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Exam 2 notes

by: Jennifer Gittleman

Exam 2 notes PSYC 3188

Jennifer Gittleman
Attitudes Toward Death and Dying
Dr. Pamela Woodruf

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Attitudes Toward Death and Dying
Dr. Pamela Woodruf
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Jennifer Gittleman on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 3188 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Pamela Woodruf in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Attitudes Toward Death and Dying in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 10/28/15
Attitudes Towards Death and Dying Study Guide Exam 1 0 Life line 0 095 0 Male vs female life expectancy Male average age of death 76 Female average age of death 81 Thanatology 0 Study of death dying comes before death 0 1Thanatos Means death 0 2 Hypnos Means sleep 0 Death related behavior in text 0 1 Risk taking behavior a The Type A pedestrian Cautious only crossed at the intersection waited for the light to be green stayed in the crosswalk had concerns about their health and safety b The Type E pedestrian Reckless crossing not looking crossing against the light put their life in danger realized some had committed suicide 0 2 Sex discrimination after death Has to do with women he points out by looking at a years worth of Boston Globe and NYTimes on any given day it looks like in the newspaper an even number of men and women died He compared them to the obituaries more men than women had their pictures put in He is saying that even ladies in death are still discriminated against 0 The child s understanding of death developmental stages 0 Children have many attitudes about death their concept about death is molded by their experiences and it is lled with con icts and paradoxes children end up learning everyone dies 0 Started with Maria Nagy Hungarian woman who interviewed a lot of children and draw pictures known as AntieDeath Birth6M child learns to differentiate themselves no individuation yet 6M2Y children become aware of alternating states wet diaper vs dry diaper they learn all gone blow out their rst birthday candle the ame is all gone learn to ush the toilet their waste is all gone hiding toys 9 toy all gone and the child runs for it peekaboo 9 they think you are gone At this age separation is only for a little bit though end of the day the parent always comes back child with a babysitter but the parents will always return 3Y 5Y they don t believe that the parent s are dead the dead don t have much to do they are bored they move very slowly they re not very hungry death is seen as TEMPORARY owers come back in the spring but they come back 6Y 9Y personify death could come in form of a video game an evil force they know though that people do not return they think that by obeying the rules of parents andor teachers that they can avoid death they usually think of death occurring under certain conditions in old people or in war m can be used as an abstract concept universal personal the child understands cessation the body doesn t function the child can understand causation things that produce death Children can have an accelerated process someone close to them dying diagnosed with a terminal illness etc 0 Talking with the child about death 0 Don t use euphemisms say dead or else they will think the person is coming back 9 give them the proper vocabulary If you see a dead animal have your child go and look at it Do not say death is like sleeping 9 the dead are not going to wake up Do not tell the child that only old people die statistically majority does mostly old people die but so do children bee sting death sitting in class example If a pet dies 9 let the child help bury the pet and don t replace the pet until the child has a chance to grieve Seeing death as a cause and effect relationship 0 0 Child believes the death is their fault Helpful for a child to visit a cemetery before a death O Helps for a child to visit a nursing home regardless if there is somebody they know living there Visiting in the hospital when there is a family member in there 9 there are a lot of restrictions Talking about death won t damage their little psyche s Child s exposure to death 0 0 News TV cartoons movies video games age restrictions playing playing dead Religious teachings judeochristian Spo s Some children see death with a parent by hunting or shing Some can be unrealistic Death in books Children ask questions about death helpful to know what prompted these questions Usually best to answer straightforward and say that the body stops working Elizabeth Young author about death and children 0 Images of death 0 1 Connection separation Connection means you are around other people they can hug you and you can kiss them separation a child can feel anxious alone 0 2 Movement stasis Movement is life for a child able to run and be able to play being very still is equated to death 0 3 Integrity distegration Integrity of life means you stay in one piece disintegration is the image of death 0 The dying child 0 Once the diagnosis is made the physician has to let the parents know should be quiet and a safe environment 0 You give the diagnosis then you talk about the treatments then about prognosis the possible outcomes nally you try to give some hope something for them to hold on to 0 Jordan Wilber at Stanford as long as the child is at least 5 years old he tells the child what the illness is then he asks how they should tell the parents together When parents learn of the diagnosis they are stunned and shocked think this is a punishment to them maybe they 0 had an affair did not give the right vaccination etc parents need to be assured that the parent did not cause the disease May feel guilty if the parents knew about genetic diseases before they gave birth 0 Truth telling O O 0 First studied in 1963 in the Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Health One ward made up of children with cancer on the second oor Whenever a child died they would tell the children the child was transferred to a different oor One day there was a new addition and no beds thought that there was a boy with 2 more days of treatment would like to go upstairs and be with the adults and have fun but he didn t want to go upstairs because he knew this is where kids go to die 1 Vernick and Karon From this example they did a study for the next 50 admissions as long as the child was at least 5 years old they told them what they had this is cancer this is the type you can get very sick but we are going to help as much as possible and they knew it was lethal This worked children were way more cooperative If they had a painful procedure they told the truth their parents were there and even if it hurt a lot there was a lot more cooperation and being nicer to parents Worked way better being truthful then strapping them down Kandor is important children are trying to make sense of what it happening Communicating and interacting with the dying child 0 Not towering over stand together sit together 0 Asking open ended questions quothow do you feel about being herequot quothow could I help you parentsquot quotwhat would you like to ask mequot then you wait need to think about how to respond and need to be patient If the child tells you something and you know its wrong don t just say wrong Wait till later that day and say you have thought about it and you re not sure if they were right Consider wearing cute clothing robes with the Winnie the pooh etc when wearing white jackets you scare the kids Role play with them be the child patient and let them do things to you puppet stuffed animal alternate reading together can be involved in letting them draw something 1 Interpersonal functions humanistic a empathy being sensitive to the child s feelings b respect 0 not being patronizing with them c genuineness being yourself 2 Types of communication a direct language 0 plain English 0 quotl have cancer it is called leukemiaquot b verbal symbolic language 0 where you hint allude euphimisms o quotitquot instead of really saying it c nonverbal symbolic language 0 body posture facial expressions little drawings Spinetta isolation of the dying child 0 0 He and his wife have been a team for years did research on children that are hospitalized and dying His wife works on issues with children having life threatening issues adapting back to normal life going back to school after school activities Spinetta heard that dying children were isolated themselves and he wondered he only had anecdotal information could he study this to see if it was really going on He set up an experiment constructing a diarama shoe box the long side of the box was open and it had a steel oor and then it was covered with a oor covering a little bed you d have in a doll house was put in and a tiny doll with a sheet over it Then spinetta had made 4 adult dolls that each had magnets in their feet mother father doctor nurse Very precise with the experiment if the child s doctor was male or Hispanic that is what the doll looked like 0 He matched the dolls the best he could to the child s doctor 0 Experimental group 25 people these people were near death projected to live few more weeks 0 Other 25 with acute illnesses that weren t life threatening 0 He matched them exactly by age grade in school sex etc 0 Then when each child was ready to be discharged at least for a little while and was judged to be feeling fairly well he carried out his project 0 The child was alone with Dr Spinetta in a pleasant setting showing the box to the child he said here is a little friend in a bed in the hospital he is assuming the child will project quotthis is mequot 0 He said where does the doctor go usually when shes in your room the child would pick up the doll and it would stay in place 0 He would call the mother by whatever the child called mom quotwhere does mama usually goquot 0 Does this for the 4 dolls he leaves the room and lets the child play 0 Then he returns and measures how far away the dolls are from the bed 0 He would say where would you like these 4 people to be Again he measured 0 He found in both instances when the child was dying the adult dolls were farther away from the bed than the children who were not dying of illness 0 1 Personal space psychosocial distance Interpersonal distance How close you allow somebody to be to you Freud o Focused on death during the rst world war in 1914 he had 3 sons 2 of whom were in the military so he was concerned about their death 0 He said that we had inside of us two basic instincts a psychological drive lled with psychological energy 0 1 Life instinct Eros Hunger thirst sleep and sex Constructive tendencies of the person lmpel us towards survival 0 2 Death instinct Thanatos Based on the biological theory of constancy Stability of inorganic state He never developed the death instinct like he did the life instinct but he said that it had a lot to do with aggression ghting murder sometimes it became so powerful it overwhelmed the life instinct so much that it resulted in suicide 0 Social death 0 Someone needs to toilet you can no longer bathe yourself and nally the physical discomfort that goes with issues trouble breathing nausea vomiting 0 Social Death isolation abandonment treating the patient as already dead Glasser and Strauss types of awareness 0 Maintain through a study that there are four possibilities that exist having to do with the awareness that one is dying o 1 Closed awareness Totally unaware that he or she is terminal Usually people around the patient conspire to keep it that way 0 2 Suspected awareness Patient suspects that they may be dying nobody has told the patient and the patient doesn t talk about it o 3 Mutual pretense awareness Patient knows the family knows the medical staff knows but nobody talks about it o 4 Open awareness Everyone knows everybody talks freely Think this is the best one Glasser and Strauss dying trajectories o Dying trajectory nearness of death over time o 1 Lingering trajectory Long line it is going to take months Gives the patient and family time to be together 0 2 Expected quick trajectory situations that you usually nd in an emergency room ICU operating room a Pointed trajectory Patient exposed to risky treatment that can save lives ex Heart transplant usually time to talk with the family can also result in death b Danger period trajectory 0 Will the patient survive a stressful event like a heart attack 0 Have a two hour window with them that can go either way c Crisis trajectory 0 Patient isn t in acute danger but the life is threatened Life is a timebomb d Wi probably die trajectory 0 Nothing to be done to save the patient then death will take place 0 3 Unexpected quick trajectory Routine procedure then patient dies Ex At the doctor in the midst of a procedure your heart stops you just pass away you didn t say goodbye to anybody Ex Could be a child drowning healthy person in an accident 0 Interventions with the dying patient 0 1 Physical pain Is it constant occasional mild debilitating WongBaker scale patients point to the faces 15 to convey how they feel on the pain scale 0 2 Emotional pain Psychological pain depression insomnia anxiety Can medicate for this 0 3 Social pain Interpersonal relationships with others Can help person work on un nished business 0 4 Spiritualphilosophical pain Whether or not you have a religious belief you probably have a philosophical view why is this happening etc KublerRoss Stages of dying 0 Born in Switzerland and was a triplet 0 When she nished medical school and had a little training the second world war had ended she went into Poland to help with some of the people who had survived the concentration camps profound experience for her 0 She got married to a man she knew from medical school o FIVE STAGES start when the person becomes familiar with their terminal condition ways to cope with the situation go back and forth between stages she conceptualized what is a universal process that allows a certain amount of variation 0 1 Denial Bad news no no can t be true Typical feelings Fueled by anxiety and will run its course in a short time It works as a buffer allows the person to start mobilizing other defenses Defense mechanism as long as its short term it is heakhy o 2 Anger Why me Rage envy resentment Can be expressed against Gd doctor friends Patient can be very difficult to relate to Dealing with things like frustration Can be anger that is rational or irrational Ex Food may be cold and tasteless that s a reason to be angry but also there are things that you no longer can do 0 3 Bargaining Attempt to deal with fate usually for an extension of life to live long enough for quota child to be born religious holiday anniversary etcquot Could bargain with a doctor family member quotjust let me live until my son s birthdayquot usually an attempt to postpone o 4 Depression Experiences increasing weakness discomfort physical deterioration Can see they are not getting better Fear of dying at this stage Less responsive A Reactive Over things you once had and know that you won t have again 0 Sex riding motorcycle being on the coast of California B Preparatory o This has to do with all of the things you had hoped to do 0 Now comes the realization that you will never see Paris have a child get a Mercedes 0 5 Acceptance Not a happy stage almost void of feelings it means that the person is dealing with the impending death Just because you accept something doesn t mean you like it Interwoven between the ve stages is HOPE hope you wont have pain that you ll live longer etc 0 Hospice care 0 Places often set up by monks institutions as dropping grounds for the incurably i orphans etc before you had much of a social network to help people 0 1 St Christopher s and Dame Cicely Saunders MD Saunders was a British woman who founded St Christopher s in London She was a nurse and found she had no authority when it came to patients Thinking it would help she went back to school to be a clinical social worker In her late 305 she went to medical school and she was at the top of the eld she could do what she wanted specialized in broncstein mixture heroin and coke kept people ucid on this the other thing she did was THIS hospice movement Started in 1974 worked very we had lots of non pro ts setting up hospices and others saw there was money we have hospices today for pro t Hospice main thing is to provide palliative care About 5000 hospice in US and about half of them are for pro t 0 2 Home care Main thurst person being allowed to die at home 80 of cases this is what happened Physician has to believe that there is a point where there is no cure then there has to be a hospice care request Someone will go to the home and evaluate the bed should be here not there Teach the family how to do what the red cross calls quothome nursing carequot you can even take a course in it simple things like how to bathe how to feed how to give an injection 0 AIDS 000 0 Once the patient is at home hospice nurse makes the most visits sometimes the physician makes visits a chaplan does a social worker does an occupational therapist does teaches the patient how to do things 8 hours of training 4 times then 4 hours a week to relieve the family and let them get away Pain management they work on that morphine or something like oxycodon causes terrible constipation and nausea want to get stool softners in them Other symptoms Do you need to be treated for insomnia or depression 3 Impatient care Saunders found expensive to put up a building Some hospitals will have a wing for hospice care You can have visitors animals etc They encourage the family that means something to the patient Family and patient treated as a unit These are the signs that death is approaching After death usually bereavement course some families are required for 2 years Human Amuno De cinecy Virus Acquired Amune De ciency Syndrome Called in the beginning the quotgay diseasequot In 1981 it became known to the medical community and general public this was when it was officially recognized Went from animals to humans in 1900 Virus went from monkeys to chimps eat each other 9 then had local people killing chimps for food and the virus had gone from the money to the chimp now went to the human because they were butchered right there on the spot 9 now starting to have some humans with it virus stayed at a very low level not that many people had it 1950 s British researcher went to Belgian congo wanted to look at Malaria Not until the 1980 s did it get out of hand and go from person to person found worldwide and there is no cure there is no vaccine Cases in US 12 million think many are unaware they have the virus in them and don t want to be tested some are for example heroin addicts and they could care less 50000 new cases per year with 15000 deaths 0 Greatest number of cases found in US DC is equivalent to some African countries or even worse Symptoms Disabling Leaves person helpless Cannot control basic bodily functions Patients subjected to harassment Some think it is punishment from Gd Disease isolates people social death before physical death Body is transformed into something alienating Can be a long latency from when the disease enters the body and when it leaves During the disease Weight loss Blindness Dementia quotAids and its Metaphorquot Book 0 THE SCREAMING ROOM 0 0 Not a novel it is a memoir biography journal Barbra Peabody who is divorced doesn t want to be divorced though tried to save their marriage went to counseling she s had clinical depression has been in treatment for it lives in an apartment in San Diego all of her children are adults and she feels happy things are okay Then there is Walter Balban remarried and living in Virginia working at a student health service probably at Virginia Tech Peter is 28 years old he is gay and lives in New York works as a waiter his goal is to be an opera singer he has had a lover for the past two years but has had a lot of other sexual encounters After peter there was a baby that died she already experienced death of one child David Jonathan 23 drug store manager Maria 19 student Noni adopted girl brought back at 13 not very much part of the accounts Maternal grandmother lives into 90 s and lives in Portland Barbra has a brother Stanley he is gay and she has two sisters one in NYC one in San Fran How does Barbra learn about Peter Finds out from the answering machine from that she learns that Peter is in the hospital in NYC with Numosistic Pneumonia one of the two disorders that people with HIV have does she immediately get on a plane NO she hates ying not much is known about HIV She gets to NYC and she is going to stay with Louise and her brother in law and their children in a loft unheated with NO divided rooms all in one big room It is cold and no privacy but it is a place to stay while seeing her son It is almost Christmas for Peter in the hospital they decorate his room it is not so easy because he is in reverse isolation to see him you need to put on a robe showercap and booties to protect him Barbra wants Walter to be assertive and get medical information and intervene because he is a physician NO because he is a big disappointment she RESENTS this man in a bunch of places in the book She points out that the two of them have to work together but she doesn t want any reinvolvement with him Its sad that he wont go beyond the father role and help out medically Barbara says when they gathered at Thanksgiving they noticed he had lost a lot of weight and had very bad diarrhea She tells Peter she will never leave him How did he get the virus Maybe anal intercourse or from an unclean needle He used heroin and cocaine He needs to be transferred to medicare then Medicaid he has no job or resources Job he had didn t give him health bene ts Support groups Tried two different support groups She goes away for the day and then comes back and he said he had diarehha quotNever know what will happen with himquot As the illness progresses 9 he becomes very disoriented P 58 59 group in the clinic some of the old men were able to be AIDS buddies help another person not doing too well Peter gets a buddy does it work out NO mistrustful of the man they go to restaurants an observatory peter thinks he wants something from him His memory goes at the end of March 10th p 60 First of his seizures occur at the clinic so severe and even though he doesn t way much 127 pounds takes several people to hold him down so he wont hurt himself April 15th know he wont survive 0000 0 O O 0 He gets TB in his liver He gets depressed as it becomes more and more severe Have to get him fed because he can no longer eat but has cracks from diarehha How does Barbra feel about Walter Says he shouldn t come around a lot because Peter will think hes dying Die in the support group Jack dies Peter says that Jack didn t want to live Ron dies didn t have the right attitude either He eventually goes blind His weight goes down to 116 pounds He has hallucinations Gets pneumonia question is to treat or not to treat Her and her husband decide not to treat him They set him up in hospice care Time to call the family together Permission to die They call the funeral home body going to be autopsied than cremated From the autopsy they nd out he had a problem in his brain They take his ashes to New Mexico Metaphores with the quotscreaming roomquot Entire coping mechanism based on hope and denial Autopsy post modern 0 O O Autopsy is Greek to see for oneself to dissect a human body to try and nd out cause of death Only 2 per year are autopsied in 1960 s 50 of people were autopsied 1 Procedure a External examination 0 Look at everything b Dissection and examination of organs 0 Y incision usually it curves down 0 Lay the body down from shoulders to crotch start with organs 0 As you start on each organ you have to weight it measure it describe it 0 With most of them they make slices with a very sharp knife 0 To get the brain take a saw c Microscopic examination of tissue 0 Look under a microscope 25 of autopsies are just looking at one place other 75 is the whole body Takes between 2 and 4 hours d Toxicology and cultures Toxicology takes 6 weeks 0 Hospital cannot charge for this 0 2 Methods a Virchow b Rokitansky o 3 Reasons and purposes 0 Documents of death 0 1 Death certi cate Used for statistics alerts health departments about statistics embalmed cremated etc funeral home has to have the death certi cate if you re going to collect bene ts social security 0 2 Disposal of the remains In progress what the next of kin says to be done with the body 0 3 Obituary Simply a biography of the person in grief First paragraph age and cause of death Education work experiences things you ve done for your community 0 4 Death notice Look like classi ed ads cost more if put in on the weekend as opposed to week day Who you are survived by where the service will be 0 5 Last will and testament The will is the written document by a lawyer and they charge decisions on what to do with your property a Testate intestate 0 Die without a will die having one but can t nd it b Testator testatrix Male female c Executor executrix 0 Who will deal with the will situation 0 Male female 0 6 Harvesting the dead a Organ donation 0 Even with an organ donor card most likely won t happen 0 For most of the organs you need to be very fresh ICU emergency room to keep there from being a con ict of interest there is a physician and staff and will be pronounced dead completely different people will take the organs b Body donation Can donate your body for the section by medical students dental students physician assistants 0 May be used to train physicians in new techniques 0 The history of the funeral o 1 Iraq 60000 years ago Digs in Iraq Neidanerthals buried their dead with tools weapons and with owers had become fossilized Believe there is an afterlife o 2 Egyptians Mumify the bodies sandstorms would uncover the bodies nd shrunken skin around bones Helped them to understand and realize there could be a way to preserve bodies Dependent on how much money you made Had wooden tables on slants body was placed there a few of the organs were removed that were considered sacred and put in Coptic jars How to get your brain out brain comes out of nose using salts Wrap up the body binding cloth with wealth you got gold caps over your eyes ngers and toes Once the were wrapped they were put into a container Mummies were vaueess at one time when steam locomotive was introduced 10000 mummies were used for fuel EW 0 3 Greeks Families prepared the body with perfumes and spices Believed if you cremated the body the soul would leave more quickly 0 4 Romans Use ground burial and cremation Professional person undertaker hire professional warners and provide them with clothing and walk behind the body and moan and scream and when the ceremony was over they only got paid if they returned the warners clothing 5 Hebrews Have to bury within 24 hours body would be washed put in a cloth garmet like a poncho Either put on a plank People buried in caves holes etc Family expected to come once each day and sniff for decay After 3rd day it was ok to put stone in place 6 Christians Simple customs rub in alcohol and oils wrapped in cloth seal it with tar 7 Leonardo da Vinchi venous injection Did hundreds of anatomical drawings To keep body from putrifying he would inject the body with alcohol Inject and then clotted blood would come out Cremation was taking place took hundreds of pounds to reduce a body to ash and a bit of bones Wood was used for fuel and shelter for houses too much was being used to burn bodies 19th century Up through the early 9th century people prepared the body at home and then go to a cabinet maker or carpenter and a casket would be built These people were one of the ones that coming into 19th century were going to become funeral directions Regular embalming used in rst civil war usually army surgeons with hand pumps that would prepare the dead take so long to get the body back to Mass or NY state Embalm with arsenic a heavy metal it worked and preserved the bodies if you were fair skinned your skin would turn gray Soon learned that arsenic is not a good idea arsenic in the body in a wood box it rains the rain permeates the wood then it starts leaching the arsenic out of the body then that water goes into wells and ground water 1900 took 4 decades realized you could not use this anymore 9 now use FERMALDIHYDE terrible smell and unsafe Funeral directors passed down by families and usually have male heirs women acted as receptionist book keepers serving the coffee and it was the men that did most of the business have to deal with business regulations grief and have to know how to embalm usually costs 8000 to 10000 dollars if coffin in the ground you need to buy funeral plot go to a school for mortionary science take many anatomy and physiology and chemistry have to take business courses know about accounting know about health regulations 0 1 Body removal Once the person arrives somebody needs to identify the body then they put it in a body bag then load it into a bag don t want people form the neighborhood staring o 2 Preneed or at need Take care of the death certi cate get it signed copied Can work with the family either preneed all arrangements taken care of ahead of time think it helps the family or at need the person is dead now you have to nd a funeral home on short notice 0 3 Embalming Pick out the casket anyone you wish don t have to buy what theyre offering Monument companies help you mark the grave gravestone or grave marker bronze or granite same info that a tomb stone would have on it Floral tributes Traditional to have owers on top of a casket a pall of owers very expensive Funeral home will place the owers all around the casket Embalming room if there are windows they have to be heavily frosted heavy duty exhaust fans Body is refrigerated at 38 degrees slows down body Full length waterproof body suit is what the embalmer wears Formaldehyde is going to be used as an occupational hazard Can cause multiple cancer types Body put on a metal table similar to the autopsy table like Lysol then it is scrubbed with a disinfectant soap hair is washed Wads of cotton are soaked in phenol and are pushed up the anus and if it is a female it is pushed up the vagina Then dry cotton is stuffed in the ears concerned that ysmagets could get in which is unpleasant during the viewing Face is lathered and shaved Goal is to have the deceased look life like Want to create a quotlovely memory picturequot Have to manipulate limbs massage forehead cheeks and hands Breasts taped with duck tape or stiches Disinfectant in mouth staple gun puts wire in the jaws Lips glued into a neutral look Body decomposing inside out pull vessels out and cut each one and insert a tube machine pumps things and a dye into the body Will prefuse bodies tissues because they go through the capillaries Massage arms and legs so they aren t too puffy and then they tie off the two vessels artery and vain Abdominal cavity Trocor need to get rid of the contaimanents its about two feet long jabbed into the stomach liver heart colon and this is going to release Get rid of nose hair with nair Then they wash the body again and they are going to massage cream into the hands try to make them look natural Put underwear and plastic pants on and clothes Would like you to buy their clothes but you don t have to Hair they usually hire women beauty women who have children in school 0 4 Restorative art Jewelry Ask about jewelry because if there is a mix up they have to dig the body back up 0 5 Make up O O Take makeup that a family bring but they prefer to use their own because they have makeup formulated for dead skin remembering the skin is going to be for hard and cold skin 6 Dressing 7 Casketing Put the dead person in the casket with their head on a pillow Beautiful memory picture created Viewing could be one hour before the funeral location is wherever the family wants Organized funeral concesion casket is sealed and they go off to the cemetery Green funeral designated area body must not be embalmed brought usually in some sort of wrap paper or cloth that will discintigrate quickly and person is put right in the ground Phases of the funeral O O 1 Do removal then prepare the body visitation and viewing rite service procession then committal of the body Does a funeral provide closure If you say no but your family wants one they re going to have it Cremation 0000 00 Overall rate is 35 those who die that are cremated Mississippi 10 Arizona 60 To be cremated you have to be in a rigid container could be a cardboard box that has holes Funeral home will sell you one for 50 dollars You can do a viewing then cremation if you want the body to be displayed at some point Crematioriums are usually in the funeral home in the garage or a separate business temperatures vary depending on brand and model up to 1800 degrees takes a few hours Some of them have Eisen Glass where you have a window you can look in Takes 6 to 8 hours to cool the body down put in what looks like a large food processor cremulator Want you to bring more than one container Some people store the ashes in their house O O 1 Cremains quotbake and shakequot 2 Columbarium Building that is meant just for ashes Up and down the walls there are niches Can put your ashes into a diamond and wear the person as a ring 0 The cemetery O O 2 Mausoleum Building with a door that is kept locked and inside of it are shelves and a casket is put in there until the next death of the family 4 Epitaphs inscription optional Don t have to have it Every period coma quotation mark is paid for Could be poetry song lyric scripture Most common RIP Cryonics O O O 0 Means to freeze First proposed in 1964 p 178181 Various organizations that will do this Transtime organization Out Poor Life Extension Foundation Thaw them reanimate them at a later date then cure whatever it was that ended the life Have to profuse the corpse with glycerol put in hand lotion reason they do this is because they minimize ice crystal formation Wrap the body in heavy duty aluminum foil Then put in a sleeping bag has to be long enough to go over your head the open end is then sewn closed Then you are frozen in an immense tank you hang by your feet like a bat Liquid nitrogen tank pumped into the tank where the body is the cylinders can hold 6 bodies Premortem bionic suspension considered murder or assisted suicide Burial in space orbit O O 1997 rst launch of people going to space Creator of Star Treck boy who was young and died of cancer who loved starts and a Harvard Professor Timothy Leery all went to space Mummify O O O 0 Still available quotSUMMUMquot is a company in Salt Lake City that will do this 56000 dollars plus cost of shipping you there and then you being shipped back to your loved ones Mummiform put you in one of those instead of a succo cous What do you do with the mummy Concern was raised about cremation some funeral homes offer achoine hydrolysis resummation rebirth where you are dissolved Dissolve the body at 300 degrees in Lye and it takes 3 hours Put you in a food processor type of thing and make you into powder family ends up with a box of ashes you were dissolved instead of burned Can also donate your body and can get the ashes back Plastination p 39 picture of a basketball player you become plasticized Spontaneous memorialization if someone dies in an accident little notes teddy bears owers etc Web memorials for children Bereavement O Grief O O 0 Objective fact state involving loss usually means death of someone close to you someone or something has been taken away from you against your will Could also mean a change of status Widower or widow might become only child may become eldest child How you are affected by the loss If you suffer a loss you are bereaved sorrow sadness anger emotional and physical issues 1 Eric Lindemann Coconut Grove Fire 1942 What people go through when they are really hurt and have changed lives Interviewed people with burns or trauma Interviewed people involved with Coconut Grove Fire when the restaurant was very full a table ordered a dessert that sets on re waiter has dessert busboy lights it and restaurant set on fire Big place 101 people survived but everyone else did not O Concerned what these survivors were going through this horri c event All101 people agreed to talk to him didn t have a sample had a population Found that many responses of survivors paralleled the dis gured somatic ones shortness of breath tightness in the chest feeling like there was a weight on the chest irritable restless disoriented memory problems insomnia Grief is the price to pay of love Mourning O O O O 0 Behavior while grieving all determined by culture religion or both Some people put mud on cheeks to show they are mourning Jewish tear a piece of cloth Usually wear black 19th century infants had to wear black 0 Griefwork theory Freud O O O O Grief is an adapted response to loss perfectly normal and expected it is the expression of pain we are feeling Work of grief is difficult time of grief could take up to 2 years but it really is ongoing for years Accept reality of death liberate oneself from the attachment you had to the lost loved object and in Freudian terms when you say object you usually mean a person Grief is carried out with the loss Empty place in the bed beside you nobody sitting with you at dinner Keep the bedroom as it was Last if griefwork fails with ongoing misery and dysfunction something has happens where you have slipped over to pathological grief it is unhealthy Freud intrapsychic 0 Broken Heart Syndrome 1967 O 0 People loose the will to live get in a state of helplessness Physiological changes that grief produces Lowering immunity Increases the output of what comes from adrenal glands O O Increases norepinephrine Behavioral changes Smoke more eat less Neglect to take meds Panoramic Stress and anxiety from an unexpected death of a spouse 0 Recovery from grief O O O 1 Death of a spouse a Unresolved grief 2 Con icted grief syndrome 0 Loved them once but they did something that makes it a lovehate relationship 0 3 Chronic grief syndrome 0 Dependent on the person and can t take on new responsibilities 2 Death of a child Really hard to understand because children death is so rare b Shadow grief Studied in perinatal death which refers to the twentieth week of gestation after one month after birth 0 Doesn t have to be a fetus or newborn to die it can be any age 3 Grief in elderly a Brereavement overload 0 Dealing with one death then another 0 Disenfranchised grief reaction 0 O 0 Best word for it is quothidden griefquot Grief you have that is not recognized by others keeping emotions to himself or herself Five areas where this could occur Relationship to deceased is not socially recognized Suppose you are the other woman cheating with a married man and he dies quotI told you not to be with another manquot Second area is where it is not recognized as a genuine loss a miscarriage Might been a pet A former spouse didn t have to end badly 0 Third could be a young child coworker person could be mentally retarded 0 Fourth death might not be socially sanctioned death by committing a crime Suicide if you believe it is a sin death from HIV 0 Fifth somebody not entitled to these feelings it is your job Transcending death 0 1 Physical immortality Can be biological Cloning 2 Psychological immortality Thoughts are oating around 3 Spiritual immortality Speak of the soul 4 Social immortality Symbolic Memories kind of person you were things you did and said meaning you had for them 5 Economic immortality Ancestor recognition Money is used to leave something by which you are remembered A lot of colleges are endowed by passed on money cornell Vanderbilt etc o The near death experience NDE Anyone could have a near death experience Experience varied from person to person Religious person is more likely to experience something through religious terms compared to an atheist Raymond Moody Life After Life 0 O O O A psychiatrist he was happy teaching philosophy at University of Georgia when he was in his thirties he decided to become a physician At UVA he decided to look at people declared dead and having strange experiences and being brought backtolWe Collected 150 before he nished his residency narrowed it down to 50 and present the data in a book Presented 14 variables that people experienced points out that no one person has all of these 0 One was hearing yourself pronounced dead 0 Second was a feeling of peace quiet calm followed by a sound as if the sound was very close to the ear referred to a bell ringing or chimes then the sensation that you are moving through something that is dark 0 Most common experiences examples 2 out of 14 1 Out of body experience OBE autoscopic expedence Individual is oating above his or her body and looking down and can later describe exactly what happened next seeing a very bright light and meeting others spirits guides dead relatives or friends meeting a spiritual meeting Christ 2 Panoramic memory life review 0 Some people refer to this as having your light ash before your eyes 0 Seeing cities of light 0 Feeling that you have great knowledge 0 Then a boarder a line in the sand 0 Being told you have to return or having that thought come to you 0 Once you have been resuscitated feeling less afraid of death or not afraid at all 0 Albert Heim o Taught Geology loved mountain climbing was climbing with his brother and 9 other men and Albert fell he went through a number of these experiences took him 20 seconds to fall in that time there were three types of things he thought about could see rocks and snow if I hit the rocks ill die if I hit the snow I could live thought about his glass eyeglasses if they shatter I could loose my sight and last thing he thought about was even if im badly hurt im going to put vinegar on my toungue and yell up to say im safe even if im hurt he didn t want them rushing down to help him because they may fall as well and nally he was thinking about the lecture he was supposed to give 0 Then he goes into the autoscopic experience sees his own birth primary school gym class college 0 Third section is that he is looking up at this point body is twisted so he can see up and see rose clouds 0 He gave his lecture the next day 0 Interested him and thought maybe this should go into the Hterature 0 Had a NDE Olkar P ster o Depersonalization symptom in panic disorder feel ditached from body and mental properties 0 When a persons life is threatened psychological thought mechanisms come into play 0 Why scientists near death experiences happen


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