Weeks 7 and 8 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life
Weeks 7 and 8 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life BIO 106 - M001
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Date Created: 10/28/15
10115 Marine Invertebrati Diversity of life and invertebrates Invertebrates are all under the kingdom Animalia A narrow group but has a lot of diversity Relative number of species in each phyla of Animalia Porifera sponges Cnidariajellyfish sponges Annelida Nematoda Mollusca 2rld largest phyla in Animalia lams giant squid Chordata humans higher species Anthropoda makes up most phyla in animalia Marine megafauna invertebrates Most invertebrates are small less than 10 cm in size Some invertebrate phyla have some extremely large species Phylum Porifera Some of the oldest invertebrates First records over 600 Ma Simple organisms permanently attached to substrate Originally thought to be plants B arrel sponges can be greater than 2 m can be very large and colorful Porifera body plans They all share a common body plan An outer layer With smaller pores Where they bring in water Tubular structures that bring in particles for digestion They can clean their water column rapidly The skeletons of these sponges can be used as bath sponges Cnidarian Giants Another ancient group more than 600 Ma Diverse type of organism Corals anemones jellyfish and hydroids Coral reefs can be enormous structures Many species of coral 2 cm in maximum diameter for individual polyps Cndarian Body Plants Two types of common body plans They have a polyp stage glued to the bottom and a medusa stage mobile stage Giant J ellvfish Lion s mane jellyfish Largest specimen 23m diameter bell 1037m long tentacles Lots of tentacles 8 groups 70150 tentacles per group Cold water species oneyear life span open ocean and coastal waters J ellvfish Invasions Human changes to the environment appear to benefit some jellyfish species Habitat modification more rocks more polyps Translocation ships take in large volumes of water to be the right buoyancy a lot of new species have been introduced to different areas through ballast waters Overfishing reduced predation and competition on jellyfish Coral Strength in numbers Individual polyps can lie for 2100s of years Polyps rest during the day and come out at night Polyps are 2512 inches Colony They grow on top of corals Some common coral species Staghom coral up to 2m Elkhorn coral up to 37m Brain Coral up to 18m Widespread over the planet very susceptible to disease Coral Reefs Largest coral reef Great barrier reef 1553 miles Coral sea near Australia Coral Species DiversitV Area between Indian and Pacific Oceans called coral triangle where the largest amount of coral reef species can be found How long can marine organisms live Large variation of time span From one day to several years Life history distribution of major events over the lifetime of individual BirthGrowthMaturityReproductionDeath How do individuals maximize the number of copies of their genes that are contributed to future generations Life historv strategV Rselected species Short life span born mature and reproduce very rapidly Lots of offspring Boom or bust species Minimal or no parental care Fast growth opportunist Kselected species Longer life span Social and physical development Few offspring Extensive parental care Slow growth competitor Longlived invertebrate champions Red sea urchins more than 100 years Boulder brain coral more than 200 years Antarctic sponge more than 1000 years Turritopsis nutricula immortal Immortal Jellyfish Can develop backwards if it gets stressed Transdifferentiation Relatively new to science Giant Worms thlum Nematoda Round worms Most marine species are very colorful Placentonema gigantisma Up to 8m long Giant Worms thlum Annelida Class Polychaeta segmented marine worms Bobbit worm up to 3m in length Barry the bobbit worm Relatively new species to science Lie and wait predator Giant Worms Annelida Class Polychaeta hydrothermal vent tubeworms Riftia species Deep sea more than 2000 m Up to 24 m long Energy from chemosynthesis not predatory Giant hydrothermal vent worms Giant Shrimp Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea crabs lobsters shrimps Largest American lobster 45lb up to 18m in length Can live more than 50 years Lobzilla 35 lb lobster at the New England Aquarium in the 1980s Crustaceans Approximately 52000 described species estimates of 100000 Widest size range for any Phylum 4m for the giant Japanese spider crab Macrocheira kaempferi up to 94 micrometers for the ectoparasite Stygotantulus stocki Diversity of marine life Crustaceans New species being discovered particularly in deep sea and polar habitats The yeti crab anthropod crustacean Where are they found Many species are benthic or infaunal bury themselves in the sediment Many smaller species are planktonic can t swim against the current Some species are considered nektonic can swim against the current fairly efficiently Valuable Invertebrates Commercially important Four of the top five most valuable fisheries in 2013 in the US were invertebrates 1 Crabs 757 million 2 Shrimp 565 million 3 Lobster 518 million 4 Scallops 470 million thlum Mollusca Class Cephalopoda Nautilus cuttlefish squid octopus 800 species today Most diverse in equatorial waters fewer polar species Octopus Color Change octopus can change color extremely rapidly based on environment or light change Giant Cephalapods The giant and colossal squids family architeuthidae first documented dead individual washed up in Denmark in 1545 Thought to be the basis of the kraken of mythology Mvth vs RealitV Max size 13 m for females including tentacles Only 5 m excluding tentacles MaX weight 275 kg Architeuthis is frequently reported to reach lengths of 60 feet What we ve learned from the dead Complex brain and nervous system Largest eyeball of almost any creature more than 30 cm 1 foot in diameter Maintain neutral buoyancy in seawater with ammonium chloride lighter than seawater Sperm whale calamari EAT Solitary hunters catch prey with tentacles which bring it to beak radula shreds prey eat arrow squid other giant squid EATEN BY sperm whales Pacific sleeper sharks have dark ink to deter predators and teethed suckers Search for the Giant Squid September 30 2004 the first pictures ever taken of a giant squid alive after 2 years of effort by 2 scientific teams and 20 attmepts that day Catching the giant squid December 2 2006 same Japanese researchers film a giant squid alive Discovery channel expedition eXpedition to get glimpses of giant squid alive in their habitat July 2013 Encountered the squid after 100 missions But what about the colossal squid 101415 Fishes Fish vs Fishes Fish One or more individual of a single species Fishes More than on species regardless of the number Diversitv of Life and Fishes All fish fall under Animalia All are eukarya 3 Maior Divisions of Fishes Jawless fishes Superclass higher than class below phylum Agnatha Two classes Myxini and Cephalaspidomorphii Cartilaginous fishes Class Chondrichthyes Two subclasses Elasmobranchii and Holocephalii Bony fishes Superclass Osteichthyes Two classes Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii Fish Diversity Approximately 30000 species Agnatha J awless 85 species hagfishes Chondrichthyes Cartilaginous 900 species sharks and rays Osteichthyes Bony 25000 species ie herring salmon parrot fish 58 of fishes are marine species 1 are marinefreshwater ex salmon They are born in freshwater and come back to freshwater to reproduce Thermoregulation Warm blooded Endotherms can maintain their own heat internal mechanism for generating heat Homeotherms can maintain a regularly stable body temperature homeostasis Whales dolphins marine mammals Cold blooded Ectothem use external forces for heat Poikilotherm they don t regulate their body temperature can have large variations in body temperature and still survive Fishes reptiles J aness Fishes Superclass Agnatha Most primitive vertebrate first chordates 450 million years old Primitive notochord exible cartilaginous structure With nerve cord on top instead of spine Feed by suction using round muscular mouth and rows of teeth Eellike body form No scales or paired fins they have dorsal or vental fins Agnatha are the only vertebrate parasites Hagfishes sea maggots Feed on deaddying fish Secrete a fibrous slime to deter predators Comes from glands along the side of their body Liters can be produced in minutes Lampreys attach to host fish and feed on tissue and blood Chondrichthv es Subclass Holocephalii Chimeras Subclass Elasmobranchii Sharks Skates Rays Evolution of Cartilaginous Fishes There are large groups that have been extinct that have been emerged into the 3 main groups of sharks skates and rays that we see today Cartilaginous Fishes Paired fins and noses nares Skeletons made of cartilage Have moveable jaws With welldeveloped teeth Skin covered by tiny nonoverlapping rear facing placoid scales rough like sandpaper Chimeras A more ancient subclass 50 living species Deepwater fish 2002600 m Ghost sharks Ratfish Spookfish Diverged from sharks 400 million years ago Lack sharp sharklike teeth Ravs and Skates First records 150 million years ago About 500 species Generally live near sea oor demersal Cover themselves with sand Largest ray Manta ray can have wing span up to 7 m Dorsoventrally attened bodies ventral gill slits Flattened expanded pectoral fins Feed on clams crabs demersal fishes using teeth modified into grinding plates Electric rays Torpedo produce 200 volts for feeding defense Sting rays have a whiplike wail with defensive spine at base that can be used to stab Sharks About 400 species Can grow up to 20 m in length 60 feet they are not the most predatory Little changed from 100 million years ago Fusiform shape shaped like a football heterocercal tail unequal distribution of tail on top and bottom paired pectoral fins shaped to provide lift FAST Gill slits located laterally behind head Multiple rows of teeth that are continuously replaced over lifetime Shark Diversity There is a lot of diversity in the structure of sharks Predatory vs plankton feeders A lot of diversity in formshapes Variation in shark size and habitat Coastally and shallow hammerhead angel nurse bull saw Slightly deeper bull white tiger shortlin mako Deeper water whale megamouth thresher basking spined pygmy Can go from 6 inches to 60 feet What do sharks eat All species are carnivorous Vary from plankton filter feeders to predatory Replacement teeth in sharks The average shark has 5 sets of teeth They can shed up to 30000 teeth in a lifespan Skate Egg Purse Little black seaweed that we commonly find ashore Mermaid purses Elasmobranch Reproduction Most rays and skates and some sharks lay eggs Most sharks have internal fertilization and give birth to live young Embgonic Cannibalism S and tiger shark hatchlings cannibalize other embryos in utero Females typically have 79 fertilized eggs but only give birth to 2 young 2015 Shark Attack Headlines average occurrences per year in USA 10 average deaths 04 Most occur in Hawaii and Florida Shark attacks usually only happen when sharks are confusedthreatened Shark Ray Alley Belize this is one of the few places in the world where people can safely dive with sharks and rays and view them in their natural environment Track Live Sharks Online httpsharksocearchveritecom or search for Ocearch global shark tracker Tracking a tagged shark Tracking Mary Lee a tagged great white shark Length 16 feet Weight 3456 lbs Tag date September 17 2012 Most recent position October 13 2015 off of Ocean City MD Tag Location Cape Cod Shark research in the wild Researchers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution are tracking sharks using underwater robots REMUS Sharks and Overfishing US Shark Finning Prohibition Act in 2000 and the Shark Conservation Act 2010 Shark species population have severely declined since 1970s The Great White 79 Thresher 80 Tiger 97 Scalloped HammerHead 97 Bull 99 Dusky 99 Smooth HammerHead 99 Porbeagle 99 102115 Fishes Fish Diversity Approximately 30000 species Agnatha 85 species hagfishes Chondrichthyes 900 species sharks and rays Osteichthyes 25000 species ex herring salmon parrot fish Cartilaginous vs Bony Fishes Chondrichthyes Cartilaginous skeletons Sharks skates and rays Ampullae of Lorenzini sense electro signals in the environment Osteichthyes Bony skeletons stiff spines called Rays Perch bass clownfish tuna etc What they both have in common Fish eaten by humans lateral line system how they find their place in the water column swim in schools locate where they are fins gills scales Biogeography of Fishes Fishes are found in all of the world s oceans They are found in basically all habitats Specific adaptations to different habitats Rockcoral dwelling Coastal rocky bottom open ocean deep sea New Fish Species New species of fishes being described each year Over 100 new additions coming from the Census of Marine Life in 2010 Estimated 5000 remaining species unknown We have described majority of fish species Bony Fishes Class Osteichthyes 25000 species 96 of all fishes 50 of all vertebrates on the Earth 50 are marine Tails usually homocercal top and bottom of tail are same size Lots of diversity in shapes color and sizes in bony fishes Bonv Fish Bodv Structure ossified skeleton vertebrae in head and spine Dense and thick make up most weight of the fish Pectoral fin pelvic fin anal fin caudal fin dorsal fin Fish use fins for maneuver ability Characteristics of Bonv Fishes Cycloid or ctenoid scales thin exible overlapping unlike sharp scales on cartilaginous fishes such as sharks Operculum ap of bony plates covering and protecting gills Buoyancy Ossified skeletons make them heavy Most species have a swim bladder gas filled sac for adjusting buoyancy Compensates for heavy bony skeleton Absent in most fast moving fish absent in all hag fish and cartilaginous fishes It is like a little balloon inside of the fish Ectothermic Poikilotherms Ectotherms are animals that primarily gain heat through the environment Poikilotherms are animals Whose body temperature adjusts depending on the environment Many ectotherms are poikilotherms They are similar but they are different things Most fish are ectotherms Tuna and Billfish Unique physiological adaptations HIGH activity levels Wide range of water temperatures They are the exceptions They are endothermic and poikilothermic eX metabolic anatomical cardiovascular adaptations Bodv Shape of Bonv Fishes Body shape related to ecological niche Streamlined shape lateral compression dorsoventrally attened elongate eellike truncate shaped Fish Fins Pectoral and Pelvic side turning braking balance Dorsal and Anal vertical stabilizers like having a sail on the top and the bottom Caudal tail propulsion Locomotion Mucous covered scales and streamlined to reduce drag Most fish swim by rhythmic sidetoside motion of body or tail Many fish use pectoral fins for movement Pectoral FinSwimming Fish Parrotfish Surgeon fish dory Flying fish Wrasse Body Shape Streamlined Bluefin tuna up to 43 mph Sailfish up to 68 mph They do not swim this fast all the time Other Bodv Shapes Dorsally attened Winter ounder Round Golden puffer Ocean Sunfish Mola Mola Heaviest bony fish Up to 5000 pounds and 33 m Omnivorous but eat mostly jellyfish Not threatening top speed is 2 mph Females produce the most eggs of any vertebrate species Up to 300 million eggs at a time Spend most time in the mesopelagic zone below 200 m but seen near surface Reproduction Most fish have two sexes Produce eggs that are fertilized externally Life cycle of Atlantic Cod Eggs days to weeks Larvae months Juveniles months to several years Adults over 20 years Seguential hermaphrodites Some species born are all born one sex but change to another during their lifetime Damsel fish coral reef fish They become female as they become bigger big fish produce more eggs Social environments cause them to change sex Coloration Varies Widely sometimes used as camou age to blend in sometimes bright to be noticed Can be monocolored or changeable controlled by chromatophores displaying different pigments CrVDtic Coloration To blend in With surroundings Countershading Disruptive Coloration Stripes bars or spots that break up the outline of the fish and confuse predators Common disruptive coloration eye spot Warning Coloration Advertise distaste or poisons Visual communication color pattern self generated light Advertisement Male advertisement for mates Males of many fish species produce sounds during breeding season to attract females Herring Sound Makers Produce Fast Repetitive Ticks FRT Generated by passing air from the swim bladder through their anus farting Only used the presence of conspecific suggesting that it is used for communication Fishes and Business 53 billion in fish landings in 2011 in the US compared to 1 billion for all other species including crustaceans Five of the top ten most profitable individual species in 2011 were fish 2011 landings Pacific Pollack 28 billion pounds valued at 374 million Conservation Issues physical impact of fishing gear habitat modification or destruction Bycatch economic discards regulatory discards collateral mortality Incidental mortality Harvest mortality biological interactions predatorprey interactions competitive interactions changes in marine food webs people have been fishing down and down the food chain started with big fish which are primary producers This all results in altered ecosystem structure and function and a decline in the mean trophic level Collapse of Fish Stocks Stockstanding numbers of individuals in a particular species Catches of some commercially important fish stocks have declined Assessment of stock size used for fisheries regulation Bioaccumulation Pollution mercury can go into the ocean and get eaten by krill Fish eats the krill eats a lot of krill so there is a higher concentration of the toxin within it Something eats that fish eats a lot of that fish so even higher concentration of the toxin is within it The levels of toxic chemicals in these fishes can grow and can hurt us when we eat the fish
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