner in which qualitative stress accents are frequently used I The tendency to create musical forms in which antiphonal responsorial or callandresponse musical structures abound These responsorial structures frequently exist simultaneously on a number of different architectonic levels I The tendency to create a high density of musical events within a relatively short musical time frame a tendency to fill up all the musical space I The tendency to incorporate physical body motion as an integral part of the music making process 0 Heterogeneous sound ideal there exists a common approach to music making in which a kaleidoscopic range of dramatically contrasting qualities of sound timbre is sought after in both vocal and instrumental music 0 This fundamental bias for heterogeneity of sound rather than homogeneity of sound is re ected in musical practice in at least two ways I First it is re ected in the nature of the sound texture of musical ensembles Sound texture the relationship of the resultant qualities of sound produced when several instruments perform simultaneously I Secondly the heterogeneous sound ideal is re ected in the common usage of a wide range of timbres within a single line 0 Musical ensembles I Fixed rhythmic group 0 Its instruments maintain a fixed rhythmic pulsation throughout the duration of the composition with little variation I Variable rhythmic group 0 Rhythms performed by these instruments change 0 Hindewhu a whistlelike instrument of Central Africa 0 Watts hymn also referred to as the longmeter hymn or lined out psalm which is an unaccompanied responsorial style of choral singing generally associated today with prayer meetings in traditional AfricanAmerican churches o The basic New Orleans jazz band clearly was organized into two groups I The fixed variable group 0 Consisting of piano banjo bass or tuba and drums I The variable rhythmic group 0 Frontline instruments most commonly composed of cornet clarinet and trombone o The means by which contemporary twentiethcentury black singers achieve the goal of the heterogeneous sound ideal is primarily through their judicious use of timbral and rhythmic nuances o The Myth of CrossRhythm CK Ladzepko o In AnloEwe cultural understanding the technique of cross rhythm is a highly developed systematic interplay of varying rhythmic motions simulating the dynamics of contrasting moments or emotional stress phenomena likely to occur in actual human existence 0 As a preventive prescription for extreme uneasiness of mind or selfdoubt about one39s capacity to cope with impending or anticipated problems these simulated stress phenomena or crossrhythmic figures are embodied in the art of dance drumming as mindnurturing exercises to modify the expression of the inherent potential of the human thought in meeting the challenges of life The premise is that by rightly instituting the mind in coping with these simulated emotional stress phenomena intrepidity is achieved 0 Some key rhythmic concepts Duple grouped in twos Triple grouped in threes Beat Meter an equally spaced unit of musical time at any hierarchical level individual beats may be subdivided duple or triple or on the other hand combined together in larger groupings the regular hierarchical arrangement of beats in an abstract temporal grid vs Rhythm the actual accentuation of that grid by musical sounds Strong vs Weak beats In Western musical practice the first beat of any duple or triple grouping at any level is conceptually strong the rest are weaker with the weakest being the subdivision closest to the next strong beat These alternations of strong and weak form a nested hierarchy with dupleness or tripleness at every level In African practice the subdivisions of the basic beat are weaker than it is but the beats themselves are conceptually equal Thus in the examples below a Western musician would conceive of one and three as stronger than two and four with one stronger than three and four the weakest of all An African would not make this rigid set of distinctions even though the first beat is heard as the beginning of the cycle of beats Cross Rhythm two simultaneous rhythmic patterns that emphasize different groupings of beats most common crossrhythms are 2 vs 3 and 3 vs 4 also known as polyrhythm Syncopation displacement of a rhythmic pattern from a position which emphasizes strong beats at any level to one that emphasizes weaker beats Hemiola For our purposes crossrhythm in a single part ie a rhythmic pattern that emphasizes both duple and triple groupings of beats Hemiolas often arise when crossrhythmic patterns are jammed into a metric hierarchy where they don t fit In the following example a triple grouping gives way to a duple 4 x 3 2 x 2 0 Funk 0 O I The technique of cross rhythm is a simultaneous use of contrasting rhythmic patterns within the same scheme of accents or meter I Dominant beat scheme is considered the main beat I The technique of main beat is an artistic animation of a strong purpose or goal in life I This attitude of considering the beginning of a measure to be also the end embodies the sub Saharan cosmological concept similar to reincarnation This is the belief that every new born child is a partial rebirth of an old ancestral soul in a new body Thus all human life is cyclical every ending is a new beginning I A cross rhythm consists of a main beat scheme a purpose in life and a secondary beat scheme a perceived obstacle Each beat scheme has a significance and function in making up the distinct cross rhythmic texture I The technique ofpolyrhythm simply implies that the secondary beat scheme of a cross rhythm can be shifted to produce variant textures Ricky Vincent Funk is a musical mixture Most popular form is a dancetempo rhythm and bluesstyle music with the rhythmic interplay of instruments stretched to a dramatic level of complexity Trombonist Fred Wesley says that if you have a syncopated bass line a strong heavy back beat from the drummer a counterline from the guitar or the keyboard and someone soulsinging on top of that in a gospel style then you have funk Soul and RampB grooves are generally composed of one primary melody not countered as in funk Funk is a style of music in which elements of jazz pop rock gospel and the Blues are fused to create rhythmic soulful sound Funk thrives on rhythm and the art of it depends on the level of togetherness between the performers It is in essence togetherness in motion The prevailing ethos of liberation which pervaded American society in the 1960s and 1970s particularly in black America and particularly among the artists A synthesis of the entire black tradition sacred and secular peaceful and confrontational was the framework of black art concurrent with Black Revolution of the same period A new threshold of access acceptance urgency and involvement drew black musicians together and they created with others a new sound of unity In the mid1970s teenagers who listened for the funky dance singles referred to these groups as funk bands With the rise of PFunk the cosmic scope of funk as a model that embodied a philosophy began to take shape 0000 O The funk beat gradually took over the black music sound as 1980s RampB fell into the funk pocket and never left and club freaks and Hip Hoppers made their obsession with the funky beat into a counterculture all its own Equality was the basis of the funk band no sole horn player lead guitarist or lead singer The leader guitar became centralized in seventies black music as a result of J imi Hendrix In the studio everyone just felt each other out in the rhythms Even Dr Dre whose famous funky Hip Hop beats have that oldschool lively funk feel The blues rhythm and blues soul music progressive jazz African percussion psychedelics and synthesizers all find a place in the rich structure of The Funk Funk music is a direct offspring of the blues in terms of intimacy intensity and meaning for common black folks in the decade of integration Funk music is also the successor to the soul music of the 1960s in terms of its representations of popular black values particularly those ideals of social spiritual and political redemption Funk was very large in the 1970s Soul music is often regarded as a blend of rhythm and blues and gospel music Birth of soul music in the 1960s Black rock exists as a hybrid genre consisting of black artists reinterpreting the psychedelic scene of the 1960s The jazz fusion category is often described as a fusion of jazz and rock Godfather of Soul James Brown Disco music spread in 1975 it came from black dance music of the 1970s The Funk James Brown 1960s FunkJazz in the 1950s Funk is a term of uncertain origin indicating a style of AfricanAmerican popular music Funk derives from an Old English word and French word meaning a funky bad smell Jazz is a Creolized term for sex that was applied to the Congo dances of New Orleans James Brown s Papa s Got A Brand New Bag of 1965 was a breakthrough song because he went on one and three as opposed to the music count being written on two and four Jerky guitar absurdly offbeat bass line and sharp burst of brass and guitars had a percussive feel that was never heard before Shuf e a skipping kind of rhythm in which drummers doubletimed their counts which came from the swing rhythm in jazz The symbolism of the shuf e was one of the many negatives of Negroness that were being done away in the 1960s o In Defense of Disco Richard Dyer o Disco is not just music it is a dance club fashion film etc o Disco is believed to be capitalistic 0 Since capitalism is an irrational and inhuman mode of production the disco industry is as bad as all the rest 0 Disco is produced by capitalism but that does not mean that it is supportive of capitalism Disco is erotic Disco is tied with gay culture Black music was always seen as sexual and physical Disco has a sense of community thus the gay community can achieve this in smaller clubs 0000 0 Audio Culture 0 Futurist Manifesto Luigi Russolo I There are so many various noises whistling of the wind roaring of a waterfall rustling of leaves trotting of a horse I 6 families of noises of the futurist orchestra o Roars Thunderings Explosions Hissing roars Bangs Booms 0 Whistling Hissing Puffing 0 Whispers Murmurs Mumbling Muttering Gurgling 0 Screeching Creaking Rustling Humming Crackling Rubbing 0 Noises obtained by beating on metals woods skins stones pottery etc 0 Voices of animals and people Shouts Screams Shrieks Wails Hoots Howls Death rattles Sobs I Musicians must find in noise the means of expanding and renewing itself given that every noise offers a union of the most diverse rhythms I Pitch of a noise can be changed through the application of the same general laws of acoustics It can be achieved through the decreasing or increasing of speed if the instrument has a rotary motion If not it can be achieved through differences of size or tension in the sounding parts 0 Sound Noise Varese Boulez Morton Feldman I Feldman s mentor was John Cage o The Liberation of Sound Edgard Varese I Musical vision was sparked by metaphors drawn from chemistry astronomy cartography and geology I Redefined music as organized sound I Three dimensions in music 0 Horizontal 0 Vertical 0 Dynamic swelling or decreasing I Fourth Sound projection I Use of sirens in his works 0 The Future of Music Credo John Cage I Included tin cans and other found objects alongside standard orchestral instruments I Imaginary Landscape N0 1 was among the very first composition to employ turntables I Composed pieces for radios phonograph cartridges computers and other electronic devices I Most famous piece called 4 33 I With a film phonograph it is now possible to control the amplitude and frequency of any of these sounds and to give to it rhythms within or beyond the reach of imagination o The Music of the Environment R Murray Schafer I The cosmos itself is a musical composition I Acoustic ecology o Acousmatics Pierre Schaeffer I Founder of musique concrete I Accousmatic listening I Sonorous object I An important aspect of the recognition of sounds is the identification of the sonorous sources 0 Ambient Music Brian Eno I In 1978 released the first record which described itself as Ambient Music a name Eno invented to describe an emerging musical style I Muzak the concept of music designed specifically as a background feature in the environment I Ambience an atmosphere or a surrounding in uence a tint 0 Music as a Gradual Process Steve Reich I Musical processes 0 Basic Concepts of Minimal Music Wim Mertens I Techniques of repetition and minimalism I Music developed in the 1960s in America I During the 70s became very successful in Europe as well 0 Electronic Music Schwarz o 1906 Lee De Forest invented the vacuum tube 0 1906 Thaddeus Cahill demonstrated his new electric keyboard instrument O 0000 O I Weighed 200 tons I Transmitted its music over telephone wires The Theremin introduced in the early 1920s I Performed by waving one s hands over a small box and along its attached antenna one hand controlling pitch and the other regulating volume A keyboard instrument known as Ondes Martenot invented during the 1920s In the 1930s John Cage began to produce his first works for ensembles of radios and phonographs Futurists used radical percussion such as sirens and airplane propellers Schaeffer presented a Concert of Noises over the French radio in 1948 Activity was named musique concrete Sound sources natural environment sounds and the unique compositional process of working concretely with sonic material rather than abstractly via written symbols and interpretive performance The commercial availability of magnetic taperecording equipment shortly after 1950 offering the infinitely greater exibility of that medium as opposed to phonographic disc was the movement s real catalyst Ostinato repeating patterns can be created by scratching into the grooves of the disc Melodic lines are made by splicing tape fragments each containing a sound or sounds to each other The modern era of electronic music began in the 1960s Development of the modular voltagecontrolled synthesizer The modular synthesizer enables a composer to alter pitch timbre duration and other factors not by fussing with knobs or splice tape but by applying control voltages to various electrical signals The names Moog and Buchla dominated the music scene throughout the 1960s Four general classifications of modules I Sound generators 0 Produce an electrical signal that when converted to physical vibration by amplifiers and loudspeakers will result in a sound The most important of these sound generators are called oscillators I Sound modifiers I Control voltage generators I Control voltage processors A synthesizer may also contain a white noise generator which produces a random uctuation of voltage resulting in a hissing sound The oscillator and white noise generator are the only sources of sound A reverberator by producing a number of very short delays in a signal can convert a single sound into echoes of varying degrees often making sounds appear to emanate from within a large room or cave Sonic materials Timbre the waveform of an oscillator perhaps more than one oscillator possibly one oscillator modified by the control of another or by a noise generator Envelope or articulation the envelope generator being used to control the amplifier The degree of pitch stability as opposed to vibrato glissando or noise sonority all of the latter made possible through oscillator control the degree of noise content the envelope generator applied to oscillator or filter and so on Intonation setting the increment of voltage control via either keyboard or touchboard for microtonal divisions of the octave if desired Reverberation or perhaps other special qualities caused by the use of filters ring modulator and the like if the composer desires these The degree of automation or control of different levels of any of these factors using the keyboard or touchboard sequencer 0 Yes Yes Yall The Oral History of HipHop s First Decade Fricke amp Aherne o Kool DJ Herc Came to the US from Jamaica in 1967 Graffiti vandalism Hosted parties Where he DJ d on turntables Gangs respected him Real name Clive Campbell During the time of disco but Kool Herc played soul Started playing at a club called Hevalo Break dancing 0 Afrika Bambaataa Southeast Bronx Gang scene started to fade out Started a group called the Zulu Nation Started music called hiphop Started DJ ing in 1970 Kept the funk alive With the breakbeat sound Used songs from commercials Went to record store and bought anything that sounded funky Safe environment nobody came to Bambaataa s parties and started trouble Played in the Bronx River Park 0 Grandmaster Flash Grew up in South Bronx Family from the Barbados East Indian I His father beat him for touching his records I Went to technical school I Was very intrigued on the internal workings of these electronic items I Wanted to extend the 5 second break into 5 minutes I He cut the break made a duplicate copy and cut the break and so on I Theodore would pick up the needle and drop it at the right spot I Theodore came up with a style of adding rhythm to the rub which is known as scratching Black to the Future Mark Dery O AfricanAmericans are in a very real sense the descendants of alien abductees They inhabit a scifi nightmare in which unseen but no less impassable force fields of intolerance frustrate their movements official histories undo what has been done to them and technology is too often brought to bear on black bodies AfricanAmerican signification that appropriates images of technology and a prosthetically enhanced future might for want of a better term be called Afrofuturism Mastery over technology engenders a degree of awe particularly in black folks whose access to technology is limited Use of music technology to re ect people as labor for capitalism Cyborg is to men as esh and skin is to women because they are seen as being weak Ideas of feminism and women as childbearers Paradise Garage Sound System 0 O O 0 Paradise Garage in New York City 20000 square feet of space 4 Waldorf bass speakers The Levan Horn a special subbass horn I Consisted of 2 parts The main cabinet which is a large quotWquot type hyperbolic folded horn using two 500 watt custom built 18quot drivers and an extension which bolts on to the mouth of the quotWquot horn The mouth of the extension is a full 8 feet wide and 3 12 ft high or 28 square feet The horn is capable of awesome reproduction at very high sound pressure levels down to 30hz One of these speakers was found to overwhelm four of the scaledup klipsch horns all playing together Prior to moving into the large room the speakers location was designed as follows Each corner of the room would contain 1 Levan subbass horn and one complete triamplified Ultima and the larger sides of the room would have at their corner point 2 Waldorfs and 2 smaller subbass woofers Six tweeter arrays would be hung over the dance oor in appropriate positions The double amp rack to power all of the speakers was installed in the balcony area DJ Booth which overlooked the entire dance oor 0 Since the DJ is responsible for creating an exciting sound we try to make sure he has enough tools at his disposal Such special effects devices are Our special electronic crossover The DBX boom box which provides a blend of 25 50 Hz bass synthesized from 50 100 Hz information present on the recording Dynamic Range Expanders used to undo compression found in most recordings The Deltalab Acousticomputer and similar devices used to alter or add to the sound of the recording The Audionics Space amp Image Composer a 4 channel synthesizer ew devices currently under development such as the Acoustilog Image enhancer which expands the stereo effect All of these devices except the last two are currently installed at the Garage


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Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.