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Chapters 1 & 2

by: Emily Packer

Chapters 1 & 2 Chemistry 210

Emily Packer
General Chemistry 210
Dr. Hosmane

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Chapter 1 and 2 of Dr. Hosmane's General Chemistry class. These notes are extremely similar to the notes he presents in class on the Powerpoint, but they also include information that he wrote out ...
General Chemistry 210
Dr. Hosmane
Chemistry 210
75 ?




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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Emily Packer on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Chemistry 210 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Hosmane in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 210 in Chemistry at Northern Illinois University.


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Date Created: 10/27/15
Chapter 2 Dalton s Atomic Theory of Matter Origins of the Universe Atoms 0 People 0 Democritus first proposed that elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles 0 Robert Boyle studied behavior of gases he was credited with having the first clear evidence for atomic makeup of matter 0 At smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still exhibit properties of the element Law of Conservation of Mass 0 People 0 Priestly prepared and isolated 02 gas by heating mercuric oxide 0 Lavoisier showed that oxygen is a key substance involved in combustion 0 States that mass cannot be created nor destroyed Dalton s Atomic Theory 0 John Dalton proposed new theory of matter 0 Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms 0 Each element is characterized by the mass of its atoms I Atoms of the same element have the same mass but atoms of different elements have different masses 0 Chemical combinations of elements make different substances when atoms join together in whole number ratios 0 Chemical reactions only rearrange the way atoms are combined the atoms themselves are not changed Law of Multiple Proportion 0 Elements can combine in different ways to form different substances whose mass ratios are small whole number ratios of each other 0 This is implied by Dalton s atomic theory 0 Suggests that it may be possible for same elements to combine in different ratios to give different substances I Eg CO vs C02 NO vs N02 Charge and Mass of Electron 0 People 0 Thomson s Experiment I De ection of electron beam must depend on 0 Strength of de ecting magnet 0 Size of negative charge on particle 0 Mass of electron O Charge to mass ratio em 1758820 108 Cg O RA Millikan I Oil drop experiments 0 Oil drops of a known mass were given a negative charge by irradiation and suspended between charged plates 0 e 1602 103919 C m 9109 103928 g Structure of Atoms Protons and Neutrons 0 People 0 Rutherford I Experimented with alpha particles emitted from radioactive elements 0 Mass of alpha particle 7000X the mass of e39 0 Charge of alpha particle positive 2X larger than chage of e39 0 Directed beam of alpha particles onto gold foil 0 Almost passed straight through the foil small percentage l20000 was de ected at an angle I Conclusions 0 Atom must be almost entirely empty space 0 Mass of atom is concentrated in tiny core called the nucleus 0 Nucleus contains two types of particles protons p and neutrons n 0 Nucleus contains atom s mass and positive charge electrons move in space relatively large distance away from the nucleus 0 The presence of negative particles in atoms e39 requires there to also be positive particles 0 Modern measurements 0 Mass of a proton 1670622 103924 g 0 Mass of a neutron 1674927 103924 g Atomic Number 0 Elements differ from one another according to the number of protons in their atoms called atomic number Z 0 All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons in the nucleus 0 The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is called the mass number A Atoms vs Isotopes 0 All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons O For neutral atoms the number of protons and electrons are equal 0 NOT all atoms of a given element have the same mass number 0 Isotopes atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers 0 This means they have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons I Hydrogen 1p O n Mass numberl I Tritium 1p 2n Mass number 3 0 Representation of isotopes O Elemental Symbol 0 Mass Number A left handed superscript 0 Atomic Number Z left handed subscript I Eg 11H 21H 31H I 126C carbon 12 6 protons 6 neutrons I 136C carbon 13 6 protons 7 neutrons 0 The chemical properties of an element depend on the number of electrons and protons in the atom NOT the number of neutrons o AZX I X is the Atomic symbol of the element I A mass number I A ZN I N number of neutrons Atomic Mass 0 Mass of an atom 103924 g 0 Atomic mass unit amu mass of 12C atom 12 1660539 103924g 0 Mass of an atom in amu is called the Isotopic Mass and is numerically close to the atom s mass number mass of e39 are negligible compared to protons and neutrons 0 Elements atomic mass is a weighted average of the isotopic masses of the element s naturally occurring isotopes O C fraction 12Cmass 12Cfraction 13Cmass 13C O O988912 amu 00111130034 amu 12011 amu Compounds and Mixtures 0 Most matter does not occur as a pure element but as a combination of elements 0 Compounds pure substance formed when atoms of two or more different elements combine e g H20 I Chemical reactions process by which elements or compounds are transformed to new substances I Chemical formula notation which lists symbols for the elements in a compound and indicates the number of atoms of each element eg H20 NaCL CH3COOH O Mixtures blends of two or more substances I Heterogeneous non uniform vs Homogeneous uniform Matter I Pure M39Xtures I I Substances Heterogeneo Homogeneo Chemical us us Elements Compounds Molecules Ions and Chemical Bonds 0 Chemical Bonds 0 Connections formed between atoms using electrons I Atoms combine together to form compounds 0 Covalent bonds sharing of electrons between two nonmetal atoms 0 Ionic bonds transfer of electron from metal atom to non metal atom to form ions 0 Metallic bonds loose sea of electrons around lattice of metal ions Covalent Bonds 0 Sharing of two electrons between two nonmetal atoms 0 Can be the same element E g N2 H2 02 0 Covalent bonding between atoms forms molecules or molecular compounds represented by different models O Ball and Stick shows bonds between atoms 0 Space filling portray overall molecular shape 0 Chemical and structural formulas show of atoms of each element and connections between atoms in a compound respectively Ionic Bonds 0 Formed by transfer of electrons from metal atom to non metal atom to form ions charged particles 0 Cations positively charged particles formed by loss of electrons I cat ions thing paw sitive O Anions negatively charged particles formed by gaining electrons I Oppositely charged particles are held together by electrostatic attractions ionic solids 0 Mg C12 Mg2 2Cl39 MgClz ionic compound 0 Polyatomic ions NH4 OH N05 804239 Acids and Bases I Fundamental concepts to classify chemical behavior of many substances 0 Acid a substance that provides H ions protons when dissolved in water I E g HCL HNO3 H2804 H3PO4 HCl 8 D H 6161 C139 6161 0 Base a substance that provides OH39 ions in water I Eg NaOH KOH BaOH2 I BaOH2 s I Ba2 aq 2 OH39 aq Naming Chemical Compounds 0 Each compound should have a unique name that allows chemists to understand the chemical structure 0 Binary Ionic Compounds 0 Identify Cation first given as the name of the element I For metals With more than one charge use Roman numerals to indicate charge 0 Fe2 iron 11 or ferrous ion Fe3 iron III or ferric ion 0 Identify anion add ide suffix to name of the element 0 Binary Molecular Compounds Covalent 0 Atom further to the left in periodic table is more cation like name this first as the name of the element 0 More anion like element is named last Add ide 0 Add numerical prefixes to specify of each kind of atom I HF hydrogen uoride C02 carbon dioxide I N203 dinitrogen trioxide I P406 tetraphosphorus hexoxide 0 Compounds with Polyatomic Ions 0 Follow rules for the binary ionic compounds cation anion 0 NamesSuffixes for polyatomic ions I ide for simple diatomic anions CH CN 02239 I Oxoanions atom of a given element combined With varying numbers of oxygen atoms ite vs ate 0 803239 sulfite vs 804239 sulfaj 0 NO nitrite vs NO339 nitr 0 C10 hymchlorite vs C101 chlorite vs C105 chlor vs C10439 chlor Naming Acids 0 Binary Acids H X 0 Usually formed from binary molecular compounds I E g HCL hydrogen chloride I Hydrogen hydro Chloride I chloric 0 Hydrochloric Acid 0 Oxoacids names related to corresponding oxoanions 0 If anion ite acid ous if anion ate acid ic I HN02 nitrous acid HNO3 nitric acid


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