Weeks 1-7 (HIS 101)
Weeks 1-7 (HIS 101) HIS 101 Cr.3
UW - L
Popular in Global Origins of the Modern World
Popular in History
This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Frankie Bjork on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HIS 101 Cr.3 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Global Origins of the Modern World in History at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
o The Neolithic Revolution Animal Domestication o How did animal domestication transform human life ctd Middle East had excellent animals for domestication Australia never went through animal domestication convicts got sent there instead now have reliable sources of protein being tolerant to dairy is due to animal domestication 0 areas that didn t domesticate animals are usually lactose intolerant 0 Africa Native Americans Eurasian spread of Islam mostly due to camel domestication spreads communicable diseases mostly from cattle and pigs o smallpoxcowpox mad cow disease in uenza tapeworms cysticercosis pibgel undercooked pig and sweet potatoes has to be this combination 0 trichinosis o malaria o Pastoral nomadism and animal domestication herds that follow domesticated animals very warlike Genghis Khan Abraham following his flock of sheep bible lndoEuropeans o Zoroastrianism Iran 0 Hinduism o How have pastoral nomads shaped history shaped cultures and religions 0 Religious imagination believed that female blood generated food Hainuwele myth CeramSeram 0 girl was creating valuable goods 0 villagers were jealous danced around her for nine days and killed her on the ninth day 0 father chopped her up and valuable good and food grew from her body pieces Collective responsibility for individual wrongdoing nomadic vs ethical individualism sedentary The Portuguese and Spanish Voyages of Discovery in the 15th and 16th Century and their impact I Aworld in balance in 1491 o Incas could not write I lived independently o Aztecs Mexica I Tenochtitlan I lived independently o civilizations did not depend on each other 0 civilizations didn t overpower each other 0 A world goes out of balance after 1492 0 Christopher Columbus caused us to go out of balance I started to overpower other civilization 0 Western CivilizationWest Europe I 14921991 until the fall of the Soviet Union I Europe enjoyed dominance from 14921945 until the end of VWVll o currently in the process of dismantling hegemony I hegemony leadership or dominance especially by one one country over other 0 Did the Viking voyages and settlements in the New World 10001400 have an impact Why or why not 0 first settled in Iceland 0 Eric the Red fled to Greenland I kept contact with people in Iceland 0 evidence that Vikings settled in Newfoundland and Vinland could be as far south as Maine or Massachusetts because they had grapes o didn t get along with the eskimos skraelings o contacted Naskapis Indians 0 disease didn t get spread because they couldn t survive in the arctic o Technologies that enabled the Spanish and Portuguese voyages o sailing and navigational technologies I combination of rectangular and triangular learned from Arabs sails Crossstaffastrolabe learned from Arabs sternpost rudder from the Chinese magnetic compass from the Chinese excellent maps and charts payed attention to prevailing winds and currents 0 business innovations maritime insurance jointstock companies 0 gunpowder from China small mounted cannons helped Europe to gain power over the seas o metallurgical advances that enabled smaller weaponry could make highpowered steel o Motives of the explorers 0 Glory Gold God o Risks of the voyages o coral reefs 0 death of crew Magellan returned with 17246 people disease warfare o Impacts of the voyages 0 major step on the path to globalization o destruction of New World civilizations lncas and Aztecs collapsed o the Columbian Exchange microbial exchanges very high mortality rate of Yellow Fever mostly in whites Memphis Tennessee 1878 annual summer occurrence slave revolt in Haiti killed many French soldiers because of Yellow Fever food and plant exchanges domesticated animals I exchanges of wild animals insects flora I reconstitution of Pangaea o massive migrations I Trade routes formed start of globalization and discovery of the Pacific Ocean 1513 o Europe to New World 0 Africa to New World and Europe 0 Transpacific to New World to Asia 0 Europe to India via Cape of Good Hope The Aztec Mexica Cultural and Religious World 14281521 0 Technology of New World cultures in 1492 o no wheeled vehicles except childrens toys 0 no iron 0 no draft animalspack animals 0 no plow o no horsescattle sheep goats or pigs 0 no guns or gunpowder o Vulnerability to Old World disease Arrow of Disease 0 technologically disadvantaged o disadvantaged against microbes Aztec Documents Part 1 and 2 o creation myths o linked to military system 0 tied to economic system 0 etiological functions explains how things come to be 0 they lay down the fundamental assumptions a culture makes about I the nature of the world AND I humankind s place in that world 0 Aztec s captured people to sacrifice them 0 dressed them up as gods 0 killed them to give their power to the Sun o Judges 11 in Bible Tropical West Africa 14411832 and its encounters with W Europe 14411832 0 1441 0 first Portuguese slave trade begins transAtlantic slave trade I Africans taken from Cape Blanco o greatly impacted other regions o 1450s1460s 0 Cape Verde Islands explored by Portuguese 0 Geographical and political overview of tropical Africa in 1492 o the Sudan belt grasslanddesert I Arabic empires o Singhai Empire 14501591 c Kanem Bornu o Hausa Confederacy I lacked salt so they traded for it o the Forest belt I Congo River I civilizations in Benin and mouth of the Congo I Christian civilization in Ethiopia Abyssinia o Highvodlt Highlands I Great Zimbabwe 0 there were impressive ruins 0 direct or indirect contact with China Chinese artifacts o Zanj in the east 0 Africa was highly civilized before European invasion I spoke and read Arabic I Islamic universities o The great Bantu migrations ca 5OOBC1000AD 0 most languages in tropical Africa belong to the Bantu origin 0 Bantu people were originally around Lake Chad 0 moved south towards Great Zimbabwe 0 dark skinned people slowly replaced light skinned people O 0 Africa is most genetically diverse area because of this took 1500 years to complete 0 Technology in subSaharan Africa in 1492 O O 0 no plow except in Ethiopia no wheel except in Ethiopia no gunpowder few horses and cattle I tsetse fly carries sleeping sickness 0 don t wear blue in Tanzania 0 a lot of animals carry it few draft animals because of sleeping sickness restricted use of mechanical devices many areas are preliterate transSaharan trade I gave the area large sums of wealth I hoe agriculture 0 millet sarghum maioc tapioca o yams corn peanuts 0 Tropical Africa s microbial climate blessing or curse O O 0 very dangerous to new people curse to Africans diseases in Africa I falciparum malaria 24 hour have attacks every 24 hours I sleeping sickness 2 types I river blindness onchocerciasis o cure ivermectin I Guinea worm I Yellow Fever 70 mortality 0 came to New World in 1637 I Smallpox previously 0 Cultural diffusion in Tropical Africa before 1492 and it s importance 0 Africa was not isolated from Europe 0 early vigorous slave trade between Africa and the Middle East and the Mediterranean 0 Madagascar was settled by people who crossed the ocean from Jerusalem 0 Ethiopia was a place for Muslim refugees o Nile River used for transportation 0 Islam came to Africa from the East Kenya because of trading I North Africa was introduced to Islam in the Sudan Empires because of trade 1600s I people were literate in Islamic areas 0 Importance I helps to understand the religions why is lslam so prominent I microbial climate 0 Africans died quickly when exposed to European disease o lntraAfrican slavery o was happening a long time before Columbus came along 0 Europeans couldn t enslave Africans without the collaboration of other Africans o Mungo Park s 17711806 describes Africans enslaving Africans 17951798 in the Niger bend area I went into Africa and survived the first time I there were three slaves to every free person Timbuktu area I slaves treatment depended on how nice your owner was I protections for slaves who are born into the family 0 had to have a court order proving you had done something bad to sell I slaves were bought from far away 0 because they don t know the area and can t escape I additional reasons for slavery o starving families would sell themselves to wealthy families for food and necessities o if you re in debt 0 crime murder witchcraft accusations adultery violent crimes I contracted fatal illness and died at 35 o Olaudah Equiano s Autobiography of a Slave African slaver in the Niger delta area was a slave who became literate and wrote about his experience was a slave of Africans and Europeans o bought himself back from a Quaker offered insight as to how Africans treated Africans and how Europeans treated Africans he and his sister were kidnapped and forced into slavery his treatment in Africa 0 treated well 0 age was respected even with slaves 0 he was part of the family 0 sold quite frequently his treatment with the Europeans c not treated well 0 the people were nasty to each other 0 many people on the boats tried to kill themselves 0 1020 didn t make the whole voyage o The transatlantic slave trade of the Europeans o Equiano s description 0 how did europeans get slaves have to buy the king s personal stock at a high price before you could get your own slaves no older ones none with eye problems none with arthritis then they re branded 0 used to prevent slaves from switching 0 why did africans collaborate forced into this feared getting ganged up on by the neighbors could play the europeans against each other 0 The transatlantic triangle trade 0 what African got got good price for slaves o by playing europeans against each other I guns and gunpowder 0 what New World plantation owners got I new crops I sold very valuable things in london o cotton indigo sugar rum molasses tobacco 0 what Europeans got I rich off slave trade I products from New World 0 Impacts of the transatlantic slave o on W Africa I increased number of intertribal warfare I loss of skilled labor 0 on the New World I very rich African American Afro Caribbean culture I microbial problems o yellow fever 0 Haitian Revolt successful overthrow of French government1792 1804 0 Louisiana Purchase 1803 I new forms of religion 0 Santeria Brazil 0 Voodoo Haiti and New Orleans 0 African American Catholicism o The Religious world of Africa 0 Dogon Religion I Ogotemmeli o helped the study of the Dogon I live in Mali near Timbuktu I Dogon creation myth o two placentas o Ogo and his mate in one o Ama and his mate in another Dogo breaks out and drags a piece of the placenta out part of the placenta forms Earth Dogo mated with the Earth his mother incest Ama sacrificed his oldest son Nomo to wipe away the sin of Ogo Nomo rises again five days later Nomo builds an ark has five children humans that are sent to Ea h Ama sacrifices one of Nomo s children to bring rain to Earth I humankind39s purpose rectify revitalize life and earth through sacrifice I eschatology and afterlife humans and spirits are connected humans have to give spirits energy through sacrifice to get to paradise dead share power to the living dead send bad energy to remind humans 0 The lhamba healing rite in Zambia I Ndembu o 1832 0 British government outlawed slavery The Religion of Islam 0 354 day year lunar year 0 every 30 years the calendar starts over I ex JuneJanuary o 365 14 day year solar 0 seasons stay the same every year c puts more emphasis on orthopraxy right practice than orthodoxy right belief doctrine o What is Islam 0 Islam is arabic for submission to the will of godAllah o Muslimsomeone who has submitted hisher will to god 0 hard to translate O transliterated to Muslim was Moslem earlier Mussulman Muhammad was Mohammed earlier Mahomet Qur anKoran Muhammad 570632 founded Islam I Muslims said there were Muslims before Muhammad Prophetic Religion I divine creature who calls humans to worship o The Qur an the holy scripture of Islam 0 O 0 functions like the Bible to Christians believed to be the literal word of Allah Qur an means recitation Muhammad would go into a trance and a divine spirit would come through him originated from utterances of Muhammad when he was in a trance unaltered by human alterations and subtractions retells many stories of the Bible I Noah s Arc I Adam and Eve I Joesph believed to be beautiful enough that it can not be created by humans about size of New Testament Qur an is very repetitive I had to memorize as it was being uttered I was illiterate society I doesn t have much guidance in it because of all the repetition o The Sunnah of the Prophet the example of the Prophet Muhammad 570632 0 0 you have to imitate the actions of Muhammad to be a good Muslim ahadithanecdotes about what Muhammad is alleged to have said or done on particular occasions I hadith singular Muhammad is the Seal of the Prophets I meaning he is the last prophet I there will be no more after him Muhammad is regarded as sinless but not divine I defaming him is problematic o Impact of cultural diffusion on Islam 0 arabian religion 0 Judaism and Christianity might have impact on Islam I From Judaism exclusive monotheism supernatural god no images permitted not allowed to be poor males must be circumcised concerned with ritual purity I From Christianity belief in heaven and hell belief in resurrection of the dead belief in the Last Judgment belief in the devil lblis in arabic reverence for Jesus as a prophet and miracle worker I From prelslamic Arab religion sanctity of city of Mecca sanctity of the Kaaba in Mecca creator god of Allah pilgrimage to Mecca I jahiliyyah age of ignorance time before Islam 0 What does lslam teach about Jesus 0 Jesus is not son of god I Called son of Mary 0 Muslims believe that Father Son and Holy Ghost Holy Trinity is polytheism o deny that Jesus died on the cross I it is wrong for us to expect someone can wipe out our sins for us because we stand alone before God on judgement day no one can stand in for us 0 believe that Jesus received the Gospels I weren t actually written after he died O O I much like Muhammad believe Jesus made birds from clay I come from Infancy Gospel of Jesus anything in the Qur an about Jesus is true according to Muslims o The 5 pillars of Islam 0 0 Declaration of faith There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet messenger Prayer 5xday facing Mecca I Mosques have a spot on the wall that faces Mecca I when you are buried your head faces Mecca I only during specified times during the day 0 used to remind people of their dedicationobligation to God Almsgiving 25 of your net worth I taking care to the poor orphaned and widowed Fasting during the Holy Month of Ramadan I reminds you of your obligation to God I refrain from eating and drinking during the daylight hour 0 unless you are sick old pregnant or under 13 I On the 27th day of Ramadan the first verse of the Qur an was revealed to Muhammad I Celebrate Eidalfitr at the end of the month Hall I one time pilgrimage to Mecca o if you are able to I only happens three days a year I everybody shares the same white clothing I violence is prohibited I minimizes differences in Muslim practice o lman faith the 5 doctrines of Islam 0 0 not as important as the 5 pillars but still important Tawhid faith in the absolute oneness of God I God doesn t share his sovereigntypower with anyone I Shirk associating anyoneanything else with God o belief in angels as God s messengers o belief in revealed scriptures and prophets before Muhammad o belief in the Last Judgement o divine decree and predestination divine decree the idea that God has determined EVERYTHING even a leaf falling from a tree predestination God knows who is going to be saved and who will be damned o Other important doctrines and practices of Islam 0 Purification no menstruation no touching unclean things no alcohol and no certain types of activities fainting sleeping touching genitals before prayer wash face andor hands before prayer wash whole body if possible left hand is regarded as impure supposed to be half the faith sacred and impure should not touch 0 Jihad exertionstruggle on god s behalf jihad of heart restraining against wants and desires that are not approved by God jihad of the pen missionary work jihad of tongue and hand parents praisescold when going withagainst God s will jihad of sword holy war 0 toleration of people of the book Jews and Christians should be tolerated o Circumcision of males mandatory is done once a boy is a good muslim 0 Islam and sexuality no tolerance of homosexuality proof is either 4 witnesses or admission of guilt death sentence in some places if proven I sex with wife or slave girls is allowed ban on religious images no alcohol no gambling no apostasy I when you become a Muslim then change your mind 0 Islam and women premodern times 0 O Abrahamic focus Judaism Christianity and Islam ways the Qur an tried to better the condition of 17th century Arab women I maximum of 4 wives must be treated equally I rights for alimony I rights for property ways Qur an reinforced patriarchy male domination over women I wives must obey husbands husband may beat wife if consistently disobedient I man can have up to 4 wives women may only have 1 husband I women not allowed to marry nonMuslims men can marry nonMuslims I witness of one man is equal to witness of 2 women misogynist ahadith I woman who displeases husband cannot get into paradise I women pray better in closets and homes I women should not be rulers local traditions of prelslamic origins I circumcision of women not universal I crime of honor father or brother may kill sisterdaughter is they misbehave sexually to save the family s honor not universal I purdah seclusion in home not universal I burqa veiling the face not universal o The Shari a in Islam 0 0 What is the Shari a I way of life shaped by two influences the Qur an and The Sunnah of the Prophet The comprehensiveness of the Shari a I way of life almost like the law I minutest acts everything they do counts they want to actjust like Muhammad Isis wants Shari a to be their Constitution The spiritual or the temporal How does the Shari a differ from modern Western law codes in a liberal democracy I Shari a God is the sole source of law Human government is not free to create new laws only God can Human government only executes those laws doesn t vary from place to place law governs every way of life including how you go to the bathroom can be adapted to modern use I Modern Western liberal democracy Shi i vs Sunni Islam 0 O Shi i the authority comes from the will of the people popular sovereignty laws can change as people39s wills change are not meant to govern every way of your life used to insure life liberty and the pursuit of happiness I claim that the head of the Islamic state the Imam should be related to Muhammad by blood I their Imam s have supernatural power can extend lifespan I 10 of today s Muslims Sunni Iran Iraq Yemen I believe that the head of Islamic state the Caliph should be chosen by consensus of the leading men I 90 of today s Muslims The Early Modern Islamic World 14531800 0 Significance of 1453 and 1800 o 1453 I Muslims conquered Constantinople Istanbul o founded in 30 AD 0 1800 I the balance of power is shifting to Europe 0 Situation in the Islamic World in the 15th and 16th centuries 0 Portugal and Spain had pushed the Muslim rulers out of the countries 0 The 3 Eurasian gunpowder empires 0 Impacts of gunpowder I gunpowder was critical to maintenance of the government and military I made fighting easier I walled cities are becoming obsolete I power of government becomes stronger o Ottoman Empire 13201923 Sunni Turkey Balkans Syria Palestine Egypt Libya Tunisia 0 Saffarid Empire 15001722 12er Shi ite Iran and Iraq I Forced people to convert to Shi ite o Mughal Empire 15261857 Sunni Afghanistan India I defeated rulers of India I controlled most of India 0 How were the 15th thru 17th centuries revolutionary in Islam 0 birth of gunpowder empires 0 growth of Islam through trade and peaceful missionary work 0 Parallels between 16th century European and Ottoman 0 growing power of the kings sultans 0 development of bureaucracy and tax collection systems 0 Peculiarities of the Ottoman Empire 0 staffed by Christian born slaves I giving them a good education and military training O O O I could become wealthy I grand vizier slave owners advisor always a slave meritocracy I advanced by merit incompetence was punished by death treated religious minorities very well millet system 0 each major religious group had it s own system of laws and schools 0 Causes of its decline after 1683 O 0 scientific and technological advancement military technology lighter more efficient Russia and Austria cheap products being produced naval power from the west corruption in the government nationalism religious devotion to one s country polyglot empires 0 The growth of 18th century lslamic revivalist movements 0 basic features primarily directed toward lslam not outward very intolerant of anyone who disagrees with them Sunni muslims originated among lslamic religious scholars know as ulama o paid by private donations not the government 1 0 official ulama paid by government vs revivalist ulama not paid by the government believe that they causes of Islamic decline were spiritual immoral not caused by military 0 need to go back to the golden age of Muhammad 610632 and his companions 632661 the rightlyguided caliphs scripturalism o sufism mystical system 0 many don t like it o parallels with Protestant vs Catholic I Protestant and lslamics wanted to stamp out anything that wasn t warranted in their religious books 0 Uthman dan Fodio and the Sokoto Caliphate an African jihad movement I much like the Islamic state that lsis is trying to start I local rulers were doing things that weren t in the Qur an o apostate punished with death o taking bribes 0 getting their rulership by heritage 0 taking people s property when they died 0 mixed lslam with Paganism o didn t veil their women 0 didn t seclude women in home 0 worshiped rocks and trees I raged jihad of the sword against the local rulers o Muhammad Abd ibn alWahhab 17031792 and Wahhabism The 17th Century W Eurobean Scientific Revolution 15431687 0 Steps in abandoning the medieval worldview for the modern one o voyages of discovery ch 23 o Protestant Reformation pp 637652 0 the Scientific Revolution pp 658661 0 the 18th Century Enlightenment pp 661663 and French Revolution ch 30 o What is Science The scientific method What is so revolutionary about their emergence o sciencethe pursuit of knowledge 0 scientific method I careful observation of the phenomenon of interest I formulate an hypothesis I testing the hypothesis against experimental evidence or sense data 0 revolutionary because I natural explanations and causes not supernatural takes power away from church technological innovation is cumulative selfaugmenting scientific discovery is a cumulative process 0 Debts to ancient Greeks and to Islamic civilizations in the Scientific Revolution 0 O Greeks Islam I I Aristarchus 3rd cent BC belief that the earth is tilted on it s axis and revolves around the sun Ptolemy 2nd cent BC said the sun revolved around the earth 0 people believed him because they couldn t feel it Empedocles c said everything is made of4 primordial elements 0 earth 0 fire 0 air 0 water o what everything is made up of 0 they believed everything was made of water Eratosthenes o estimated the circumference of the earth o earth is actually round Xenophanes 6th cent BC 0 found fossils on mountains 0 what was on the mountains used to be at the bottom of the sea Anaximander 6th cent BC 0 believed people evolved from fish Arabic number system experimentation algebra and trigonometry o The medieval European cosmos O O Aristotle39s 384 BC322 BC physics Ptolemy s 3rd cent astronomy Bible key features of medieval cosmos I hierarchical 0 there is a place in the center of earth with no spirituality Hell 0 Dante s Inferno Purgatory Heaven ParadisoParadise o geocentric cosmos o earth is stationary o there is no vacuum in nature or in space 0 terrestrial matter differs from celestial matter 0 terrestrial matteron earth earth air fire water 0 celestia matterquintessence I extremely fine fifth kind of matter I planets are in quintessence exerts drag I Bible says that angels push the planets in their orbits o terrestrial motion differs from celestial motion 0 terrestrial motionnatural motion on earth is for an object to go towards the center of the earth gravity 0 celestial motionin a circle or combination of circles I circle is perfect the closer you get to God the more perfect things are 0 Nicolaus Copernicus d 1543 and the heliocentric cosmos o started the Scientific Revolution 0 his system was no more accurate than Ptolemy s I just lowered the number of epicycle circles from 89 to 34 0 called a hypothesis cannot be validated o seemed to coincide with the biblical view 0 died on the day that his book was published I his book was a flop o Johannes Kepler 15701630 and the 3 laws of planetary motion 0 astronomer I relied on Tycho Brahe 0 observed that planets move in elliptical orbits not circular orbits 0 Laws of Planetary Motion combined Copernicus with Brahe I First planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits with the sun at one of two foci of the ellipse I Second A line segmentjoining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time I Third The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of its orbit 0 Greatest invention is glass 0 eyeglasses 1280 o telescope 1600 o microscope 1670 o prism and telescope spectroscope 19th century 0 Time machine 0 Galileo Galilei 15641642 and his scientific achievements 0 his scientific achievements I looked at the surface of the moon 0 caused problems because the universe was supposed to be perfect pits and mountain tops I looked at the sun o discovered sunspots I looks at other planets o Jupiter huge disk with weird patterns and moons called Galilean moons that rotate around Jupiter the same way our moon rotates around the earth 0 Venus has crescent phases Venus has horns or could be a normal bright disk 0 his controversy with the Catholic Church I stated that Copernicus was right 0 went against Eclesiastes I went on trial and had to recant all his theories I Church was willing to admit that Copernicus theory was a hypothesis they had a problem when you say it was a fact 0 Isaac Newton 16421727 the cumulative of the 17th century Scientific Revolution 0 Principia 1687 o coinvented calculus at the same time as Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz o discovered the law of universal gravitation square law O I operated between any body with mass I everywhere the same in all directions isotropic mechanistic universe and deterministic universe 0 The creation of scientific societies in 17th century Western and Central Europe 0 O O O the Royal Society of England 1660s the French Academy 1660s the Lincean Academy 1600sltaly bring bright minds together to gather information I produce journals that are peer reviewed 0 Discussion of Spinoza s Theological Political Treatise 1670 O Spinoza was an iconoclast I someone who attacks classic thinking I was Jewish 0 he was forced to leave Portugal because his family refused to convert o fled to Netherlands with other Jews 0 this led to him being an iconoclast because he was outside the society o and was excommunicated from his synagogue What did Spinoza see as the root causes of superstition I superstitionreligion I fear and ignorance I anxiety about the future What were the antidotes to it I freedom of thinking ls Spinoza s reverence for science behind his advocacy of freedom of thought How does he read the Bible differently than his contemporaries I he believes the Bible has to prove that it is divine at the end result of his study How did the Old Testament acquire its sacredness I it was a political thingmade by the government Did Moses write the Pentateuch And why should we care o Impacts of the Scientific Revolution
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