COM253 Lecture Notes and Study Guides
COM253 Lecture Notes and Study Guides COM253
Popular in Introduction to Public Relations
Popular in Communication
This 77 page Bundle was uploaded by Cecilia Daizovi on Monday January 19, 2015. The Bundle belongs to COM253 at Purdue University taught by Professor Joshua Boyd in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 198 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Relations in Communication at Purdue University.
Reviews for COM253 Lecture Notes and Study Guides
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/19/15
COM253 Introduction to Public Relations Lecture Notes for Exam 1 Listen to the song 39Public Relationsquot by Jimmy Bu ett o What are the stereotypes of Public Relations What is Public Relations 0 There is not one consensus de nition for What Public Relations is 0 Common threads in those de nitions 0 Management function Ideally it should not be about cleaning up the messes that otherpeope made it should be about deciding what should be done in the rst place University of Louisville basketball coach example 0 2way communication it s not supposed to be the PR people telling you the way you should see the world it should be a two way process listening to what your public thinks and cares abouU 0 Planned Public relations people are not super heroes you need to have some sort of plan Most of it is proactive not necessarily responding to a problem 0 Research based You can learn about your publics and environment before you even make decisions 0 Responsible You need to think about not only your employerorganization but also what the consequences might be when you promote your ideas or respond to criticism your primary responsibility is your employer 0 Relationships Your organization needs to work WITH publics Josh s De nition of Public Relations 0 Public Relations seeks to establish understanding between an organization and its publics and gain support for organizational aims o If you work in Purdue s sports department your primary goal is understanding you want people to understand who your athletes are what they ve accomplished etc o If you work in development your primary goal is support you want people to give you money Myths of Public Relations Example Dilbert comic strip 0 PR is NOT about spinning things to make people think they don t know as much Public Relations is free advertising you pay for WRONG Public Relations is all about getting your name in the paper WRONG o quotAll press is good pressquot WRONG AGAIN Public Relations is Spin Doctoring WRONG o Josh s apple tree example the apple looks perfect on one side but when you turn it around there s a slug on it not how PR works 0 quotWell dragging a 100 bill through a trailer park no idea what you ll ndquot Carvel on Clinton s alleged mistress Public Relations is only important in a crisis NOPE 0 There are only about 100 people in the US who are speci cally crisis managers Public Relations lncludes Someone calling you to ask for a donation to charity A celebrity appearing on The Late Show With David Letterman to talk about a movie A Purdue representative quoted in a news story related to Purdue The name of Lucas Oil Stadium sponsorship A notice posted on a bulletin board in the hall How well you re treated by your server at Don Pablo s Public Relations on Campus Sororityfraternity rush Dormcoop meeting announcements Callouts Recruiting 0 Card table promotions o Handbills Announcements on bulletin boards Example Minnesota State Fair quotbutter headsquot video 0 The Minnesota State Fair didn t have to pay the WSJ to do the story so was it free PR 0 No they had to pay the PR person to go to the W5 and they had to pay the butter sculpture The princess program has costs as well What s the difference between a stakeholder and a public 0 A stakeholder has a stake in the company and the successfailure of the company is directly related to the stakeholder A stakeholder can hold stock or invest money in a company 0 ALL STAKEHOLDERS ARE PUBLICS BUT NOTALL PUBLICS ARE STAKEHOLDERS Public 0 A speci c group with a common relationship to the organization 0 All organizations have MULTIPLE publics Excellence Theory Grunig and Hunt 0 The most widely known and widely taught explanation of public relations in the whole world Grunig and Hunt s PR Models 0 Press agentrypublicity o What worked then is different than what works now 0 We have become more excellent over time 0 Public information 0 Not trying to sell tickets but to get information out 0 Here it is help yourself to what you need 0 Twoway asymmetric 0 Research the publics adapt messages to what you know about your publics Don t change core behaviors you already know what you want to do and what your message is you are just making your message more effective Public health campaigns 0 Twoway symmetric O O 0 Most sophisticated most ethical model of PR according to the model BP story listen to publics and willing to change behaviorperspective on an issue Consumer public relations is an example of twoway symmetric Public Relations as Cultural Styles 0 Activist PR 0 Faith culture Oratorical PR 0 Reason culture 0 Narrative PR 0 Humanism culture 0 Performance PR 0 Beauty culture 0 Don t have to have quoteitheror can have BOTH approaches to PR The Process of Public Relations 0 Goals 0 Broad o Missionvision statement 0 Objectives 0 Researchbased o Measurable Tactics 0 Channels 0 Messages 0 RACE I research action communication evaluation ROSIE Research objective strategies implementation evaluation GOT l goals objectives tactics Why Public Relations quotMuckrakersquot 0 Lincoln Steffens quotThe Shame of the Citiesquot 0 David Graham Phillips quotThe Treason of the Senatequot 0 Upton Sinclair quotThe Junglequot 0 Ida Tarbell quotThe History of the Standard Oil Companyquot Standard s PR Problems Rebates system with railroads 100000 of quottainted moneyquot 0 antitrust litigation 0 general distrust of publicity Ancient Origins of Public Relations Greeks o Aristotle s Rhetoric Romans 0 quotvox populi vox deiquot Machiavelli 0 quotnot without reason is the voice of people compared to the voice of Godquot 0 Catholic Church 0 Agency to quotpropagate the faithquot 1623 o Propaganda Revolutionary PR Staged media eventsquotpseudoeventsquot 0 Boston Tea Party 0 Boston Massacre Only 7 people died they named it what t its purpose 0 Strategic use of naming to maximize impact 0 PR counselors 0 Sam Adams was the PR mastermind behind the scenes 0 PR organizations 0 Sons of Liberty Slogans 0 quotLive Free or Diequot New Hampshire 0 quotDon t Tread on Mequot 0 Individuals promoted as heroes 0 Paul Revere known for Midnight Ride William Dawes did the same thing but Revere was a Boston Silversmith 0 George Washington great leader but there were other leaders too 0 Individuals demonized as villains 0 King George was known as the villain in the Declaration of Independence Guest Speaker CIMBA History of PR continued Torches of Freedom 0 Models smoking cigarettes on 5th avenue in front of everyone 0 Wanted to enhance the acceptability of women smoking 0 The Flu 0 End of WWI new strain of the u with perfect timing 0 Killed an amazing number of people 0 19181919 u Spanish Flu killed people in 20 s and 30 s who were fully healthy 0 Indianapolis 500 o Started before WWII 0 After the wars people were hired to turn things around Shifting the focus to drivers was a showcase for technology Rearview mirror won the rst Indy500 Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis 0 First commissioner of baseball 0 Gambling scandal losing world series on purpose PR Pioneers Ivy Lee 0 The most in uential person in the beginning of PR 0 1910 0 rst celebrity PR counselor 0 quotdo the right thing and then tell people about itquot Edward Bernays o quotfather of PRquot he told everybody he was 0 Just died 56 years ago 0 Huge selfpromoter not behind the scenes 0 Freud s nephew Doris Fleischman 0 Edward Bernays s wife Arthur Page 0 Name still attached to a lot of things 0 Real pioneer in Corporate PR Idiosyncrasies of PR s Development No official certi cation required PRSA has no enforcement power Even though there are more PR professionals there are also more nonPR people forced into PR roles The more PR is recognized as important the more conscious people become of it the more conscious people become the more difficult it is to do PR well What are some negative stereotypes of PR practitioners Decevae They ll do anything to get their name out there 0 Spin doctoring Don t really care about the publics they re working with The only thing they do is crisis management Manipulation Objectivity vs Advocacy 0 Seek BALANCE Some Bases for Ethical Decisions Consciencevalues 0 Tell the truth minimize harm etc Utilitarianism o The most good for the most people 0 Faith 0 Business consequences Expectations of publics Opennesstransparency A Tale of Two Stylebooks APA American Psychological Association 0 Intended for academic writing 0 Researchoriented 0 Focus on citation of sources 0 For COM 204 0 AP Associated Press 0 lntended forjournalistic writing 0 Informationoriented 0 Focus on clear and consistent expression 0 For COM 253 TitlesCapitalization Capitalize formal titles before names 0 President Mitch Daniels 0 Governor Pence Never capitalize a title used alone without a proper name Don t use titles on second references and only occasionally on rst references Use full identi cation in rst reference last name only in second Do not capitalize directions unless they are part of recognized terms 0 The Midwest o The South Paci c website changed on 41610 email changed 311 Internet Web page webcam smartphone Abbreviations Spell out state or street name when used alone but abbreviate to Blvd Ave or St ONLY when used with city or house number 0 University Street vs 100 University St Do not use postal abbreviations 0 Instead l Ind Ky Tenn Miss Pa 0 Iowa Ohio Texas no abbreviations spell out the whole thing Spell out months alone but abbreviate when used with a date Spell out rst references to names of organizations or institutions Don t use unfamiliar acronyms Okay to just say NASA UNICEF CPR 0 NOT okay to just say CERIAS Wellknown cities need no state or country 0 Chicago Cincinnati Beijing Rome 0 Cannot just say Columbus Portland etc Time Simplest form is best 0 Example 2 pm Noon and midnight 0 Not am and pm No year for current dates 0 Oct 4 0 Never both day of the week and date Numbers 0 Use commas in numbers with four or more digits EXCEPT in years and addresses 0 Use numerals for 10 and up spell out single digits 0 Dates should not have endings 0 Feb 25 NOT Feb 25th 0 Use numerals even if less than 10 for 0 Ages Amounts of money Distances Dates Oct 1 Some politicalmilitary uses 101st Airborne Dimensions Percentages 0 Sports scores Newsworthiness Timeliness 0 Why is this news more important today than it would have been a month ago or would have been in a month in the future 0 Can take a story that is not exactly time sensitive evergreen story Purdue janitor example OOOOOO o Purdue s Homecoming and football timely 0 Any connections that you can make that make your story seem current will make it timely Prominence 0 Connect your informationstory to somethingsomeone famous 0 Finding celebrity spokespeople that will talk about their productcause o It gets coverage and attention because that person by themselves is newsworthy 0 Proximity 0 What s the local angle 0 Main complaint that people in media have l don t give it a local angle o If you can connect what you re interested in with the area it serves you will get much more coverage 0 Impact 0 What kind of impact will it have Five people versus 5000 people Case of the Day Tumbledown Trails 911 Golf Special 0 WTF ARE YOU THINKING o Capitalizing on Tragedy is NOT GOOD 0 The Americas Cup 0 World Series of Yachting 0 USA wins 98 after coming from 18 de cit Newsworthiness Timeliness Prominence 0 Proximity Impact 0 Product recalls carseat crib car etc Odd y o Pseudo events 0 Something unusual weird corky strange going on 0 Purdue Bug Bowl at Spring Fest 0 Duck Dynasty Miley Cyrus etc Human Interest 0 Pharmaceutical companies with new medication 0 quotIf it bleeds it leadsquot Con ict 0 Media loves con ict 0 David vs Goliath David plays up the con ict not Goliath Newness o Detergent industry packaging always has new on it Why Are Newspapers Making Things Breaking News 0 White Widow Kenyan Terrorist 0 Con ict Human Interest 0 Chinese Man s Nose on Head 0 Oddity 0 MLB Commissioner Retirement 0 Timeliness prominence MLB is important Selig is famous Boston man saved from train tracks 0 Human lnterest 0 Costa Concordia Wreck with Two Bodies Found 0 Timeliness Human Interest PR Show and Tell 0 PR Artifact 6 pts 0 Video picture object online story yer etc 0 Why is it PR 6 pts 0 Explain WHY it is Public Relations Goodbad judgment with a reason 8 pts 0 Total Value 20 DAILY POINTS Spelling and Grammar 0 Must be PERFECT in Public Relations 0 IT COUNTS ALL THE TIME Editing Compensate for spellcheck s de ciencies o Doublecheck any word that sounds the same 0 Doublecheck any word you are uncertain about 0 Have a dictionary when you edit 0 Read slowly to nd omitted words 0 Obtain different perspectives 0 Wait a while after writing before you proofread 0 Ask someone else to proofread your work 0 Listen to what you have written read it out loud slowly or have someone else read it aloud to you Case of the Day 0 Government Shutdown 0 National Parks closed website not open 0 Promotional Items from Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis 0 Pen with shredded currency 0 Bags of shredded currency Writing Press Releases 0 Sample Press Release on Blackboard 0 Not one right way to write a press release a FUNDAMENTAL PR DOCUMENT In a paper press release it is standard to 0 use at least double spacing and large margins 0 October 15 Press Release Due Twin Purposes To promote your news 0 How gov t shutdown will affect what you do 0 How people should understand what changes are being made 0 To provide an interesting story for readers 0 What s newsworthy and what isn t Reporter Preferences as of 2008 o 85 prefer email in the body not as an attachment 0 just want to copy and paste into document 0 don t want an attachment to open 0 making it as easy as possible for people to write stories 0 11 prefer snail mail General Press Release Concepts 0 Read publications before sending releases 0 Make sure that they are reasonable places to send your news 0 ONE news item per release 0 Doesn t apply to EVERY PR document but most 0 Sometimes a press release will only be ONE PARAGRAPH You are NOT writing a book 0 Focus on FACTS 0 Avoid owery adjectives hype words or selfserving phrases 0 Write like a Reporter 0 Your press release will more than likely NOT look like a nished story 0 Be CONSISTENT o Trademark phrase boilerplate Boilerplate any sort of stock paragraph that is used over and over again with no change Boilerplate in PR Last paragraph in press release that is a brief overview of the organization background not really part of the context of the press release 0 Most organizations have a phrase that they use to describe their business Use AP style o It shows you know what you re doing l 0 Purdue OWL AP Style Guide Press Release Content 0Lead 0 Summary Just the facts o Interestfeature Basic info but more whimsical o Onesentence lead is acceptable 0 Answer MOST of the journalistic questions Who What When Where Why How frequently Etc 0Additional Paragraphs 0 Develop info introduced in the lead Where you should park How long the show will last 0 Follow inverted pyramid structure 0 End with boilerplate Press Release Format PAPER 0 Plain paper or stationery o 1 or 1 12 inch margins on all sides doublespaced typing plain font 0 address and phone number of organization 0Release date 0 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE o Embargo Asking a reporter to wait to publish your story until a certain datetime Not such a great idea Dateline o LAFAYE39ITE Ind 0 Choosing a dateline is not as easy as you might think 0 In Chicago but writing about California choose where the news is relevant and what the news is going to be about Date 0 Can be on dateline usually isn t though 0 Can be on the bottom of the press release HeadHne 0 Optional on a press release 0 Can be a good idea 0 If lead is good headline is redundant 0 Usually statements in the PRESENT TENSE no period at the end Page Numbers 0 one page is ideal 2 pages is MAX If it s two pages or more 0 Slug line on pg 2 Weird Al Pg 2 End Press Release 0 Boilerplate o or 30 both are ways of saying quotthis is the endquot httpwwwprnewswirecom l you can pay to put your press releases online and people can search them and look at them Online Press Release Examples via prnewswirecom 0 Still have dateline 0 Put date in American form on dateline JACKSONVILLE Fla Oct 1 2013PRNewswire According to blah blah blah Who to contact if you have questions 0 Name and phone number 0 Assumed to be a 24hour cell phone PR Show and Tell Alex s Lemonade Stand 0 Gamma Phi Beta 0 Alpha Gamma Delta 0 Beering Fountain Google Logo 0 National Parks 0 Political Af liation PR Case of the Day 0 Baseball Steroid Crisis Video on YouTube Bonds called Costas quotthat little midget manquot 0 quotNever pick a ght with someone who buys ink by the barrelquot What media sources would be most important to you as Tippecanoe School Corporation 0 Journal and Courier o TV18 0 Indianapolis TV stations 0 Local Radio Stations School Cancellations and Delays General Motors 0 Local newspapers where GM has facilities 0 National newspapers and TV stations 0 Detroit newspapers and TV stations 0 Magazines related to autoindustry 0 Indiana Department of Environmental Management 0 Indianapolisbased media PR vs Advertising PR Gives Up 0 Control over content Control over size Control over location Control over reach 0 Control over frequency What are the primary bene ts of Media Relations as opposed to Advertising 0 More credibility Lower costs 0 Advertising costs a LOT of money o The wisest course of action is to do BOTH but you want that thirdparty action from Media Relations Media Relations Techniques Know your local media people 0 Difficult to keep up with early in your career Send releases to the right people 0 You update the contact listfor this reason l In print media editors ln broadcast media producers Be AVAILABLE o NEVER SAY quotNO COMMENTquot This is really stupid and DO NOT do it It looks like you are hiding something I Say quotI don t know but let me take your card and I will nd out more information and get back with youquot n This helps you build a relationship with that media person as well Killing two birds with one stone Have a media policy 0 In some organizations there is a rule on who is allowed to speak on behalf on the organization Keeps things consistent Funnel requests to people who have authority to set up interviews etc RESPECT DEADLINES o This is literally common sense 0 If you want to get coverage you need to be on it NeveraskforquotkMsquot o A kill is asking people to NOT write a story 0 Don t say quotplease don t write that storyquot If they give you an opportunity to put some input into that story do it Write an oped etc 0 Make your message newsworthy 0 Speak the language of the media 0 It s not a reporter s job to make your story newsworthy Lead Time Guidelines 0 TV News 0 2 days if it s breaking they can obviously cover it ASAP anything else give them 2 days notice 0 Daily Newspaper o 12 weeks again if something urgent happens it WILL be covered 0 Radio Talk Shows 0 23 weeks DJ s who have guests on talk shows in bigger cities etc 0 Weekly Magazines 0 12 months TIME magazine etc 0 Trade Magazines 0 6 weeks 2 months Auto magazines music magazines etc 0 Consumer Magazines 0 56 months fashion industry is a great example of this Cosmo 60 People etc Case of the Day 0 Fake Paparazzi Journalism 0 Some magazines will pay celebrities to take quotunposed casualquot pictures 0 Most pictures were not snapped with a long lens in a secret bush 0 People who are being photographed know they are being photographed and are probably paid More Media Relations Terms 0 Broll O O Unedited footage that can be cut into whatever you want B stands for quotbackgroundquot 0 Evergreen 0 VNR o O O O This is a story that is NOT time sensitive Video News Release Very popular in the 90 s less popular today Perceived to be unethical PR people make news videos and send it to news stations and then news stations pretend like they aired the story Audio News Release Less and less radio news but they do rely on these a lot Satellite Media Tour Very important to remember this When you have a very important person who s time is limited and you want to get them as much time as possible Local Evansville reporter is asking Tom Cruise questions while he is sitting in front of a poster of his new movie except not really because it s via satellite Junket 0 When you take a bunch of reporters and y them to where the famous people are 0 quotif the reporter is being own out to and gets to talk to then they might give the movie a better review than it deservesquot Media Kit Ingredients 0 When a press release just isn t enough 0 Press release 0 Fact sheet this is literally just a sheet of facts that is used in case people need filler and interesting stuff to put in their story 0 Backgrounder Rather than being a list it looks more like a report ln paragraphs tells the background of something LOL 0 Biography Obvious a biography 0 Photoslide Today this is usually all digital images MUST have a caption to go with the photo 0 FAQ sQampA Very important If you re going to put FAQ you MUST list frequently asked questions Put the tough questions down 0 Position paperwhite paper If you are a nonpro t or in politics you will have a paper that basically says quotthis is our opinion about 0 Schedule Concert tour sports team etc Reprints Great article that has appeared about your productcompanyetc you can buy professionally done reprints and put them in your kit Product samples These can be great Example Dog litter This idea sucked but they provided it as a sample Sample print ads Common sense to explain your campaign Glossary Drug names etc Feature A quotfree storyquot for reporters you re saying quothere s a free story for you to usequot Case StudyBrief Narrative Write about someone who was affected by your product in a positive way Bylineroped Opinion editorial Roundup article Small sh in a big pond If you re going to make an electric car you write about the state of the industry in the electric car business You mention yourself with the big organizations and it makes you look like a peer of the big companies Art duh Maps duh 0 CD s or other media Reporters hate this Don t do this 0 Sideba rs Timelines Quotations Lists Stats Budgetcost info Charts and graphs Fun Facts 38 of Press Releases actually turn into stories Get a sense of when it means something to send out a press release Almost 60 of the news originated in Public Relations The media depends on Public Relations people to nd news What is the Fundamental Difference Between Legal Advice and PR Advice 0 Say everything vs Say nothing Litigation Public Relations 0 Zimmerman Case 0 Casey Anthony Case 0 BP Oil Spill Case 0 DatelineGM Case Copydght 0 Obtain permission to use copyrighted materials unless covered by fair use 0 Know copyright law a Author s life 70 years 0 Corporate materials 95 years max or 120 years from rst creation 0 Pre1923 works published in the US are in the public domain Fair Use 0 No hard and fast rules but rather guidelines 0 Balance the guidelines in deciding whether your use is fair 0 Some instances likely to involve fair use 0 Education or nonpro t 0 News reporting a Criticismcomment a Only a small amount used 0 No signi cant market effect Guest Speaker Brian Remsberg PR for Michelin Used to work for Purdue Athletics PR work study job Detroit Tigers 0 Found out who PR director was for Tigers 0 Set up a meeting with him Talked director into hiring him 0 First paid PR intern Tigers ever had 0 At 81 home games 9 am 11 pmjob Senior Year at Purdue realized people in sports do PR for almost nothing didn t want to work 75hour weeks for 25000 wife was an industrial engineer 0 had an opportunity in Baltimore FND INFORMATIONAL INTERVIEWS 0 Set up 5 info interviews 0 Got 3 job offers from those 5 info interviews Things Brian Got To Work On Home Depot on Regional Program 0 quotHomer Programquot Louisiana Paci c LP 0 hitting golf balls through phone books Ryobi 0 Home Depot Brand power tool brand 0 drills amp batteries etc o helped build this brand The Maryland Disability Law Center Sinclair Broadcast Group US Food Service 0 launched nextdaygourmetcom Cadillac Grand Prix 0 high end sports car race gentleman s race 0 race only happened 1 time Greenville South Carolina 0 Easy to get to Atlanta for work a few days per week 0 Economy started to slow down 0 People started losing their houses 0 Housing felt economy lapse rst 0 Early 2009 conference call Had to layoff 12 people that day Closed DC office 0 Goal was to open office in Greenville Didn t happen Started to get MBA University of South Carolina 0 Economy started to come back 0 Transferred out of home and garden 0 Started doing more sports stuff 0 Social media became a thing 0 Southwest Airlines came to Greenville o Started traveling a lot for work 0 Realized he was traveling too much Emorycom 0 Left this company 0 Wrote a letter and quit his job Michelin Started as PR manager 0 Working on corporate stuff Rebuilt online newsroom Got a promotion this year 0 Director of PR Things Brian Has Worked on at Michelin 0 American Synthetic Rubber quotBe quick but don t hurryquot Read read read 0 Read the newspaper read everything you can 0 Wall StreetJournal not the Exponent Communicate 0 Weather 0 Sports 0 Geographytime zones quotpatience is a virtue except in PRquot 0 if you have a client that isn t wellknown and the phone doesn t ring every day you have to get out there and make it happen 0 It s not always just writing a press release and sending it out Put down the phone in meetings 0 If you have your phone out in a meeting it looks like you don t care about what s going on o PUT THE DAMN THING AWAY Learn rejection 0 This is the trophy generation but life doesn t come with 8th place wrestling medals 0 You are in sales without the commission 0 You have to sell the story and gure out how you are going to get positive coverage LERN TO RITE GOOD 0 For the love of God 0 The quotWho Gives a Shit Testquot 0 Meet as many people as you can while you re at Purdue 0 Get outside of your comfort zone 0 BE SELFLESS 0 It s not about you it s about your client your company your organization etc 0 You have to be able to laugh at yourself It gets intense at times but you can t take yourself too seriously in this profession Questions Turning Negative Press Into Positive Press 0 Chemicals that impacted community Michelin wasn t involved but inherited the factory Very negative feeling about the factorytownetc Reformation project on a land ll across the street 0 Turned it into a park 0 Bees bird habitat etc Changing Jobs 0 You will realize it is time to change jobs Expedence PRSSA at Purdue Internships Get involved at Purdue get internships get jobs Informational Interviews 0 So much information is available on the internet Linkedln is great l 0 Where do you want to live Where do you want to go 0 Find companies there that you think you might want to work for 0 Call the communications director NOT the executive director 0 quotHey I see you graduated from Purdue I m going to be in Florida on Spring Break and I d love to stop by and learn more about your organizationquot Press Releases 0 you can copy styles of other people s work Yay 0 Find your favorite format of a press release and keep the template It s not cheating it s helpful 0 Add a hyperlink make it more searchable o michelinmediacom online newsroom Starting Out in PR 0 Starting out in a small rm they give you all the work you can do o If you start at a large rm you may be stuck for a while in the same role Public Relations Advertising Paradox of Public Relations Advertising 0 Pay for placement that does not advertise a good or a service 0 Advantages o Audiences targeted by publicationplacement 0 Message completely controlled 0 Layout controlled 0 Timing controlled Disadvantages High cost Not going to contribute right to your bottom line Less credible Timing can be awkward 0 Business context can make ads impractical Best use of PR Advertising if you have a story to tell that media relations is not going to pick up Types of PR ads Imagebuilding 0 BP 0 WM Waste Management Investor and nancial relations 0 Some of these ads are required by law but still are not selling product 0 ATampT trying to get merger approved Public service Cause branding o Supposed to be doing something good for someone outside of the organization 0 AVON are promoting breast cancer fundraiser Advocacyissue advertising 0 Organization tries to take their perspective on an issue and promote that perspective to the publics o Organization s perspective on social security Announcements 0 Product recalls winners for scholarshipscontests Where are these places Stadiums that have sponsored names OOOO o The corporate name delocalizes the team 0 Examples ATampT Center Verizon Center Ford Field Ford Center LP Louisiana Paci c Field 0 Quicken Loans Arena In what ways are sponsorships about public relations 0 Like a PR ad because you re not selling productservice but you hope that people will see you associated with something that they value 0 Trying to change the way people understand you Portraying yourself as a caring organization 0 Not very bene cial but still very common 0 Getting people to understand your name and brand in a new way Pitfalls of sponsored names 0 Take away the only concrete representation of the relationship among the team city and fans Abbreviate the narrative Get confusing because of their short duration 0 Remove real meaning from the venue names Unintended consequences of sponsorships Bankruptcies mess up deals 0 Adelphia PSlNet Corporate scandals Confusion OOOOO 0 TD Banknorth Center and TD Waterhouse Centre Corporate name changes become stadium name changes Embarrassing implications 0 Tropicana Field 0 Minute Maid Park 0 Juicebased names are not helping juice steroids problems Consumer Movement Very American Started about 100 years ago Muckrakers Recognizing that you don t have to deal with certain things and can complain Regulatory agencies Consumer product safety commission Private organizations Consumer reports magazine 0 Guru of Consumer Movement Ralph Nader o Wrote book quotUnsafe At Any Speedquot Consumerist Philosophy Consumers have the right to safety Consumers have the right to information about products Consumers have the right to fair pricing Consumers have the right to friendly and honest responses Consumers have the right to satisfaction Consumerist Objectives 0 Keep old customers Attract new customers 0 Educate people about new products Handles complaints efficiently and for customer satisfaction 0 Reduce costs Careers in PR Salary by gender 0 Although this profession is femaledominated men still get paid more than the women 0 In US women still get paid less 0 Women are less aggressive when pursuing salary increases Media Interview Tips 0 Know the interviewer Do some research 0 Be friendly 0 Use I rather than we 0 Treat every question with respect 0 Answer questions directly but don t volunteer Support your answers 0 Be willing to say quotI don t knowquot 0 Don t count on quotoff the recordquot assume everything and anything can and will show up on the media 0 Don t say quotno commentquot 0 Don t crack jokes 0 Tell the truth Chuck E Cheese s Example 0 In a lot of PR trouble 0 On going problem 0 Families come together there for parties can have awkward encounters because divorced spouses come together for sake of kid s party 0 Many locations sell alcohol 0 Many problems with ghts Professional Organizations PRSA Public Relations Society of America 0 Largest PR organization in the country 0 200250 to be a member PRSSA Public Relations Study Society of America 0 Monthly Luncheons IABC International Association of Business Communicators 0 Bene ts to being in these groups 0 Networking 0 Learning new things about eld Median salaries by type 0 Agency 0 Just does PR hired by a lot of different organizations 0 Multiple clients at the same time 0 Have to bill at least three times your salary o Tend to be younger 0 Corporate 0 A lot more stable 0 Nonpro t 0 Get to do something that you really care about 0 Self employed 0 Government Career options and salaries 2010 0 Agency I 78000 0 Corporate 110000 0 Nonpro t I 61000 0 Government 75000 0 Independent consultant 85000 0 Education 65000 0 Financial PR and Crisis Communication are the two highest paid specialties Begin building a portfolio now 0 Resume Design samples 0 Writing samples 0 Workshop evaluations Letters of appreciation Letters of commendation Miscellaneous samples 0 Visual aid that shows what you ve done 0 Most important things are the actual samples of what you have done Take advantage of your time left at Purdue University Tailor class papers and projects to speci c companiesindustries Get internships Network on campus Study abroad 0 Conduct an independent study ie COM 491 Job search strategies 0 Education 0 Experience Selfpresentation quotWhat is your greatest weaknessquot 0 Don t respond with a nonweakness 0 Show that you are selfaware and capable of improvement 0 Do your homework don t offer a weakness that would disqualify you 0 Make it a jobrelated not a personal weakness Most desirable skills for new hires in PR 0 Writing skills 0 Critical thinking and problem solving Communicating publicly Practical experience 0 Understanding business practices PR Case of the Day 0 quotThe Bishop of Blingquot Crisis Communication 0 100 people in the country 0 not just one client multiple clients pays very well Necessary Conditions for Crisis Communication 0 Public believe wrongdoing has taken place 0 Organizations desire image repair 0 Goal recovery 0 Key term LEGITIMACY The belief of your publics that you have the right to exist a Is what you do Useful a Is what you do Responsible If you lose legitimacy you will probably go under and cease to exist a Blockbuster ENRON Arthur Anderson TWA SwissAir ValueJet Characteristics of Crisis Surpdse o lnsuf cientinformation Increased outside scrutiny Escalating eventsaftershocks Loss of control Siege mentality 0 Worst thing that can happen in a crisis 0 Feel like you are under attack 0 Bunker down be guarded makes you look guilty 0 Panic Recent Organizational Crises 0 BP Oil Spill Penn State Scandal 0 Lululemon Carnival Cruise Lines 0 Best Case Handled 0 Tylenol Poisoning Crisis 0 Worst Case Handled o EXXON Valdez Oil Spill Crisis Planning Crises are NOT inevitable You should be prepared Build positive relationships with media Assess risk and prioritize potential crises Designate a spokesperson Be prepared for immediate response Brainstorm potential crises and gure out which ones would have the WORST affects on your organization then gure out policies for them General Crisis Principles 0 Flexible response 0 You don t know everything so you don t want to come out with some pronouncement on the rst day Proactive response 0 You want to be the one talking about the crisis not the one responding to other peoples questions 0 Limited number of speakers OOOOO 0 Don t just let anyone talk to the media 0 Express regret and concern for event but only minimal responsibility 0 Balancing PR priorities and legal priorities Dissociation of organization from wrongdoing O O 0 quotthis was not representative of what we doquot quotwe never intended thisquot quotthis will never happen againquot Crisis Plan Ingredients Spokesperson Potential crises anticipated by likelihood and severity First steps for each 0 Action 0 Communication Crisis Plan Assignment 0 Client Macy s Department Store Spokespeople Chelsea Spring Lucas Peters Cecilia Daizovi Possible Crises 0 00000 Possible assaults Racism Misprinted advertisements Natural disaster Customer service issues Black Friday injuries Merchandise error RecaH Fake product Macy s Day Parade mishap 0000 Case Study Assignment 0 80 points 0 46 pages in length 0 see blackboard for more info Community Expectations of Organizations 0 Jobs o If your organization provides jobs in the community they have a higher tolerance for issues o If you don t provide consistent jobs your organization will get a lot more scrutiny Taxes o If you re going to have your facility there you should pay taxes 0 Sometimes there is a deal made where if you are going to bring a lot of new jobs you don t have to pay most taxes for a few years 0 Appearance 0 Communities will give awards to encourage organizations to keep up or improve their appearance 0 Communities wantexpect facilities to quotmatchquot their neighbors 0 Environmental responsibility 0 Did not used to be an expectation of an organization 0 Community does not want noise smells trash etc 0 Airports have an issue with noise so some airports build longer runways or restrict air traffic times 0 Participation in the community 0 Expected at some level 0 Sponsoring a little league team giving money toward a local art show volunteering for educational purposes or in classrooms etc 0 Stability 0 Community wants people to be there for a long time 0 Pride 0 People want to be proud of your hometown employers Organizational Expectations of Communities Reasonable taxes 0 Organizations expect to pay a fair amount of taxes Adequater educated labor supply 0 Organizations need to be able to ll vacancies with people who are looking for jobs and are educated enough to do the job 0 Public support 0 Organizations do not want to be constantly criticized o If it is deserved then ne but if the community just doesn t like the boss or employer then they will leave the community Common Community Relations Tactics Transparency 0 Organizations try to let people know things ahead of time so they don t look like they are hiding something 0 Local philanthropy o Talked about this being involved in the community giving money to the community events etc 0 Educational resources 0 Junior Achievement etc 0 Support for local merchants 0 Buying something from people who are local instead of buying it online or somewhere else o Maintaining pro tability 0 We want organizations to be successful because then they are less likely to leave or close down or curtail operations Outreach through advisory committees o Outreach in the community giving money to community events giving factory tours etc Recruiting 0 Recruiting employees 0 Top 10 Organizations to Work For Google Apple Walt Disney US Department of State Amazon FBI Microsoft CIA NASA Teach for America 0 People You Recruit 0 Employees Timberland Try to recruit people who share values they have in organization 0 Students Purdue spends millions of dollars per year trying to convince people to come to school here 0 Donorssupporters To be covered in developmentfundraising 0 Users For website or product 0 Members of the Armed Forces Entirely volunteer military in the US Not an easy job to recruit people for the military 0 Volunteers Of course everyone recruits volunteers it s free labor and help You need volunteers for a lot of different things U Need for volunteers 0 Must convince people there is a need for volunteers to get people to give up their time n Ease of participation 0 People need to understand that it will be organized and easy to volunteer for the organization 0 Most commonv missno n Bene ts of participation 0 The bene ts need to be clear to people you can put it on your resume you can meet important people this will make you feel good you can see the results rsthand n Bene ciaries of the work 0 Who is going to bene t from your work Hungry poor children damaged a Next steps 0 What are the next steps that need to be taken Get to the details People need to know what to do to volunteer 0 Most commonly missing Issue Management 0 Issue 0 A contestable question of fact value or policy 0 Which kind of issue The Obamacare website doesn t work as intended a FACT People shouldn t wear fur a VALUE National defense is more important than de cit reduction n POLICY 0 Example CyHawk Trophy Adapts corporate activities to public policy or attempts to adapt public policy to corporate activities Tries to reduce the quotlegitimacy gapquot o Is best when it anticipates not reacts lssue Management Life Cycle 0 Potential status 0 Somebody has thought of this issue 0 Con ict about contestable question 0 Imminent status 0 An issue starts to get traction 0 When people start to get into groups and agree that is something they are concerned about 0 Current status 0 The status an issue has if it is in the news 0 Media usually only pays attention to current status 0 Publics have divided into 2 or 3 groups proconneutral etc 0 Critical status 0 When a contestable question reaches a point where a decision MUST be made Dormant status 0 Contestable question decision has been reached and it doesn t go away 0 could go back through the life cycle again if people are reminded of it 0 Example food issuefood safety Fundraising and Development 0 When have you had to raise money 0 PUDM 0 World Championships 0 Telethon Personal Fundraising o Handwriting matters 0 Having something personal in the letter 0 Show some gratefulness Development vs Fundraising Larger amounts development Smaller amounts fundraising 0 Development 0 quotThe specialized part of public relations in private nonpro ts that builds and maintains relationships with donors and members for the purposes of securing nancial and volunteer supportquot Cutlip Center amp Broom 1994 Development Trends 0 Gifts of goods and services 0 Tech corporations will contribute equipment 0 People will volunteer to do tasks 0 Matching funds o Employers want to encourage a philanthropic spirit in their employees so they will quotmatchquot the funds raised 0 Partnerships with forpro ts 0 Organizations will possibly cover the funds you need to raise the money Adaptation 0 Men like to build things 0 Women like to help people quot stereotypes Developing Relationships 0 Capacity 0 The university will spend a lot of time and money investing in these people with a lot of capacity 0 College of the Ozarks 0 Joe McKibben 1973 o In 1989 he was near and visited he talked to people in development and told them he thought it was great so the university started paying attention to him 0 The president visited Joe on fundraising trips and in 1994 Joe have the university a check for 100000 0 He wanted a plaque on campus honoring his parents and he also asked for his ashes to be spread on campus as well as a tshirt 0 When he died he left all of his assets to the college Fun Facts 0 The Average American gives away 2 of annual income Assignment 0 Find an example of fundraising or development 0 Write a paragraph about that piece of fundraising 0 What would make you want to give to that cause 0 What would keep you from giving to that cause Guest Speaker 2 Abby Ma urer Three Greatest Passions in Life 0 Food 0 People 0 Words How do you nd a job after graduation that 0 Uses your skills and passions Offers a return on your investment in college Helps you make sense of your purpose in the world Cooking without a Recipe Pantry Staples 0 Beef 0 Vegetable 0 Pasta 0 How the kitchenfood works 0 Don t cook garlic too high 0 Different meats cook different ways Finding a Career is Like Cooking Without a Recipe 0 Need quotPantry Staplesquot Four Key Ingredients 0 YOU need to be organized and uptodate 0 Update your resume 0 Have contacts for recommendations 0 Have a portfolio Send your BEST not all 0 YOU need to know What to do with social media 0 What kinds of posts 0 What time do you post 0 How do you start a conversation YOU need to be ready to learn anything 0 More of an attitude 0 Photoshop is good to know 0 YOU need to be a jack of all trades 0 You will NOT be the person who quotjust writes press releasesquot 0 Know how to blog write talking points use social media etc 0 DO NOT have to be an expert Need to be willing and able to jump in and learn Four Guiding Principles 39 Meg Jay 0 quotDon t be de ned by what you didn t know or what you didn t doquot 0 quotGet some identity capital Do something that adds value to who you are Do something that s an investment in who you might want to be nextquot 0 Jerome Hawkins 0 quotThe harder I work the luckier getquot 0 The Avett Brothers 0 quotDecide what to be and go be itquot The Glass Barn 0 Indiana State Fair 0 Investment from all Indiana Soybean Farmers 0 Sustainability 0 Show what GMO s really mean for farmers and consumer 0 Show what role the soybean plays in the livestock industry Joe Steincamp Amy Kelsey Heather Hill Treading Water 0 Remember who your identity is as an organization 0 We support farming of all shapes and sizes Most Important Factor in Getting Job with ISDA Good student 0 Having longevity in activities 0 Experience Resources TedTalk 0 quotWhy 30 is not the new 20quot Meg Jay 0 TedTalkaMU o quotThe new way to workquot Charlie Hoehn Last Thought 0 quotA job is a vocation only if someone else calls you to do it for them rather than for yourself And so our work can be a calling only if it is reimagined as a mission of service to something beyond merely our own interests Thinking of work mainly as a means of selfful llment and selfrealization slowly crushes a personquot Tim Keller COM253 Exam 2 Study Guide Professor Joshua Boyd Know the strategies of newsworthiness Newsworthiness o Timeliness Why is this news more important today than it would have been a month ago or would have been in a month in the future Can take a story that is not exactly time sensitive evergreen story Purdue janitor example Purdue s Homecoming and football timely Any connections that you can make that make your story seem current will make it timely o Prominence Connect your informationstory to somethingsomeone famous Finding celebrity spokespeople that will talk about their productcause It gets coverage and attention because that person by themselves is newsworthy 0 Proximity What s the local angle Main complaint that people in media have don t give it a local angle If you can connect what you re interested in with the area it serves you will get much more coverage 0 Impact What kind of impact will it have Five people versus 5000 people 0 Oddity Pseudo events Something unusual weird corky strange going on Purdue Bug Bowl at Spring Fest Duck Dynasty Miley Cyrus etc 0 Human Interest Pharmaceutical companies with new medication quotIf it bleeds it leadsquot 0 Con ict Media loves con ict David vs Goliath David plays up the con ict not Goliath o Newness Detergent industry packaging always has new on it Know how most reporters and editors prefer to receive press releases Reporter Preferences as of 2008 o 85 prefer email in the body not as an attachment just want to copy and paste into document don t want an attachment to open making it as easy as possible for people to write stories 0 11 prefer snail mail Know the different parts of a press release Press Release Content 0 Lead Summary 0 Just the facts Interestfeature 0 Basic info but more whimsical Onesentence lead is acceptable Answer MOST of the journalistic questions Who What When Where Why How frequently 0 Etc 0 Additional Paragraphs Develop info introduced in the lead 0 Where you should park 0 How long the show will last Follow inverted pyramid structure End with boilerplate o Dateline LAFAYE39I39I39E Ind Choosing a dateline is not as easy as you might think In Chicago but writing about California choose where the news is relevant and what the news is going to be about 0 Date Can be on dateline usually isn t though Can be on the bottom of the press release 0 HeadHne Optional on a press release Can be a good idea If lead is good headline is redundant Usually statements in the PRESENT TENSE no period at the end 0 Page Numbers one page is ideal 2 pages is MAX 0 If it s two pages or more Slug line on pg 2 0 Weird Al Pg 2 0 End Press Release Boilerplate or 30 0 both are ways of saying quotthis is the endquot Know how to organize a press release Press Release Format PAPER Plain paper or stationery l or 1 12 inch margins on all sides doublespaced typing plain font address and phone number of organization Release date FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Embargo 0 Asking a reporter to wait to publish your story until a certain datetime Not such a great idea OOOOO I Know how to edit your work Spelling and Grammar 0 Must be PERFECT in Public Relations 0 IT COUNTS ALL THE TIME Editing 0 Compensate for spellcheck s de ciencies Doublecheck any word that sounds the same Doublecheck any word you are uncertain about Have a dictionary when you edit Read slowly to nd omitted words 0 Obtain different perspectives Wait a while after writing before you proofread Ask someone else to proofread your work Listen to what you have written read it out loud slowly or have someone else read it aloud to you Know how online delivery changes press release formatting Online Press Release Examples via prnewswirecom 0 Still have dateline Put date in American form on dateline o JACKSONVILLE Fla Oct 1 2013PRNewswire According to blah blah blah 0 Who to contact if you have questions Name and phone number Assumed to be a 24hour cell phone Know the difference between summarystraight news and feature leads 0 Summarystraight news Just the facts 0 Feature lead More whimsical Know the worst press release error 0 A factual error Know the principles of good Media Relations Media Relations Techniques 0 Know your local media people Difficult to keep up with early in your career 0 Send releases to the right people You update the contact listfor this reason o In print media editors o In broadcast media producers 0 Be AVAILABLE NEVER SAY NO COMMENTquot o This is really stupid and DO NOT do it o It looks like you are hiding something 0 Say quotI don t know but let me take your card and I will nd out more information and get back with youquot 0 This helps you build a relationship with that media person as well Killing two birds with one stone 0 Have a media policy In some organizations there is a rule on who is allowed to speak on behalf on the organization Keeps things consistent Funnel requests to people who have authority to set up interviews etc o RESPECT DEADLINES This is literally common sense If you want to get coverage you need to be on it 0 Never ask for kills A kill is asking people to NOT write a story Don t say quotplease don t write that storyquot 0 If they give you an opportunity to put some input into that story do it Write an oped etc 0 Make your message newsworthy Speak the language of the media It s not a reporter s job to make your story newsworthy I Know some of the common elements of a media kit Media Kit Ingredients 0 When a press release just isn t enough Press release Fact sheet 0 this is literally just a sheet of facts that is used in case people need filler and interesting stuff to put in their story Backgrounder 0 Rather than being a list it looks more like a report 0 In paragraphs tells the background of something LOL Biography Obvious a biography Photoslide Today this is usually all digital images MUST have a caption to go with the photo FAQ sQampA 0 Very important 0 If you re going to put FAQ you MUST list frequently asked questions Put the tough questions down Position paperwhite paper 0 If you are a nonpro t or in politics you will have a paper that basically says quotthis is our opinion about quot Schedule 0 Concert tour sports team etc Reprints 0 Great article that has appeared about your productcompanyetc you can buy professionally done reprints and put them in your kit Product samples 0 These can be great 0 Example Dog litter o This idea sucked but they provided it as a sample Sample print ads 0 Common sense to explain your campaign Glossary 0 Drug names etc Feature 0 A quotfree storyquot for reporters you re saying quothere s a free story for you to usequot Case StudyBrief Narrative Write about someone who was affected by your product in a positive way Bylineroped Opinion editorial Roundup article 0 Small sh in a big pond o If you re going to make an electric car you write about the state of the industry in the electric car business 0 You mention yourself with the big organizations and it makes you look like a peer of the big companies Art duh Maps duh CD s or other media 0 Reporters hate this 0 Don t do this Sidebars o Timelines Quotations Lists Stats Budgetcost info Charts and graphs Know how to prepare yourself or someone in your organization for a media interview Know the interviewer Be friendly Use I rather than we Treat every question with respect Answer directly but don t volunteer extra information Support answers Be willing to say quotI don t knowquot Don t count on quotoff the recordquot Don t say quotno commentquot Don t crack jokes Tell the truth Know the basics of Associated Press style as discussed in class 0 See AP Ster Cheat Sheet I Know the basics of copyright law in America I Copyright 0 Obtain permission to use copyrighted materials unless covered by fair use 0 Know copyright law I Author s life 70 years I Corporate materials 95 years max or 120 years from rst creation I Pre1923 works published in the US are in the public domain I Know the fundamental difference between PR advice and legal advice 0 Say EVERYTHING vs Say NOTHING I Know why we watched the GM pickup truck case 0 Public Relations Litigation I Know why we watched the Weird Al eBay song video I Fair Use a No hard and fast rules but rather guidelines a Balance the guidelines in deciding whether your use is fair 0 Some instances likely to involve fair use I Education or nonprofit News reporting Criticismcomment Only a small amount used No signi cant market effect I Know some of the problemsunintended consequences of sponsorship o What if the sponsor gets in trouble 0 What if the team that plays at your location is terrible o What if there s a corporate ownership change so it changes the name I Know some of the main points of Brian Remsberg39s presentation Go to informational interviews Learn to read and write correctly Read everything you can Work hard put the phone down in meetings Make your phone ring Write a lot of press releases Get involved at Purdue and get internships 0000000 I Know why you should never pick a ght with someone who buys ink by the barrelquot 0 Don t pick a ght with people in the media They have a lot of power and can write or say basically anything they want to Example baseball and steroids in the news I Know the advantages and disadvantages of media relations vs advertising What are the primary bene ts of Media Relations as opposed to Advertising 0 More credibility 0 Lower costs Advertising costs a LOT of money The wisest course of action is to do BOTH but you want that thirdparty action from Media Relations Things to be able to answer I what are the SEC39s requirements about when to release information 0 Must report if it s of material interest to stockholders to whom should press releases be sent 0 Press releases should be sent to editors how can you write a press release to make it newsworthy 0 Make sure it covers timeliness proximity impactfulness oddity human interest con ict and prominence why is it important to use AP style 0 So you can show people you know what you re doing it looks professional and it is readable how should you use quotations in press releases 0 You can make up quotations you are the professional you use your understanding to write something that is consistent to what your head person might say and THEN get approval from that person what can you legally reveal about employees at your organization 0 That they are employed how long they have been employed and their position in the organization what does PR give up compared with advertising 0 Control over content size reach frequency and location what advantages does media relations have over advertising 0 Lower costs higher credibility what are the dual purposes of a press release 0 To promote your news and to provide an interesting story for readers what should you never say in media relations 0 quotNo Commentquot why might VNRs be considered unethical 0 Because they are selfmade video reports and may be biased when should an organization use PR advertising o If they think it s the only way they will be able to get their news out there why do organizations spend money on sponsorship 0 They want to change people s outlook on their organization what does sponsorship have to do with public relations o It is used by a company to get the word out about their missionto change people s outlook on their organization when is copyrighted information usable under fair usequot 0 In situations such as education news reporting criticismcomment etc what did Brian Remsberg recommend as an internship or jobhunting strategy 0 Go to as many quotinformational interviewsquot as possible what is included in a media policy 0 Who is allowed to speak with media what they are allowed to say etc what are the highestpaid specialties in PR 0 Financial 0 Crisis communication what are the most desirable skills for new hires in PR 0 Writing skills 0 Critical thinking and problem solving 0 Communicating publicly 0 Practical experience 0 Understanding business practices Terms to know VNR Video News Release Very popular in the 90 s less popular today Perceived to be unethical PR people make news videos and send it to news stations and then news stations pretend like they aired the story SEC Securities and Exchange Commission Dateline LAFAYE39I39I39E lnd Choosing a dateline is not as easy as you might think In Chicago but writing about California choose where the news is relevant and what the news is going to be about hype words words that are over exuberant can be easily misunderstood or taken for another meaning not wellknown not necessary lead rst part of a press release summary just the facts answer who what when where why one sentence lead is acceptable fair use No hard and fast rules but rather guidelines Balance the guidelines in deciding whether your use is fair Some instances likely to involve fair use Education or nonprofit News reporting Criticismcomment Only a small amount used No signi cant market effect genericized trademarks terms that were for speci c things and then the creator didn t trademark them fast enough so now they are common terms aspirin dry ice Kleenex etc broll Unedited footage that can be cut into whatever you want B stands for background satellite media tour because famous people don t have time to do interviews all over the country at the same time they do a quotsatellite interviewquot where they record an interview and then it looks like your local media person is interviewing Tom Cruise junket When you take a bunch of reporters and y them to where the famous people are quotif the reporter is being own out to and gets to talk to then they might give the movie a better review than it deservesquot boilerplate any sort of stock paragraph that is used over and over again with no change Boilerplate in PR Last paragraph in press release that is a brief overview of the organization background not really part of the context of the press release embargo Asking a reporter to wait to publish your story until a certain datetime Not such a great idea inverted pyramid starting broad and then narrowing down information and getting more speci c as the press release goes on proximity part of being newsworthy close to the area of the news has an impact in the area AP style AP Associated Press Intended for journalistic writing Informationoriented Focus on clear and consistent expression For COM 253 kill A kill is asking people to NOT write a story pitch letter NOT ON EXAM a press release sent to ONE person backgrounder Rather than being a list it looks more like a report ln paragraphs tells the background of something LOL fact sheet this is literally just a sheet of facts that is used in case people need filler and interesting stuff to put in their story oped Opinion editorial roundup article Small sh in a big pond If you re going to make an electric car you write about the state of the industry in the electric car business You mention yourself with the big organizations and it makes you look like a peer of the big companies litigation public relations Zimmerman Case Casey Anthony Case BP Oil Spill Case DatelineGM Case genericized trademarks if not renewed every 10 years must be renewed every 10 years or anyone can use it if you renew it it never expires earned media vs paid media earned media is what your press release got you and paid media is something you had to pay for I boundary roleboundary spanner PR person has to look both inside and outside of the organization and translate what they see PRSA Public Relations Society of America 5ample multiple choice questions 1 Identify the following word pair that follows the pattern earned mediaquotquotpaid mediaquot a ABC news storyFox News story c Flyer stapled to a telephone pole30second ad on local evening news d NBCcom storyNew York Times article e 60second ad during the baseball playoffsbiog post that mentions your product 2 When would ou use brollquot As a script accompanying a VNR As the raw material for a backgrounder To support the answers to FAQs At the bginning of a VNR wens What is the name of the structureorganization that press releases should follow quotThe last shall be firstquot Pyramid Convoluted rhombus 009100 e The PR bull seye 4 If you are doing public relations for a nationally recognized organization what is the best way for you to get your press release published in the Lafayette journal and Courier a Make sure the press release is 2 pages or less b Focus on the facts c Make sure the iress release re ects your organization in a positive light e Connect your organization to a related celebrity 5 Which of the following works is most certainly NOT still under copyright a The Beatles quotHeyJudequot 1968 b A tune written in the 19405 that entered public domain in the 19605 but would be covered under today s stricter copyright laws c Disney s Donald Duck over 80 years old d The Star Wars theme song from the 19705 6 Which of the following is not in AP style a 1030 am b Joe Schmo cashier d Bedford lnd 7 Which of the following is bad advice for composing a lead a Get to the point c Preview your press release with the lead d Be clear and concise using only the most important information e Give the facts Consider the following information taken from an actual CompUSA press release 8 Which should come rst in a press release B 9 Which should come last in a press release C 0 Carlos Slim Domit Chairman of the Board of the Company said that the primary goal of the Board is to equip the Company with the support necessary to ensure its role as a leader in the dynamic technologyretail sector in the United States d The Company announced that Harold F Compton its former Chief Operating Of cer was appointed Chief Executive Of cer e In addition to the appointment of Mr Compton a number of other team members of the Company are being promoted as part of the management realignment 1011 Based on the previous question what do you call your answers to number 8 and number 9 b VNR c slugline e broll 12 Why are PR people sometimes called quotboundary spannersquot a Because all PR is now international b Because PR crosses the boundaries of business communication and technology c Because they have to have a wide breadth of knowledge of their industries d Because they are building bridges of understanding 13 If I send out a press release that begins Purdue39s communication faculty this week published two groundbreaking studies that will revolutionize the way scholars understand the coordinated management of meaningquot why is it unlikely to result in publication a It uses too much jargon b It emphasizes my goals for the department more than it does a reporter s desire to write an interesting story c It uses too mani hype words e None of the above 14 Which of the following is written in AP style b presidentJane Jones of Americans for Better Universities c Jane Jones President of Americans for Better Universities d PresidentJane Jones of ABU e Americans for Better Universities presidentJane Jones 15 The worst mistake to make in a press release is a ForcIJettincl the slug line c Writing a bad headline d A major grammatical error e Omitting quotFOR IMMEDIATE RELEASEquot 16 Which of the following statements best explains why to use AP style in PR writing a It follows the guidelines of the American Psychological Association b It helps you to write clearly and cleanly c It hel s kee our st le consistent e It is easier than following other sets of style guidelines 17 Which of the following statements best uses the concept of quotprominencequot as a strategy for newsworthiness a Janet is a prominent member of the Lafayette business community b Top Notch Bar is famous for its cheap steaks on Friday and Saturday nights d Joe White president of the PTA supports the Council s decision despite his earlier public objections to the plan 18 A dateline MUST include a A date c A date and a place d A date a place and a time For the next two iuestions consider the followini iortion of a iress release about this class b during a special exercise in class Through a simulation students will construct c their own plans for managing an issue for an actual client After the class selects the best d iossible ilan in advance the client will watch the finalists resentations On Nov 14 Using the letters next to each line as your answer options answer the following questions 19 In which line is the worst press release error E 20 In which line is there jargon that should be simpli ed A COM253 Final Exam Study Guide Professor Joshua Boyd TERMS TO KNOW o Pubics o A speci c group with a common relationship to the organization 0 All organizations have multiple publics Spin 0 Negative stereotyping of PR profession PR professionals will quotdo anything to get their name out there 0 quotSpin doctoring Creel Committee 0 Trying to get us to understand why Wilson got us out of the war and wh he s getting us back into the war 0 Fourminute men it took four minutes to change the lm reel so men gave speeches promoting the war during those four minutes 0 Recruiting 0 Liberty bonds 0 Cigarettes for soldiers quotsmokes for soldiers Ida 7arbel s quotHistory of the Standard Oil Company 0 The original muckraking journalists 2way symmetry 0 Most sophisticated most ethical model of PR according to the model 0 Consumer public relations is an example of twoway symmetric o Persuasive de nition 0 quotwhat means by saying isquot 0 American Red Cross 911 made more money than needed so kept some of it after giving families what they needed 0 NonGMO foods like Gardenburger l done their best to keep GMOs out but they are still in products Public relations 0 No standard de nition 0 Planned management function 2way communication research based responsible relationships 0 Public Relations seeks to establish understanding between an organization and its publics and gain support for organizational aims Public relations obiective vs tactic 0 Objectives Researchbased Measurable l often involve numbers 0 Tactics Channels Messages How we reach our objectives Technicians not making strategic decisions just enacting what other people have decided a Astrotun lobbying 0 Corporate grassroots campaigns Ground swell of support from bottom up 0 Lawn Dart quotJartsquot example father of a daughter that got injured by a Jart led complaints and eventually got them outlawed no you can t buy them anywhere O o Boilerplate 0 Any sort of stock paragraph that is used over and over again with no change 0 Last paragraph in press release that is a brief overview of the organization background not really part of the context of the press release 0 Backgrounder o Tells the background of something in paragraph form 0 OQed 0 Opinion editorial Roundup article 0 Used by quotsmall sh in a big pondquot 0 Write an article about your company using the names of big companies that are similar so it looks as if your company can compete with the larger companies Dateline o LAFAYETTE Ind o If you re in Chicago but writing about California choose where the news is relevant and what the news is going to be about Lead 0 Summary ofjust the facts one sentence is acceptable 0 Answers who what when where why how etc Press release 0 Almost like breaking news in writing form informative and for a product or company 0 To promote news 0 To provide and interesting story for readers Annual report 0 Interactive annual reports vs normal newsletter annual reports quotNo comment o NEVER SAY THIS NEVER EVER EVER SAY THIS EVER Public relations advertisina 0 Pay for placement that does not advertise a good or a service 0 Advantages Audiences targeted by publicationplacement Message completely controlled Layout controlled Timing controlled 0 Disadvantages High cost Not going to contribute right to your bottom line Less credible Timing can be awkward Business context can make ads impractical 0 Best use to use when you have a story that the media is unlikely to pick up 0 Issue management 0 A contestable question of fact value or policy Which kind of issue 0 The Obamacare website doesn t work as intended o FACT 0 People shouldn t wear fur o VALUE 0 National defense is more important than de cit reduction 0 POLICY Example CyHawk Trophy 0 Issue lifeCVCe o Imminent status 0 Current status 0 Critical status 0 Dormant status 0 Issue status all 4 types 0 Imminent status An issue starts to get traction When people start to get into groups and agree that is something they are concerned about 0 Current status The status an issue has if it is in the news Media usually only pays attention to current status Publics have divided into 2 or 3 groups proconneutral etc 0 Critical status When a contestable question reaches a point where a decision MUST be made 0 Dormant status Contestable question decision has been reached and it doesn t go away Could go back through the life cycle again if people are reminded of it Example food issuefood safety 0 Development 0 Larger amounts of money is development 0 quotThe specialized part of public relations in private nonpro ts that builds and maintains relationships with donors and members for the purposes of securing nancial and volunteer supportquot Cutlip Center amp Broom 1994 a House lists 0 A list of proven contributors 0 Trust this list more 0 The base but cannot ONLY rely on house list 0 Prospect lists 0 A list of people you think have the meanspotential to give but have not yet done so 0 Prospect identi cation 0 Not just nding anybody o Focusing on a speci c public Cultivation o Cultivating some type of relationship a Planned gift 0 Gifts that you don t have to give while you re alive 0 Leaving moneyproperty in wills 0 Capacity 0 People with a lot of power or money or ability to do something for a public 0 The university will spend a lot more time and money investing in people with capacity a The 5k 0 When you nally get around to saying quotwe have a problem that you might be able to help us withquot o The worst thing that could happen to you is if you ask someone for something and they say yes right away l means you left money on the table and asked for too little 0 Want to try and get as much as you possibly can 0 Sponsorship 0 When a gift to a nonpro t comes with creditacknowledgment o If you give money to a school and they get their name on the building Ca userea ted marketing 0 0 When you re selling something and a portion of the proceeds will go to a cause A portion of the proceeds means that whoever is selling it is still making money off of it Cause branding O O 0 When you try and associate your organization with a particular cause Breast Cancer Research is the most visible example of this AVON has cause branded themselves around Breast Cancer Research Corporate historical resnonsibiitv O O O O CHR When you re trying to show that you care about things that happened in the past historically When something from your distant past you re not responsible for it but it makes your corporate look bad still have to respond When you respond to things that happen way before you were in control Corporate social resnonsibiitv O 0000 Sponsorship Causerelated marketing Cause branding CHR ALL ABOUT NONPROFIT PUBLIC RELATIONS Income elasticity of giving 0 O O O O The average American gives away approximately 2 of annual income How much a change in your income affects a change in your income Generally speaking people who self identify as conservative generally give away more of their income than those who self identify as liberal Employees of major charities contribute to Democrats over Republicans Employees of major foundations contribute to Democrats over Republicans o Legitimacy gag 0 Issue management tries to reduce this a Ethnocentrism o The thought that your culture is the rightbest culture and every other culture is wronginferior 0 quotEveryone there was driving on the wrong side of the roadquot 0 quotHow does this person not know how to do thisquot Linguistic determinism o Highcontext vs lowcontext o Individualistic vs collectivistic cultures IDEAS TO UNDERSTAND 0 Myths about PR 0 Public Relations is free advertising you pay for WRONG 0 Public Relations is all about getting your name in the paper WRONG quotAll press is good pressquot WRONG AGAIN 0 Public Relations is Spin Doctoring WRONG Public relations is only important in a crisis NOPE 0 Public relations is about spinning things to make people seem like they don t know as much WRONG O a Media kit ingredients 0 Press release Background Photosslides FAQQampA Fact sheet Biography Schedule Reprints Product samples Etc 000000000 0 Basics of AP stve vou mav aoain brino either one 8 12 X llsheet of paper with tvoed AP Guidelines on one side 0R an actual AP style book 0 AP style sheet 0 See notes a How to write a press release including a oood lead 0 Common sense 0 Inverted pyramid structure 0 Most important information rst then narrow down a What makes information newsworthy o Timeliness Proximity Prominence Impact Oddty Human interest Con ict Newness 0000000 0 Common ethical Challenoes in PR and how to handle them Misleading labels 0 Misleading military labels quotCollateral damagequot l unintended deaths quotFriendly requot when you accidentally kill someone on your own side quotResources control programquot 0 Misleading organization labels Partners for Sun Protection Workplace Health and Safety Council National Wetlands Coalition Nevadans for Fair Fuel Economy Standards Water Environment Federation Survey abuses 0 Push polling o Misusing survey data quotHave you heard or read anything recently that cigarette smoking may be a cause of cancer of the lungquot Followup question quotDo you believe that smoking is one of the causes of lung cancerquot Picking and choosing questions that are going to make you look good Sponsoring causes without action 0 Sponsor earth day but don t actually change anything about their behavior 0 Nike commercial about girls and sports and how sports can make them more successful and have brighter futures at the same time Nike had been using sweatshops mostly composed of teenage girls to make their merchandise Corporate grassroots campaigns aka quotAstroturf lobbyingquot 0 Ground swell of support from the bottom up 0 Lawn Dart quotJartsquot example father of a daughter that got injured by a Jart led complaints and eventually got them outlawed no you can t buy them anywhere 0 Some people in PR believe that you can create the illusion of grassroots campaign and they will still be effective Persuasive de nitions 0 Usually starts by saying quotWhat means by saying isquot 0 American Red Cross 911 made more money than they needed gave most of it to 911 victims and their families but kept some of it for other reasons 0 quotNonGMOquot products like Gardenburger l they ve done their best to keep GMOs out but they still remain in products Siani cant events in PR history 0 Torches of Freedom 0 The Flu 0 Indianapolis 500 0 Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis What is necessary to recruit volunteers 0 Bene ts of participation 0 Bene ciaries from work 0 Next steps to take Lessons learned from quest lectures by Stephanie Grebe Danica Kirkpatrick Brian Remsbera Ted Bish0p and Abby Maurer 0 GO TO INFORMATIONAL INTERVIEWS 0 Get internships 0 Put down the phone in meetings How much the averade American dives awav o The average American gives away 2 of their annual income Genderbased preferences for aivina 0 Men like to build things 0 Women like to help people When to use PR advertisina 0 When you have a story that the media will most likely NOT publish or pick up on Advantaaesdisadvantades of PR advertisind over conventional media relations 0 Higher credibility 0 Lower cost Differences among corporate nonpro t agency and government PRjobs Highestpaid specialties in PR 0 Financial PR and Crisis Communication are the two highest paid specialties in PR Lessons learned from the crisis exercise in class 0 Apologize if you need to 0 Don t make excuses 0 Don t be afraid to say quotI don t knowquot 0 Make a plan and stick to it Lessons of PR learned by Purdue and the county school system after the tornado 0 Always have a PR plan in place 0 Have a backup plan Essentials of crisis planning 0 Crises are NOT inevitable 0 You should be prepared Build positive relationships with media Assess risk and prioritize potential crises Designate a spokesperson Be prepared for immediate response Brainstorm potential crises and gure out which ones would have the WORST affects on your organization then gure out policies for them Basic message for crisis management 0 Goal recovery 0 Key word LEGITIMACY 0 Flexible and proactive response 0 Don t let anybody and everybody tak Crisis management tension between law and PR 0 Say everything vs say nothing 0 Trying to RECOVER 0 PR wants to continue to seem legitimate How to speak to listen to and write for nonnative English speakers Basic reasons for sponsorship 0 Change the way public thinks about you 0 Portray organization as caring 0 Get people to understand your name and brand in a new way Unintended consequences of sponsorship o Silly sounding names 0 Something goes wrong with the company and now your name is associated with that company 0 Injury or death with sponsors names on it Principles of fundraising campaigns 0 Handwriting matters hard to ignore must be legible 0 Having something personal in a request for money 0 If someone gives show some gratefulness Community expectations of organizations 0 Create jobs 0 Give back to community l 0 Be involved in community 0 Pay your taxes 0 Be responsible with the environment 0 Organizational expectations of communities 0 Adequately educated labor supply 0 Reasonable taxes 0 Support the organization 0 Limits and Opportunities of issue management 0 Adapts corporate activities to public policy or attempts to adapt public policy to corporate activities 0 Tries to reduce the quotlegitimacy gapquot o Is best when it anticipates not reacts 0 Why we played quotMingoMangoquot 0 Why we watched Mn Baseball What cultural clues does Jack miss 0 How does Jack enact quotthe ugly Americanquot 0 Why is culture relevant to Jack s personal PR as a celebrity in Japan 0 Ethnocentrismsubculturesetc O SAMPLE QUESTIONS You have a simple announcement that you believe is newsworthy You want to get a variety of media coverage What PR document is your best tactic PP PP 2 Pitch letter Press release Media kit Backgrounder Oped The Creel Committee for Public Information is one of the most important organizations in the history of American public relations because it E PP PP DPPPquot CO Bolstered American con dence in World War II Launched the careers of many latetwentieth century public relations specialists Helped se bonds that nanced the controversial World War Secretly gathered information that the War Department could use for propaganda in Germany Negotiated the end of World War II Your boss asks you to put together a crisis plan What are the things you39re most likely to include Designated spokesperson most likely crises initial strategies Designated spokesperson Web site crisis manual Designated spokesperson initial strategies Web site Most likely crises initial strategies crisis manual Most likely crises crisis manual Web site Your charity creates a 5minute video to show prospective donors in the hopes of getting them to ntribute to your 3 million fundraising campaign The video is an example of what Public relations goal Public relations tactic Public relations application Public relations objective Public relations advertising 909 5 In January 1999 Disney recalled 34 million copies of The Rescuers on VHS because it contained a brief photo of a topless woman embedded in the master Michael Johnson Disney s video chief said quotWe caught it too late We re not happy with the situation and we re doing everything we can to x itquot Disney offered to exchange corrected tapes for the prank lm and promised to review every frame of every lm before future video releases Describe this crisis response Extraordinary Disney must be a wonderful company Disastrous Standard crisis response Inadequate because it does not acknowledge moral outrage None of the above DPPPquot 6 You re a small company in an industry undergoing a lot of changes You have some fairly well known competitors but you just occupy a small niche You have a new product that ts nicely with trends in your industry and you want to promote it with a media kit Which of the following documents best ts you Roundup article Feature article Oped Pitch letter Backgrounder PP PP Which dateline below is correct BEDFORD IN Bedford Ind BEDFORD Dec15 BEDFORD Ind PP PP 8 What is wrong with the following lead either as a lead or in its use of AP style Multinational Conglomerate announced today that it will lay off 300 workers over the next six months including 150 at its Main St location in Anytown Ind a Incorrect capitalization b Incorrect abbreviation c Incorrect use of numbers d Too much information e Not enough information especially newsworthy information 9 Which of the following is NOT true about writing a press release a It should answer all the journalistic questions in the lead b It should use AP style c It should be no longer than two pages d Its dateline should always include a place e If it is two pages long a slug line should appear at the top of the second page 10 What does it mean when an issue has quotcurrent statusquot a A policy decision must be made one way or another and there is no way to stop a decision b Currently the organization has addressed an issue to most publics satisfaction c The mass media are covering the opposing sides of the issue and the company should have already begun to manage it d Publics see the way things are and wonder if those things shouldn t be different in some way this is often the point at which good issue managers begin communicating about the issue 11 In what kind of culture should the focus of PR be on how the organization makes the entire community better happier or more successful a Highcontext b Lowcontext c ndividuaistic d Collectivistic 12 Avon has worked very hard to associate itself with the search for a cure for breast cancer It sells products that bene t breast cancer research foundations and it promotes giving to breast cancer research in some of its ads Pink ribbons can be found attached to many of Avon s messages What is Avon trying to do Sponsorship Patronage Cause promotion Cause branding PSA DPPPquot 13 Which of the following was one of the lessons of MingoMango Cultures can really be summarized with just a few key elements Everyone in a culture is generally similar Culture is something you get by going to the opera Some crucial cultural attributes are relatively hidden Ethnocentrism makes it impossible for Americans to see a different cultural perspective DPPPquot 14 Why might public relations advertising be a better choice than media relations You control placement and timing You save money in the long run More members of your publics will be exposed to the message There are fewer copyright issues to think about It is more consistent with consumerist philosophy DQnC39QJ For the next 2 questions watch the PCMAC commercial featuring a PR person easy to nd on YouTube 15 Which term best describes the public relations person s approach to PR Twoway symmetric Twoway asymmetric Crisis management Spin Image management PP PP 16 What s the most blatant PR mistake based on our class that the PR person makes She says quotNo commentquot She smiles She gestures She is wearing professional business attire She fails to attack MAC s arguments PP PP 17 Which early 20thcentury phenomena owe their success largely to public relations a Cigarettes and the National Basketball Association b The National Basketball Association and the Democratic Party c Cigarettes and World War 19 20 d World War I and the National Basketball Association e The Indianapolis 500 and the Crimean War 18 Which of the following is one of the key lessons from Brian Remsberg Sports PR is harder than most other kinds Tires are always newsworthy Graduate school is the most important path to getting your rst job Informational interviews are a good way to build your network He would never work for anything but a PR agency DP099 In the book Ain rame by Michael Crichton an airframe manufacturer is informed that one of its airplanes has malfunctioned killing three people and injuring more than 50 A passenger video of the incident has aired on the national news The company s legitimacy and safety is seriously threatened which status best describes this product safety issue for the company Potential status Dormant status Critical status Imminent status Threatened status DP099 In response to customer complaints about its exchange policies Acme Department Store changes its policies to allow customers to return merchandise without a receipt Which of the GrunigHunt models of PR does this policy illustrate Publicitypress agentry Public information 2way asymmetric 2way symmetric Performance PR DP099 21 Which of the following is in correct AP style The Introduction to Public Relations exam takes place Monday Dec 9th at 1 pm The Introduction to Public Relations exam takes place Dec 9th at 1 pm The Introduction to Public Relations exam takes place Mon Dec 9 at 100 pm The Introduction to Public Relations exam takes place Dec 9 at 1 pm The Introduction to Public Relations exam takes place at 1 pm on Monday Dec 9 DP099 22 Which of the following was a signi cant event in the history of PR because it marked one of the rst coordinated and successful American public relations campaigns The building of the transcontinental railroad Ida Tarbell s quotThe History of the Standard Oil Companyquot Ivy Lee s contributions to the war effort in World War II The American Revolutionary War The Creel Committee DP099 23 Which of the following is the best example of sponsorship a Acme Corp gives money to support a halfmarathon for roadrunner research and the halfmarathon is called the quotAcme HalfMarathon for Roadrunner Researchquot b Acme Corp sells specially marked packages of Roadrunner Catchers where a portion of the proceeds goes to bene t roadrunner research c Acme Corp gives 10000 to the American Academy of Roadrunner Research and receives the academy s thanks in return d Acme Corp gives money to support a new research building at MIT and the building is named the quotNational Roadrunner Research Centerquot e Acme Corp buys a luxury suite at Conseco Fieldhouse and uses it to entertain clients and friends of the company 24 You ve probably seen commercials on television about medical problems you ve never even thought about The announcer describes something like quotrestless leg syndromequot and tells you to ask your doctor about the disease and its treatment By trying to increase your awareness of this syndrome as a problem what is this public relations ad it s not directly selling a product doing Astroturf lobbying Trying to push the syndrome s status higher in the issue lifecycle Persuasive de nition Corporate social responsibility Public relations objective PP PP 25 What is a quotmajor gift in development language A gift over 10000 A gift over 1 million A gift over 10 million This isn t an actual development term It depends on the organization DPPPquot A Tale of Two Stylebooks 0 AP Associated Press 0 Intended for journalistic writing 0 Informationoriented 0 Focus on clear and consistent expression 0 For COM 253 TitlesCapitalization o Capitalize formal titles before names 0 President Mitch Daniels 0 Governor Pence Never capitalize a title used alone without a proper name Don t use titles on second references and only occasionally on rst references Use full identi cation in rst reference last name only in second Do not capitalize directions unless they are part of recognized terms 0 The Midwest o The South Paci c 0 website changed on 41610 email changed 311 Internet Web page webcam smartphone Abbreviations Spell out state or street name when used alone but abbreviate to Blvd Ave or St ONLY when used with city or house number 0 University Street vs 100 University St 0 Do not use postal abbreviations 0 Instead j lnd Ky Tenn Miss Pa 0 Iowa Ohio Texas no abbreviations spell out the whole thing Spell out months alone but abbreviate when used with a date Spell out rst references to names of organizations or institutions Don t use unfamiliar acronyms Okay to just say NASA UNICEF CPR 0 NOT okay to just say CERIAS o Wellknown cities need no state or country 0 Chicago Cincinnati Beijing Rome 0 Cannotjust say Columbus Portland etc Time 0 Simplest form is best 0 Example 2 pm Noon and midnight 0 Not am and pm 0 No year for current dates 0 Oct 4 0 Never both day of the week and date Numbers 0 Use commas in numbers with four or more digits EXCEPT in years and addresses 0 Use numerals for 10 and up spell out single digits 0 Dates should not have endings 0 Feb 25 NOT Feb 25th 0 Use numerals even if less than 10 for Ages Amounts of money Distances Dates Oct 1 Some politicalmilitary uses 101st Airborne Dimensions Percentages Sports scores OOOOOOOO
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'