Anthropology Exam 1
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Date Created: 01/19/15
Anthropology Exam 1 0 origins of anthropology study of human kind everywhere and throughout time 4 elds of Anthropology l cultural 2 biologicalphysical 3 linguistic 4 archaeological study of human activity in the past Holistic Natural science social science humanity anthro vs other social sciences only discipline that cover natural science social science and humanity culture is 1 patterns of understanding routines materiality and dispositions learned in a society via symbolic communication 2 culture includes 6 things 1 social 2 mental 3 behavioral actionsorganizational 4 material space tools resources 5 emotional dispositions ethos 6 symbolic arbitrary signs Culture is NOT 1 quotcivilizationquot elitism 2 mass consumerism quot culture industriesquot or quotwarsquot 3 quotpeoplesquot or quotracesquot or quotethnic groupsquot 4 singular coherent functioning quotsystemquot because people practice contradictory culture 5 a quotprogram or force making people do thingsquot Humans born helpless animals without culture 1 many animals develop culture via symbolic communication but humans unique for quality due to more complex languages and symbols hegemony leadership one over another ethnocentric fallacy l the idea that our beliefs and behaviors are right and true where as those of other peoples are wrongmis guided relativistic fallacy 1 no behaviorbelief can be judges to be odd or wrong because its different from our own ethnographic method participant observation 1 living with subject population 2 detective 3 mariginality 4 true friendship or exploitation quotfor sciencequot ethnographic and ethics true friend relationship this is a problem you need quottrustquot participant live eat joke with outsider they want to learn they are not respected because normally wont be there long and others see judgment methodstechniques gov documents questionnaires weak may not say truth in depth interviews may not be able to read or write tragedies may occur do they stay or leave marginality not normal you are not them Aztecs history God39s 39chosen people39 ZOOyear pilgrimage from Aztlan to find promised land subjugate themselves to Tepanac elite intermarriage then overthrow triple alliance and extend power throughout Mesoamerica eventually took over alliance had to learn agriculture aztec39s human sacrifice cannibalism god39s need human blood go out in warfare to get human sacrifices priests also give own blood cannibalism spiritual reason recycle ones energy Aztecs kinship and marriage patterns endogamous people feel they must marry within a group many wanted to marry in other groups bilateral marriage both mother and fathers side are equally important Aztecs Nuclear or joint 01116 gI39OllpS were 1 11101621139 some groups were joint nuclear families mother father and children in one house jointhouseholds multiple families in a household roles of Aztec warfare and militarism everything was militarily significant builds character plus sacrificial homework was warfare for women men are born into military sacrificial victims keep sun and moon Aztecs Huitzilopotchli is the sun of god most important involved nobility the only way to keep the sun god alive was through blood of sacrifice the victims were normally through military capture worldview of insecurity deities gods divided into three categories 1 creation 2 elements 3 war deities Huitzilopochtili Aztec capulli 1 a territorial unit based on kinship Aztecs deities gods Aztecs creation 1 always destroyed by the gods 2 if humans behave gods will reward Aztecs elements 1 gods of wind rain fire sickness animals Aztecs war Deities 1 involved nobility 2 Huitzilopotchli is the god of sunds AztecsTenochtitlan Founded in 1325 it became the seat of the growing Aztec empire in the 15th century until it was captured by Spain in 1521 It subsequently became Mexico City Aztec Chinamapas 1 is a method of ancient Meso american agriculture which used small rectangleshaped areas offertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico changed land plant with rich soils Aztecs Education Music Mythohistory calendric dreams occupations military Aztecs Educationwriting writing Mnemonic Device picographic pictures to learn ideographic one picture to represent something else Metonymic allophic eX luck cant have a picture so have a thing for duck and would know oh it sounds like quotduckquot Aztecs Markets mass consumer items empires trade long distance trade Aztecs tribute tribute provided revenue in exchange for the promise of protection bird feathers they had to convince everyone they were close to the gods Aztecs Forced labor l slaves could own slaves 2 children were born into freedom if one offended you they could work for you Aztecs calenders ritual 1 260 days 2 come from fate Aztecs calender agricultural l 365 days 2 52 year cycle 3 always uncertain god will give them more time 4 which leads to prisoners opening chest and causing fire 5 only light you would see was Aztec empire on fire if one could be lite they knew they had another 52 years to live Aztecs Fatenagual 1 all depends on datetime one was born 2 Devinor they knew people didn39t know 3 lead to people asking should i marry what meds should i take what animal spirit am i 4 specialist help read you to understand life 5 know hate has everything to do with actions people did Aztecs priesthood l revolved around deities 2 expected to offer up own blood smear on temple to show dedication 3 interpretation sacred texts and educating boys of nobility Aztecs professions l nobility Tlatoani 2 chief generals 3 priests 4 merchants 5 crafts people Balinese Cockfight metaphor for life a choice to not be Violent Robbins believes the cock to represent status usually men with some sort of reputation in the community rarely is a cockfight without social significance and rarely do cocks owned by members of the same family or Villiage fight each other the wins and losses of the cockfights and of life are not permanent football is similar to cockfight in that there is always a winner and looser Crosscousin marriage A way of building stable lasting marriage alliances a way of structuring society Rules specify that a man must or should marry either 0 his mother39s brother39s daughter matrilateral cross cousin marriage 0 His father39s sister39s daughter patrilateral cross cousin marriage Selective perseption I seeing only what you want to ignoring bigger picture Kwakwaka39 wakw l the universe is a place in which some beings are eaten by other being and some beings must die so other beings may eat them and live 2 eating provides nutrients but also frees souls 3 souls leave and enter body of salmon once salmon is eaten enters new born child 4 souls cant leave till physical body is destroyed 5 act of eating becomes metaphor Metaphors l templateslensesfilters we use to help understand one domain of experience in terms of another 2 embedded in mythhistory everyday eXpierences key metaphors 1 give to each cultures a style or cast that makes the culture distinctive 2 domains form which certain societies borrow metaphors more frequently Cannibal Dance of Kwakwaka39wakw The cannibal dance is a four day spectacle that serves as the highlight of the kwakwakwkw winter ceremonial a period of celebration and ritual obvservance in which all worldy activites cease It is a time set aside for the spirtual world of the kwwkwkwk filled with monstrous and powerful beings and animal spirits to intersect the real world The dance is focused on a youths initiation into the cannibal society a group responsible for performing certain rituals key scenarios 1 oftenrepeated stories reinforcing important societal values 2 star wars wizard of oz personal quest scenario I youth goes on personal quest to find themselves 3 our stories may not make sense to others 4 some kind of journey rituals 1 the social interaction might evoke emotional involvement with metaphors ANALOGY Comparison made between two things to show how they are alike How do people believe in something that aren39t necessarily scienti c facts 1 Theories of religion frames 1 metaphors through which we filter domains of experience Theories of religionbeliefs in god Tylor 1 ration but faulty theories of dreams deaths souls 2 dreaming and spirits people39s attempt to explain dreaming and death gt animism vocabulary 1 shaped by environment and experiences grammer 1 English language perceives everything as objects timefood 2 in this way we quantify everything savingwasting sapirwhorf hypothesis and what is it NOT 1 there is a link to be made between out thoughts processespsychologicalenvironmental dispositions and language 2 it is not the casual link between language and thought domain of expierence 1 one domain to another 2 such as a body part an apply it to another domain 3 EX shoulder of the road 4 this also allows meaning to be extended why do people maintain particular super natural beliefs when they cannot prove them except by faith and it is no secret that beliefs always vary 1 science disproving vs faith 2 we do not try to disprove all of our beliefs animate to make alive gravity colds afterlife Theories of religionbeliefs in god Durkheim l totems represent society itself 2 Totemism tribal monuments considered ancestral deities religion as function solitary Theories of Religion Malinowski I explain the explainable or insufferable 2 psychological functions to explain the unexplained Theories of Religion Freud l gods are projections of the family members Theories of Religion Marx 1 Tool of exploitation quotopiate of the massesquot 2 elites wanting to exploit they will give them a religion to make people passive Kwakwaka39wakw eating 1 consumingrecycling souls salmon 2 Gluttonyuncontrolled hunger savageryimmaturity 3 greed overeating and thus preventing recycling 4 Generosity encouraged to the point of competition 5 sharing food is how you gain recognition How do people manage to maintain beliefs despite evidence that they are faulty 1 selective perception 2 secondary elaboration 3 suppressing evidence interpretive drift 1 the changing of ones beliefs secondary elabortion 1 make newalternative theories 2 rationalizing process surpressing evidence 1 not allowing evidence that contradicts a cherished belief change in beliefs 1 interpretive drift practice explaining coincidences I if good luck one thinks they must be doing something right how people change beliefs brought up by Witkins crisis of beliefsgt revitalization moevments 1 ghost dance I dance harder things will change 2 shakers in industrial revolution textile mills major change in life style many of the worlds religions think it will give hope or something better Mary Douglas grid group frame work High group solidarity amp distrust Us vs Them Strong sense of unity within group Low group open to others no mutual aid everyone is them Stay to yourself don t connect with others high grid constraint low grid freedom Hermit no group grid hierarchies individualistcompetitive egalitarian equal Fatalist acceptance to all things Frames and kinds metaphors through which we filter domains of experience conservative liberal conservative frame high gridlow group liberal frame quotfamilyquot politics Low gridhigh group High group strong boundaries solidarity distrust us vs them low group weak boundaries no mutual aid everybody is for themselve high grid segregation class age racial differences born into one group low grid internal freedom equality 3 no one higher over others high grouphigh grid 1 army you cant do whatever you want low group low grid 1 status is open for competition 2 kids on playground they can develop hierarchies Aztecs polygyny among nobility Polygyny the practice of having multiple wives Ontogenyphylogeny 1 maturation evolution 2 not true Lewis Henry ontogeny to phylogeny 1 1800s 2 savagerygt barbarism gt civilazation Leslie White Ontogeny to phylogeny quotprogressquot technology energy huntinggathering foraging 1 1st longest and oldest strategy of Homo Sapiens 2 little work 3 women provide more calories menhunters womengatherers no underover nutrition rich social life don39t use all the resources mostly egalitarian equal why turn to food production population increase plus environmental changes how have Australian Aborigines been uniquely successful 50000 years without turning to farmingdestroying environment optimal health wealthy quotsharingquot equality no warfare Aborigines Dreaming numenous vs empirical animismtoteism comlpementry opposites cosmogonycosmology Mnemonic devices common symbol system naturilizes dovisl othsnivsyion neolocal new residence husband and wife have kids and make there own family seen in US ethnic group members unite in opposition to others based on common real or imagined traits races ethnic groups united by imagined biological similarities avunculocal
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